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HISTOKY 



OF 



ARIZONA 



THOMAS EDWIN f AM8H, 

ABIZOITA HiarOBIAN 



VOLUME VIII 



1918 



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\ii z i^ ^ u . \ 



COPYKGHT 1918, 



THOS. EDWIN FAEI8H, 

UtUONA HI8T0IUN 



THX FQiUK BB0THKB8 ELIOnOTTFl CcniFANl 

TYTOaKAPHKU AKD Btebiotzpiu 

&LM FBIMOISOO 



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LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 



' Gov. A. P. K. SArFORD FrontispieM. 

-A. F. BiNTA Facing Page 81 

'C. E. CooLET Faeiitg Pago 76 

'Qene&u. Ogome Stoneuan f^dog Pag« H 

- OoL. JAMEE M. Basnet Faeiog Page 3M 

(iU) 



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CONTENTS. 



VOLUME vin. 

CHAPTBE I. 

dwrka D. Postoii first Bupermteudent of IndUn ABtli^^ 
Saaeeeded by Qeorge W. Leihj — Leihy Sac«eeded b; Qoorge 
W. Dent — I>Bat Bneeeeded faj Oeorge L. Andrewj — Andrews 
SaecMded by H. BendeO — Office Aboliahed — Pinu vid 
Uuieopft BweiTBtion Set Aude — Tama Beaervation Eitab- 
lialied — Oolontdo Biver Beservation GstabUabed — ConditioiM 
on NaTmho Beserration — Mtxjui Beeervation Eatablialwd — 



BeMTTMioB, bat Betani U> Homee — Temtory B«t Apart for 
Tbem — Oatbreak of Wallapais Cheeked Singlebanded bj 
Captain Thomai Bjime — Temporary Beaerration for Apaeke- 
UohaTe* Eatabliahed at Camp Date Creek — CrookedneM 
of Indian Bing — Temporary Beeervation Eatabliahed on the 
Verde — Indiana Bemoved from Verde to San Carloa — 
Ckirleakna Beaerration EatablUhed — Oatbreak of Chiri- 
eahaaft-^BeaerrationH EstabUshed at Gampe McDowell, Qrant 
and Fort Apaehe — San Carloi Beoervation Eatabliahed — 
Salariw of Official*— Bipenditnie of Ooyeniment for Indiau 
— Cenaufl of Indiana in Ariiona in 1863 — Location of Differ- 
ent Tribea — Ctamoringi for War of Extermination — General 
Ord Takea Command of Department of Aricona 

CHAFTEB II. 

KZntlMTIONS A0UM8T INDUNS. 

Nnmber of Wkitea Killed by Indiana — Inereaae of Uilitary— ^ 
Nnmber of Indiana Killed and Chptored by Hilitaiy — 
King Woobey'a Aeeonnt of Ueatenant MeCIeaTe'a Seont- 
Fight at Harqaa Hala Springa — Colonel Bamard'i TigtX 
With Apaebei Under Cochue 

CHAPTEB III. 
KznvrnoNS into ikdian ooontbt. 
Banlv'B DiaeoTeiT of "Meteoric Crater" — Banta, Cooley and 
Dodd OrganiM Expedition to Hunt "Doc Thorn Minea" — 
Banks of Little Colorado Used a« Nentr&l Qroand by Indiana 
for Trading ParpOMB— Arrival of Expedition in Apaeheland 
— Objection of Knala to PVogress of E^tedition — Expedition 
Betreate — Approach of the Military — Feats of Indian Foot 
Bnnneri — OTganication of Peace Party to Talk With Mili- 
tary—Peace Party Arrested by Military— Belease of Peae« 
Party — Military Oflleers Entertained by Apaehea 



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VI OONTENT8. 

CHAPTER IV. 

KXPEMTIONS IMTD INDIAN OOUNTKT (Oontmued). PAOS 

Captain Barry Ordered bj Colonel Oreen to Maasaere Indians— 
Captain Barry Diaobe^B Orders and is Placed Under Ar- 
rest — Big Dance of the Finals — "Dodd'a Dance —Beception 
by the ToDtoH — Arrival at Camp Beno — Intercede With Oon- 
eral Devin for Captain Barry-~Captain Bairy Beleased and 
BetuTited to Duty — Disbandment of Expedition — Descrip- 
tion of C. E. Cooley, His Banch and His Squaws 53 

CHAPTEB V, 



Beport of Major-Qeneral George H. Thomas on Uilitary Affairs 
in Aritona — Beport of General Oxd — General Ord'B Aeeonnt 
of Chptsin Bury'i Disobedience of Orders — Ekpense of 
Supplying Rations to Troops in Aricona — Fourteen Milit&ry 
Posts in Arizona — Desertion of Troops — Policy of Exter- 
mination Followed by Both Military and Citisena — Condi- 
tions in 1859 Deserit>ed by Banta — Batablisbment of Camp 
Ord, Later Known as Port Apache 

CHAPTER VL 
THE illUTAST (Continned). 
Oeoeral George Shmeman Takes Command — Eia Policy — The 



-"Jeff" Davis's 

Experience With Indians — Attacks on Wagon Trains — 
Appointment of A. P. K. SafFord as Gorernor of the Terri- 
tory — His Interview With the "New York Herald"— Asks 
That Arizona be Allowed to Raise Volunteers — Oovemiuent 
Fnmishee Arms and Ammunition for Citisen Militia — How 
the Apaches Secured Anna and Ammunitiou — Aetivitiee of 
Military — XJeut.-Colonel Sanford's E!ipediti on— Lieutenant 
CNiahing'e Expedition — Lieutenant Graham's Expedition — 
Captain William Dry's Expedition M 



CHAPTEB Vn. 

OCTUaCS BY INDUHB. 

Miner Editorial DescribiDg Trip Through Indian Country — 
Interriewa Between General Stoneman and ludiaos — Miner 
Prints Petition to President With List of Three Hundred 
and One Persons Killed by Indians in Seven Tears 1 



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CONTENTS. VU 

OHAPTEE Vni. 
ODTK&OEs BT INDIANS (Coutinned) . paqi 

Q«v«Tiu>r SaSord'B Ueasage Calls Attention to OotragM— Public 

Bentimeiit in Beference to Csjnp Orajit MsBsaere — Militarj 
Aoeount of Camp Orant Massacre — Trial of FarticipaatB — 
Charge of Judge Titus—DefeudBiits Acquitted — ^More Out- 
rages by Indians — Lieutenant Cusiiiiig'e Expedition Against 
Hmitilea — Killing of Lieutenant Cuahing ISl 

CHAPTEB IX- 

CmZEN ■XFEDITIOHB AQAIN&T HOSTILX8. 

C. B. Geuong'B Deaeription of Townaend'g Expedition — Indian* 
Sill Herder and Steal Herbert Bowers' Cattle— John Town- 
aend Appointed Captain of Pursuing Party — Joined by 
Party of Soldiers Under Lieutenant Morton — Cat«h Indiims 
aod Kill Thirty-flve — Best of Indiana Escape — Agson Catch 
and KiU Indians — Porsners Retam to PMsoott and are 
Banquetted — Flity-six Indians Killed, and Almoat All 
Stock Becovered 170 

OHAPTia X. 

INDIAN TSOUBUS, THE MIUTAKT, UUBDUS AND LYNOHINGa. 

CaUfomia Legislstttre Passee Beeolution fielating t« Indian 
Affairs in Arison* — Oeneral Stunemau Superseded by Gen- 
eral Crook — Newspaper Criticism of Oeneral Stoneman — 
Murders by Mexican Outlaws — Beprisala — Murderers 
Lynched — Settlement of Valley of San Pedro by Mark 
Aldrich — More Indian Outrages — Boada Built by Stone- 
man — f^htS of Captain Moore and Captain BosseU With 
Indians — General Crook Takes Command 196 

CHAPTEB SI. 
TBX PEACK COUUISSION. 

Ooveraor Safford's Proclamation in Begard to — Arrival of Com- 
missioner Vincent Colyer — Makes Ex parte Beport — Beeeived 
With Cordiality by Military but not by Citixens to Whom He 
Befnsed Hearings — Colyer'a Letters Beporting His Actions — 
Camp Apaehe — Industry of Apach,eB— Condition of Apache 
Indiana — Befeience to Camp Grant Massacre — Talks With 
Coyotero Apache CSiiefs 210 

CHAPTEB XII. 
THE PKAoz coMiussiON (Continued). 
Arrival at Camp Grant — Befusal to Allow Armed Citizens to 
Cross Beservation — Apache Children Taken Into Captivity — 
Interview With Apache Chiefs at Camp Grant— Talk With 
£s-<Sm-En'Zeen, Head Chief- of Aravaipa Finals — Opposi- 
tion to the Indian Peace Policy 230 



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Tin CONTENTS. 

CHAPTEB Xin. 
THM mem QOMioBBiON (Continued). pmi 

The Frontienmui'B 87inpaUi7 With the Peace Policy— OUa Bim 
A(«ns7 — Tonto Aps«hee at Camp UeDoweU — Beport of 
J. H. StoDt, Special Indian Agent — Beport of Colonel 
N. A. H. DadlOT— Beport of Capt&in Jamea Curtia — Taft 
Wth Da-Chay-Ta and Shelter Pau — Beport of Captain 
Netterrille— Beport of Colonel Dadlej 24T 

CHAPTEB Xrv. 
TBM FKifX OOUUlBBlos (Continued). 
Chmp Tcrde Beaervation — The Apaehe-MohaTea — Beport of 
Ber. David Whit«, Poat Chaplain— Arrivml at Oarqi Whip- 
plo, Oeneral Crook's Headquarters — Bcfnaal to Address 
Meeting of Citiiens — Departure from Territorj — Final 
Statement a* to Apaches Doming in 279 

CHAPTEB XV. 
Tai wicEENBUBo lusaAca^ 
Stagecoach Attacked fa; Paxtr of Hoonted Uen, I^ve Passengers 
Killed, Tiro Wonoded — Difference of Opinion as to Whether 
Outrage Committed hj Indians or Mexicans — YcTdict of 
Comner's Jury — Description of Killed and Wonnded — C. B. 
Q«niiDg'B Belief and Statement — Mike Burns' Ignorance of 
Oeenrrenee 189 

CHAPTEB XVI. 
TBx wiOKXNBima uassackb (Continued). 
Oeneral Crook Takes up Hunt for Murderers — Inveatigation 
Stopped b7^ Peace Commission — Invmtigation hj Qenml 
Crook Besnmed — Meeting With Indians at Camp Date 
Creek — Selection of Murderers hj Mohave Indians — At- 
tempted Arrest Brings on Fight— ~C. B. Oenung's Account 
of Happening — Captain John G. Bourke's Account of At- 
tempt OB Oeneral (book's Life — Death and Burial of Captain 
Philip Dwyer — Ught With Indiana 30) 



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HISTOET OF ABIZONA. 

VOLUME vnx 



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HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER I. 

indian agencies. 
Charles D. Poston, First Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs-— Sttcceeded by George W. 
Leihy — Leihy Succeeded by George W. 
Dent — Dent Succeeded by George L. An- 
drews — ^Andrews Succeeded by H. Ben- 
dell — Office Abolished — Pima and Mari- 
copa Bbbervation Set Aside — Yuma 
Reservation Established — Colorado River 
Reservation Established — Conditions on 
Navaho Reservation — Moqui Reservation 
Established — Mohave Reservation Es- 
tablished— -Wallapais Placed on Reser- 
vation, but Return to Homes — Territory 
Set Apart for Them — Outbreak of 
Wallapais Ohbckm> Sinolehanded by 
Captain Thomas Byrne — Temporary Res- 
ervation for Apache-Mohaves Estab- 
LiSHH) at Camp Date Creek — ORooKEav 
NESS OF Indian Ring — Temporary Reser- 
vation Established on the Verde — 
Indians Removed from Verde to San 
Carlos — Chiricahua Reservation Estab- 
lished — Outbreak of Chiricahuas — Res- 
ervations Estarushed at Camps Mc- 
Dowell, Grant, and Port Apache — San 
Carlos Reservation Established — Sala- 
vm— 1 (1) 



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2 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

RiES OP Officials — Expenditure of Gov- 
ernment FOR Indians — Census of Induns 
IN Arizona in 1868 — Location op Differ- 
ent Tribes — Clamorings for War of Ex- 
termination — General Ord Takes Com- 
mand of Department of Arizona. 

One of the great drawbacks to the early set- 
tlement of the Apache question was the author- 
ity given to the Indian Agents upon the reser- 
vations. The following is a brief review of the 
establishment of these agencies from the forma- 
tion of the Territory up to the year 1875. 
Charles D. Poston was the first Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs. As we have seen, he came 
in by way of California, accompanied by J. Ross 
Browne and some others, arriving at Eort Yuma 
about Christmas time, 1863. There they dis- 
tributed quite a nimaber of presents to Pasqual 
and his band. The company then went on to Tuc- 
son, and during the month of January, 1864, 
Poston and Browne made a tour into Sonora and 
back. Poston sent in his resignation with his re- 
port when he was elected the first Delegate to 
Congress from Arizona. George W. Leihy then 
held the office until November, 1866, when he was 
killed by the Indians. George W. Dent served 
from 1867 to 1869, and was succeeded by George 
L. Andrews, who held the office in 1869 and 1870, 
and was in turn succeeded by H. Bendell, who 
held it in 1871 and 1872, the office being abol- 
ished in the latter year, the agents reporting 
directly after that time to the Indian Commis- 
sioners in Washington. The Government, how- 
ever, sent out special inspectors occasionally to 



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INDIAN AGENCIES. 3 

visit the agencies. Prior to Poston's appoint- 
ment and the organization of the Territory, an 
agent at Mesilla, New Mexico, had a merely 
nominal control of the Arizona Indians. 

In February, 1859, the Government caused a 
reservation to be set apart on the Gila for the 
Pimas and Maricopas, tMs having been the 
home of the Fimas for centuries. This reser- 
vation embraced all the lands which they had 
under cultivation at the time of the acquisition 
of Arizona. The survey was made by Colonel 
A. B. Gray, and embraced one hundred square 
leagues of arable lands, most of it susceptible 
of irrigation. The length of the reservation is 
about twenty-five miles, and its breadth about 
four miles, and the Gila river runs through 
it from one end to the other. They had a 
good many horses and cattle. In 1858, the first 
year of the Overland Mail Line, their surplus 
of wheat was one himdred thousand pounds, 
which was purchased by the stage line. In 1859 
Mr. St. John was sent among them as a special 
agent, with a supply of Indian trinkets and 
agricultural implements. That year they sold 
two hundred and fifty thousand pounds of 
wheat and a large quantity of melons, pump- 
kins and beans. (Browne, "Apache Coimtry," 
p. 110.) 

Pish, in his manuscript, says: "The produc- 
tion of grain and trade increased each year, 
and in 1866 they sold wheat and com amount- 
ing to about two millions of pounds, besides a 
large amoimt of barley, beans, etc. The most 
of this was bought by Indian traders, located 
at Maricopa Wells and the Pima Villages, at 



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4 HISTORT OF ARIZONA. 

from one to two cents per pound, trade, and 
then resold to the Government for the use of 
troops in Arizona at from six to seven cents per 
pound, cash. This is a specimen of the way in 
which the old Indian ring fleeced both the 
Indians and the Government." 

The Pima agents were A. M. White to 1866; 
Levi Ruggles in 1866, 1867, 1868 and 1869, with 
C. H. Lord as Deputy in 1867; F. E. Grassman 
in 1869 and 1870; J. H. Stout in 1871, 1872, 
1873, 1874 and 1875. 

A reservation for tiie Yumas was set apart 
in 1863 on the California side of the Colorado 
at Fort Yuma. This reservation extended for 
twenty-five miles along the river and to the west 
as far as the foothills. In 1864 Francis Hin- 
ton was employed by Superintendent Poston as 
agent for the Yumas. After the occupation of 
Fort Yuma by the United States troops, the 
Yumas were held in check, but the power and 
glory of this nation has departed. 

Mr. Poston, when in Congress, as we have 
heretofore stated, succeeded in getting an 
appropriation of a htmdred thousand dollars 
for colonizing the friendly Indians in Arizona 
on a reservation on the Colorado river. In 
1864 he selected a reservation on the Colorado 
river bottom at Half Way Bend, in latitude 34° 
IC, which extended from a point four miles 
above Ehrenberg some forty-five miles up the 
river. Here comfortable adobe buildings were 
constructed after 1867. These lands were set 
apart by Congress in an act approved March 
3rd, 1865, and consisted of a hundred and 
twenty-eight thousand acres, bordering on the 



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INDIAN AGENCIES. D 

river and conuneQcing between Mirenberg and 
La Paz. From 1864 to 1866, they were in charge 
of Herman Ehrenberg; from 1866 to 1869 John 
Fudge was the agent; Helenas Dodt in 1870; 
J. A. Tanner from 1871 to 1875. 

During the Navaho war in New Mexico in 
1862 and 1868, as we have seen, the Navahos 
were placed on the Pecos reservation in that 
Territoiy. The Coyotero (White Mountain) 
Apaches, seeing how the Navahos had been 
vanquished, were easily placed upon a reserva- 
tion, but discontent was soon manifested among 
them, and when the California Volunteers were 
withdrawn, they ran away. "In May, 1868," 
says Pish, "General Sherman and Colonel Top- 
pan, peace commissioners, visited New Mexico, 
and arranged to remove the Navahos from the 
Pecos to their old home near Fort Defiance. 
By treaty of June 1st, 1868, their reservation 
was located in the northeast comer of Arizona, 
and adjacent parts of New Mexico. It com- 
prised an area of fifty-two hundred square 
miles. Some important additions were c^ter- 
wards made to it on October 29th, 1878, and 
January 6th, 1880, making it the hu^gest reser- 
vation in the United States. The agent at the 
Navaho reservation in 1878 said: 'Within ten 
years, during which tiie present treaty with the 
Navahos has been in force, they have grown 
from a band of paupers to a nation of prosper- 
ous, iudustrious, shrewd, and (for barbarians) 
intelligent, people.'" They were reported at 
that time to be eleven thousand, eight hundred 
in nmnber, and the owners of twenty thousand 
horses, fifteen himdred cattle, and five hundred 



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6 HISTORT OF ARIZONA. 

thousand sheep. They were tilling nine thou- 
sand one hundred and ninety-two acres of land, 
and obtaining ninely-five per cent of their sub- 
sistence from civilized pursuits. Their march 
of improvement was not halted, for in 1884, 
the Navaho tribe was estimated at seventeen 
thousand, they cultivated fifteen thousand acres 
of land, and raised two hundred and twenty 
thousand bushels of com and twenty-one thou- 
sand bushels of wheat, and had thirty-five thou- 
sand horses and one million sheep. 

In December, 1882, a reservation for the 
Moqui Indians was established west and south 
of tiie Navaho reservation. Some changes in 
the boundaries of their reservation have since 
been made. 

The Mohave reservation was set apart on 
March 30th, 1870, the area being fifty-five hun- 
dred and seventy-two acres. The Indians liv- 
ing along the river bottom gleaned a precarious 
living from what they could raise, from the 
native products of the country, and what they 
could beg at the post. This reservation of the 
Mohave Indians herein noted, must not be con- 
founded with that of the Apache-Mohavea. As 
will be hereafter shown, they were two differ- 
ent tribes, the Apaehe-Mohaves being an off- 
shoot of the Mohaves, but of a more warlike 
nature. 

The Mohaves, however, complained, and quite 
justly, that the Government failed to fumi^ 
them implements, tools, seed, etc., to enable 
them to work their lands and support them- 
selves, and here it can be stated, and very truly, 
that the Indian Department always neglected 



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INDIAN AGENCIES. 7 

the friendly Indiana, while to the hostiles it 
made presents under the plea of pacifying 
them. In 1876 there were about nine hundred 
of these Indians living on the Colorado reser- 
vation, and there were about six himdred living 
from Fort Mohave to the Needles, all of them 
self-supporting. This reservation was origi- 
nally intended for all the river tribes, also tiie 
WaUapais and the Yavapaia, but only a portion 
of the Mohaves and some others could ever be 
induced to occupy it permanently. They had 
to depend on the annual overflow of the river 
for irrigation, which often failed and resulted 
in a failure of their crops. Beginning in the 
year 1867 and ending in the year 1874, a canal, 
nine miles long was dug, which cost twenty- 
eight thousand dollars, but which proved to be 
a failure. The Indians took great interest in 
it, and also in a system of waterwheels, which 
also proved a failure, and did considerable 
work. A portion of the Mohaves lived near 
Fort Mohave and fared very well, but those 
that are left seem to retain all the vices of 
border railroad and mining towns, and are ad- 
dicted to gambling and drinking. They have 
degenerated fearfully and are a hopelessly 
wretched and deplorable race, tainted with 
syphilitic diseases. The Colorado river reser- 
vation seems to have been rather a poor one for 
agricultural purposes, and the Indians realized 
very little for their labor. The Oovemmeut 
issued rations to them to help tiiem out, fur- 
nishing them about (me-third of their support. 
The balance they secured from the fruits of 



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8 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA. 

their labor and the natural products of the 
country. 

The Wallapais lived in the mountains east 
of Mohave. They were a brave and warlike 
people, and were continually at war with the 
whites. After their submission they did good 
service against the Apaches. In 1871 Vincent 
Colyer established a reservation at Beale 
Springs, where they were gathered. In 1874 
they were moved to the Colorado reservation, 
and placed with the Mohaves, much against 
their will. The heat of the river bottom did 
not agree with them, and the debauched condi- 
tion of the Mohaves was a source of annoyance, 
as well as an example to the women and young 
men that would soon destroy the sacred mar- 
riage relations in their own tribe. In vain 
they pleaded to be allowed to return to their 
own mountain home. They pleaded their ser- 
vices in helping the whites to conquer hos- 
tiles and promised, if allowed to go back, to 
become self-supporting. Not obtaining per- 
mission, they left in a body, and, on reaching 
their home, they raised the white flag and pro- 
tested that they had come back to live in peace, 
so they were given a chance and they lived up 
to their promises. A tract of two thousand 
square miles on the Grand Canyon bend of the 
Colorado river was set apart for them in 1881 
and 1883, where they now live. They have 
greatly degenerated, however, and are consid- 
ered a destitute and vicious lot of beggars. 
The Beale Springs reservation was abolished 
by General Howard in 1872. While the Walla- 
pais were at Beale Springs, they were under the 



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INDIAN AGENCIES. 9 

care a part of the time of Captain Thomas 
Byrne, Twelfth Infantry, who was a genius in 
his way. "Old Tommy," as he was affection- 
ately called, was a great friend to the Indians 
and succeeded by his straightforward and 
kindly ways in gaining their confidence. After 
he was suspended by the acting agent, he re- 
mained at the agency, regarded by all the tribe 
as their brother and adviser. The Wallapais 
took some offense at the new agent and sud- 
denly left the reservation to go on the warpath. 
"Old Tonuny'* knowing how much it would cost 
Uncle Sam in blood and treasure if the out- 
break was not stopped, mounted a horse and fol- 
lowed the Indians, and succeeded in getting 
them to return, promising them that their 
wrongs would be righted. The following ac- 
count of what happened is given in Bourke, "On 
the Border with Crook," p. 163 : 

"Back they went, following after the one im- 
armed man. Straight to the beef scales went 
the now thoroughly aroused officer, and in less 
time than it takes to relate, he had detected the 
manner in which false weights had been secured 
by a tampering with the poise. A two year old 
Texas steer which, horns and all, would not 
weigh eight hundred pounds, would mark sev- 
enteen hundred, and other things in the same 
ratio. Nearly the whole amount of the salt and 
flour supply had been sold to the miners in the 
Cerbat range, and the poor Hualpais, who bad 
been such valiant and efficient allies, had been 
swindled out of everything but their breath, and 
but a small part of that was left. 



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10 HISTORT OF ARIZONA. 

"Tommy seized upon the agency and took 
charge; the Hualpais were perfectly satisfied, 
but the agent left that ni^t for California, and 
never came back. A great hub-bub was raised 
about the matter, but nothing came of it, and 
a bitter war was averted by the prompt, decisive 
action of a plain, unlettered officer, who had no 
ideas about managing savages beyond treating 
them with kindness and justice." 

In 1871 Colyer established a temporary res- 
ervation at Date Creek. About two himdred 
Mid twenty-five Indians, mostly Apache-Mo- 
haves, had been gathered in here prior to this 
date, and allowed to roam and get a living by 
hunting or as best they could. In June, 1871, 
the Government commenced to issue rations 
from this agency to the Indians in this part of 
the Territory. They were, however, trans- 
ferred to the Camp Verde reservation in May, 
1873, and moved from the Verde in March, 
1875. Previous to being put upon the reserva- 
tion they were in open hostility with the whites, 
committing most of their depredations around 
Wickenburg and vicinity. Lieutenant F. H. E. 
Ebstein had charge of fiie Date Creek Agency, 
and was superseded in July, 1872, when Gen- 
eral O. 0. Howard abolished the reservation, 
or feeding station as it was sarcastically called. 
When the transfer was made, Williams became 
agent at the Verde. 

"About this time," says Fish, "the 'Indian 
Ring' began to get in their work, and they were 
remarkably successful in tiie manipulation of 
contracts, etc. While Dr. Williams was in 
charge of the Apaehe-Yumas and Apache- 



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INDIAN AQENCIE8. 11 

Mohaves, he had refused to receive certain 
sugar on account of the presence of great rocks 
in each sack. Peremptory orders for the im- 
mediate receipt of the sugar were received in 
due time from Washington. Williams placed 
one of these immense lumps of stone on a table 
in his office, labelled 'Sample of sugar received 
at this agency under contract of .' Will- 
iams was an honest, high-minded gentleman, 
and deserved something better than to be 
hounded into an insane asylum, which fate he 
suffered. Williams was not the only agent who 
went to an insane asylum. Colonel J. Roe 
Young who, at one time, was Indian agent at 
Sacaton, died in a Kentucky Insane Asylum not 
many years ago." 

The Indians got but little of what was appro- 
priated for them. It was notoriously the fact, 
and a standing joke in this coimtry was, "Do 
Indian Agents Steal!" No one ever heard of 
an agent being pxmished. General Crook 
stated that there never was a person pimished 
in Arizona for defrauding the Indians. The 
more docile the Indians were, the more abuse 
they got. When they became self-supporting, 
like tiie Navahos, the Government gave them 
nothing. If they were deadly and murderous 
like the Apaches, the Government took care of 
them and fed them. Issuing rations was the 
proper thing when we had destroyed the native 
means of subsistence, but the tribe that worked 
and helped itself should have been aided fur- 
ther toward civilization in other ways. "A few 
years ago," says Fish, "the Government erected 
fifty cottages for the Wallapais near Kingman, 



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12 HMTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

and furnished them with stoves, etc. Through 
the custom of burning the effects of the war- 
riors who die, few of Siese cottages remain." 

In 1871 Colyer established a temporary res- 
ervation at the Verde, this being on the dividing 
line between the Apaches proper and the Yava- 
pais, quite central, and one with which the 
Indians were well satisfied. After the sur- 
render of Chalipun, in 1873, at Camp Verde, 
there was no time lost in putting them to work. 
Colonel Julius W. Mason superintended the 
getting out of an irrigating ditch, and Walter 
S. Schuyler had the immediate charge of the 
Indians. The reservation was established some 
miles above the post. There were few tools, but 
they were strung along the line of the ditch, and 
every tool that could be, was secured. There 
were a few old tools of different kinds at 
Fort Whipple, which were sent down, and the 
best possible use made of them. With these 
and with sticks hardened in the fire, the Apaches 
soon had a ditch completed five miles long, 
with a width of four feet, and three feet 
deep. Mason and Schuyler labored assidu- 
ously with the Apaches, and soon had about 
fifty-seven acres of land planted with melons 
and other garden truck, of which the Indians 
are very fond, and preparations for planting 
com and barley on a large scale were made. 
The prospects of the Apaches looked bright, 
and there began to be hope that they would soon 
become self-sustaining, but it was not to be. 
The "ring" of Federal oflScials, contractors and 
others, succeeded in securing the issue of per- 
emptory orders that the Apaches should leave 



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INDIAN AGENCIES. 13 

at once for the mouth of the sickly San Carlos, 
there to be herded with the other tribes. The 
Apaches were contented on the Verde and satis- 
fied with their surroundings there. They had 
been promised that it should be their home, and 
to remove them was bad faith, particularly as 
their work was beginning to show results, and 
they had every prospect of becoming self- 
supporting. The move did not take place until 
the following winter, when the Indians flatly 
refused to follow the special agent sent out by the 
Indian Bureau, not being acquainted with him, 
but did consent to go with Lieutenant Geo. 0. 
Eaton. There were two thousand of these 
Indians in 1879, and in August of that year 
about nine hxmdred of them ran away, but 
four hundred of them returned in September. 
W. S. Schuyler succeeded Dr. WilUams as 
agent. The place proved to be unhealthy and 
there was much sickness at the agency, which 
caused it to be changed somewhat. 3ji 1874 
there were a thousand and seventy-eight 
Indians at the place, and by June the soldiers 
had brought in more, increasing the number to 
fifteen hundred and forty-four. These Indians 
were removed, not only against their will, but 
also against the protest of General Crook. Re- 
ferring to the removal of the Indians, Dunn, 
in his "Massacres of the Mountains," says: 
"To the statement of the commissioner of 
Indian Affairs: 'I believe now no one in the 
Territory questions the wisdom of the removal 
of the Verde Indians', Colonel Kautz bluntly 
replied : ' So far as my observation goes, I have 



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14 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

seen no one who endorses it, except those con- 
nected with the Indian Department.' " 

This removal was in March, 1875, and was in 
charge of Special Commissioner Dudley. On 
the way to the San Carlos reservation, the Ton- 
tos and Tavapais had a fight among themselves, 
in which five were killed. 

The placing of the Indians on the Verde was 
in accordance with General Crook's arrange- 
ment with them when they surrendered, he 
then promising them that they should stay there 
as long as they were peaceable and good 
Indians. The removal of them to San Carlos 
was opposed by Crook, and had a bad efEect on 
the Indians, as it seemed to them that Crook 
had failed to keep his promises, and tbe result 
was that, to a certain extent, they lost faith in 
the general, and in all promises made by the 
whites. 

The Chiricahua reservation was established 
in October, 1872, by General O. O. Howard, on 
the conclusion of his treaty with Cochise, 
Prior to this time all attempts to induce this 
tribe to leave its old home had resulted in 
failure. In pursuance of this treaty Cochise 
ceased hostilities, and used his influence with 
such effect that in October and November, over 
a thousand Apaches had gathered upon this 
reservation, not only the Chiricahua Apaches, 
but also some of the Mesealeros, who were 
closely affiliated with them. The reservation 
included approximately that portion of Cochise 
county lying east of the Dragoon moimtains. 
Its southern boundary was the international 
line between the United States and the Mexi- 



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INDIAN AOENCIES. 15 

can Republic. It was set apart by executive 
order of December 14th, and by the end of the 
year over a thousand Jjidians were being fed, 
according to the report of the agent, Thomas 
J. Jeffords. In setting apart this reservation, 
it was found that Rogers and Spence had a 
claim on Sulphur Springs, having located there 
in 1868. To settle this claim Rogers was given 
a hundred and sixty acres of land on the res- 
ervation, where he remained, keeping a trading 
post The agency was at Sulphur Springs, 
Oienega de San Simon, Pinery Canyon and 
Apache Pass, successively. Cochise remained 
faithful to the time of his death in 1874, and 
was succeeded by his son, Taza, although 
neither had full control of all the bands. There 
were no farming lands, but the Chiricahuas 
were not farmers and did not care to learn the 
business. 

The r^ervation being on the Mexican border, 
there was much raidii^ across the line, which 
Agent Jeffords insisted was not done by his 
Indians, but by those from San Carlos and 
other points, a statement which was not gener- 
ally credited by those outside of the reserva- 
tion. Superintendent L. K. Dudley, of New 
Mexico, endeavored to have the Chiricahuas re- 
moved to the Hot Springs, but they refused to 
go. In April, 1876, after the killing of Rogers 
and Spence, which has been heretofore noted, 
^e Indians, fearing punishment, fled to the 
mountains of Mexico, and from ^at time on, 
for six long years, the history of the Chirica- 
huas was one of continual struggle, as will be 
shown in future pages of this history. By the 



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16 HISTORT OP ARIZONA. 

influence of Governor Safford, and against the 
advice of General Kautz, then in command, the 
removal of all the Indians was ordered. A 
band of a hundred and forty went_ to Hot 
Springs; three hundred and twenty-five, under 
Taza, were sent to San Carlos in June, and 
tiie remaining four hundred ran away to com- 
mit depredations on the frontier. These last 
figiu'es were according to Agent Jeffords. The 
reservation was restored to the public domain 
by executive order of October 30tii, 1876. 

Vincent Colyer established a temporary res- 
ervation at Gamp McDowell in 1871, but it 
was abolished the following year by General 
Howard. He also established reservations the 
same year at Camp Grant and Fort Apache. 
The establishment of the White Moimtain res- 
ervation is dated November 9th, 1871. As all 
these reservations were for the Apaches, they 
were practically one after the move from Camp 
Grant. In 1872 General Howard changed the 
Camp Grant reservation to the Gila, naming it 
San Carlos. This reservation seems to have 
extended to the New Mexico line. 

The salaries of the officers for the San Carlos 
reservation for the year 1884 were as follows: 
Agent, $2,000; Storekeeper, $900; Physician, 
$1,200; Clerk, $1,200; Chief Scout, $1,000; Head 
Farmer, *900 ; Issue Clerk, $900 ; School 
Teacher, $800; two School Teachers, $600; 
Matron, $600 ; Seamstress, $600 ; Assistant 
Farmer, $750. 

December 14th, 1872, the executive order 
creating the reservation was supplemented by 
several new orders; that of August 5th, 1873, 



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INDUN AGENCIES. 17 

cut off all the Gila Valley above Old Camp 
Goodwin; that of April 27th, 1876, cut off a 
strip on the east ; that of January 28, 1877, cut 
off a strip of seven thousand four hundred and 
twenty-one acres in the northeast comer, and 
that of March 31st, 1877, the southwest comer 
south of the Gila. As left, the reservation con- 
tained four thousand four hundred and forty 
square miles. The agents were as follows : Ed. 
C. Jacobs, Geoi^e H. Stevens, H. R. Wilbur, 
C. F. Larrabee, W. H. Brown, J. K. Roberts, 
and John P. Glum during the period from 1872 
to 1876. H. L. Hari; was agent in 1877-78; 
Adna R. Chaffee in 1879-80; J. C. Tiffany in 
1880-51; PhU P. Wilcox in 1882-83, and G. 
Ford in 1884. From 1882 the reservation be- 
came practically under control of the military 
conunander. 

In the early years of these reservations the 
great objection on tiie" part of the Indians to 
coming upon them and remaining, was the sys- 
tem of "tagging," (Bourke, "On the Border 
with Crook," p. 219,) which they regarded as 
humiliating, and to which their proud spirits 
could not submit This caused many of them 
to leave the reservations, and yet it would seem 
it was the only way of keeping them where the 
agent could locate his Indians. The Apaches 
were gradually disarmed, and the use of "tiz- 
win," the native liquor, was suppressed. Ckie 
cause of trouble and outbreaks was the putting 
of strange and different tribes on the same res- 
ervation, which caused the usual jealousies and 
bickerings that always arise under these con- 
ditions. 

vm— 2 

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18 HKTOBY OF ARIZONA. 

The total expenditures of the government on 
account of the Indian service, from 1789 to 1900, 
amounts to more than three hundred and sixty- 
eight millions of dollars. More money has been 
paid to extinguish Indian land titles, than to 
extinguish the titles of foreign nations, and the 
cost of our Indian wars has been equal to the 
cost of all our foreign wars. 

In 1863 the number of Indians in Arizona 
was estimated as follows: 

Apaches 5,000 

Papagoes 7,500 

Fimas & Maricopas 5,000 

Cocopahs 3,000 

Yumaa 5,000 

Yampais 2,500 

Chimehuevis 2,000 

Mohaves 5,000 

Wallapais 2,000 

Pah-Utes 500 

Moquis 7,000 

Navahos 15,000 

Apaches Man 100 

Total 59,600 

The different tribes of Indians in the Terri- 
tory were originally located as follows : 

COLORADO RIVER AGENCY. 

Mohaves at Mohave 677 

Mohaves at Needles 667 

Mohaves at Port Mohave 700 

Wallapais 700 

Chimehuevis 141 



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INDUN AGENCIES. 19 

NAVAHO AGENCY: 

NaTahos 20,500 

Moquis, (Pueblo) 2,029 

PIMA AGENCY: 

Pimas, Gila Reservation 3,723 

Maricopas, Salt River Reservation. . 93 

Marlcopas, Gila Reservation 203 

Pimas, Salt River Reservation 543 

Papagos, Gila Bend Reservation 75 

Papagos, Nomadic 1,800 

Papagos, San Xavier 517 

Papagos, Peerless Well 248 

SAN CARLOS AGENCY: 

Coyotero Apaches 612 

Tonto Apaches 856 

Mohave- Apaches 501 

San Carlos Apaches 1,134 

White Moxmtain Apaches 1,739 

Yuma- Apaches 51 

Havasupias, (imattached) 215 

Total 37,724 

The foregoing figures are probably a little 
under the real number in some instances. 
According to the census of 1900 there were but 
26,480 Indians in Arizona. There is some 
omission in this, probably ; some of the Pueblo 
tribes may not have been included. 

From the date of the entry of the California 
Colimm into Arizona, and for many years 
thereafter, there was an element that was 
opposed to any peace with the Apaches. Their 



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20 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

cry was extermination and, as we have seen, 
General Carleton and many others adhered to 
this policy. The civilians who gave out this 
cry were those who were fattening on Govern- 
ment contracts, holding lucrative positions in 
many ways. They were merely sojourners in 
Arizona. Her magnificent forests; her moun- 
tains rich in gold, silver and copper; her val- 
leys, productive as any known to man ; her hills 
covered with nutritious grasses; this paradise 
of the stockman, lumberman, farmer and miner, 
did not attract them. The latent wealth of the 
future commonwealth did not appeal to this 
class, whose only desire was to gather quickly 
the crumbs which leaked from the Federal feed 
basket. Another, and by far a more numerous 
class of the population were those who realized 
the possibilities of the future, and desired to 
build here their homes, the empire builders who 
imperilled life and fortime in an effort to re- 
claim the Territory from savagery to civiliza- 
tion, but saw their neighbors murdered, their 
homes pillaged, their stock stolen, and their 
fields laid waste by a foe as ruthless and relent- 
less as any that had ever cursed mankind. 
Under these conditions all classes were clamor- 
ing for a war of extermination. Agencies 
and reservations were denounced as "feeding 
stations and depots of supplies" for the hos- 
tile Apaches, where they could recruit their 
strength and form plans for new atrocities. 
Throughout the country the newspapers re- 
echoed the popular cry: "Do away with the 
agencies; fight the Apaches to the death." The 
Governor wid Legislature were in full sym- 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



INCUN AOENCIEa 21 

pathy with the people in this popular outcry, 
which had become common to every Arizonan, 
for the feeling that now actuated all the citi- 
zens of the Territory was one of bitter hatred 
and revenge for their murdered friends and 
relatives. War for aggrandizement or gain 
was not thought of except by the few who com- 
posed the ring which received Uncle Sam's 
money in return for services rendered. The 
people were crazy for blood; the spirit of re- 
venge burned at fever heat, for during these 
years, up to and including 1870, they could see 
no progress, and became mscouraged and clam- 
orous for reform. The troops were blamed, 
and the officers declared unfit for their posi- 
tions. In military circles there was a division 
of opinion, inspectors and officers not always 
agreeing as to tiie best policy to be pursued. It 
was a time of excitement and exaggeration, of 
unreasonable views and acts, and while the 
Indians were responsible for many outrages, 
the whites were guilty of many crimes against 
the Indians. The spirit of revenge seemed to 
have taken hold of all classes, depriving men of 
their cooler judgment. The feeling of himaan 
kindness which is said to be implanted in all 
men, was smothered, and it was not to be won- 
dered at. It is hard to be calm when one's rela- 
tives and friends are being butchered, and this 
applied as well to the Indian as to the white 
man. 

In Jxme, 1869, Major General Thomas re- 
lieved General Halleck in command of the Mili- 
tary Division of the Pacific, and General Ord 
succeeded to the command of the Department 



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22 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

of California, which included Arizona. **(3en- 
eral Ord," says Fish, "was an enthusiastic ex- 
terminator 80 far as the Apaches were con- 
cerned." In Septemher, 1869, he wrote: "I 
encourage the troops to capture and root out the 
Apaches by every means, and to hunt them as 
they would wild animals. This they have done 
with unrelenting vigor. " General Halleck, 
who preceded General Thomas in command of 
the Military Division of the Pacific, said, as has 
been heretofore stated: "It is useless to nego- 
tiate with these Apache Indians. They will ob- 
serve no treaties, agreements or truces. With 
them there is no alternative but active and vig- 
orous war till they are completely destroyed, or 
forced to surrender as prisoners of war." 

Soon after being placed in command of the 
Department of Califomia, General Ord visited 
Arizona, making a personal inspection of the 
principal forts in tiie Territory, and laying 
his plans for future operations. It does not 
appear, however, that his visit resulted in much 
good. He was a Civil War veteran, a graduate 
of West Point, and a First Lieutenant in 1849 
in the regular army, and, later, was a Major 
General in the Civil War, where, through long 
and distinguished services, he gained a place in 
the history of our country during those trying 



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EXPEDITIONS AOAINST INDIANS. 23 



CHAPTER II. 
EXPEDITIONS AGAINST INDIANS. 

NtruBER OP Whites Khxed by Indians — In- 
crease OP Military — Nttmber op Indians 
Killed and Captured by Militaby — Kino 
Woolsey's Account of Lieutenant Mc- 
Ci;eave's Scout — Fight at Habqua Hala 
SpRiNfls — Colonel Barnard's Fight With 
Apaches Under Cochise. 

General Devin's report for 1868 shows that 
in the Northern District, in forty-six expedi- 
tions, one hundred and forty-six Indians had 
been killed, sixty-one wounded, and thirty-five 
captured. In the south little had been done dur- 
ing that time. Several new posts were estab- 
liEibed and much work was done at the forts. 
The force this year was two regiments of in- 
fantry, and nine of cavalry. In Pima County 
for the year ending July 17th, 1869, fifty-two 
whites were killed and eighteen wounded by 
Apaches. In the next year forty-seven were 
killed and six wounded, besides destruction of 
property in every part of the Territory. 
Hardly a freighter, stockman, or farmer, that 
did not suffer from Indian raids. 

The "Prescott Miner," of March €th, 1869, 
contains the following item : 

' ' Indians continuing depredations aroimd 
Prescott and all the adjacent towns, killing 
citizens and running off stock." 

This paper, on the same date, notes the suc- 
cession of General Ord in command of the De- 



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24 HISTORY OP ABIZONA. 

partment of California, and says: "The num- 
ber of companies in Arizona is increased to 
thirty-six, which will be re-enforced by eight 
companies to be forwarded as soon as possible. 
The number of troops when the re-enforce- 
ments arrive, will be about eighteen hundred. 
The operation of the troops during the last 
quarter in Northern Arizona has been of con- 
siderable interest. The scouts of General Alex- 
ander, Colonel Price, Major Clendenin, and 
Lieutenants Hasson, Sommerbee and Wells, re- 
sulted in the capture of numerous Indians and 
the killing of sixty-four, and the destruction 
of the Tillages and property of several warlike 
parties of Indians who have been committing 
outrages and killing the settlers in the Terri- 
tory. The war parties of Indians are mostly 
roving Apaches, some of them being f roin the 
hostile branch of the Hualapai tribe." 

In a letter dated from the Vulture Mine, 
July 12th, 1869, King Woolsey gives an account 
of the scout of Lieutenant Wm, MeCleave of 
the 8th U. S. Cavalry, a description of which 
has been given in Voliune 3 of this History as 
related by William Fourr. The following is 
King Woolsey 's report: 

"On July 6th they arrived at Harqua Hala 
Springs. An Indian appeared on a high point 
overlooking our camp, waved his gun high in 
the air, and soimded the warwhoop, all of which 
was a signal of battle. Then opened one of the 
most terrific Indian fights I have ever had the 
pleasure of witnessing. 

"After the first half hour it was plain that 
we could drive them at will, but the ^old man,* 



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EXPEDITIONS AOAmffT INDIANS. 25 

as the boys called McGleave, thought it best to 
keep them close to us until we wanted to retire 
to the plain below. Our men fought Indian 
fashion, every man from behind a rock. Had 
they been exposed they would not have lasted 
ten minutes. At six o'clock orders were given 
to saddle and pack up. The Indians saw the 
move and rushed furiously to the charge. It 
was a dear charge for them, and during the few 
minutes it lasted, we hurt more Indians than 
we had in the previous two hours fighting. 
Numbers fell and were dragged back to the 
rocks, and three lay dead in full view. We had 
one man wounded severely in the head. "We 
forced a passage to the plain below, and camped 
for the night. At daylight the cliffs at the en- 
trance of the canyon and below the water were 
black with the red devils, apparently busily for- 
tifying. Knowing that we were compelled to 
have water, they were using every exertion to 
prevent us from getting it. At eight o'clock 
A M., after having graaed our horses and break- 
fasted, orders were given to pack, saddle, and 
fall in. After detailing a rear guard, and every 
fourth man to hold or lead horses, we only had 
thirteen soldiers and two citizens to face the 
enemy ; this small band was drawn up in a line 
and, after a few stirring words from our Gen- 
eral, we deployed on foot. The Apaches wel- 
comed us with loud shouts, waving bright lances 
and guns in the morning sxm. They had evi- 
dently been reinforced during the night and, 
being now well fortified, were eager for the con- 
test. We marched directly toward the fortified 
hill until within five hunti-ed yards of it. We 



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26 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

diverged to the right, crossing the canyon and 
gaining the high ground on the north. This 
move was executed in full view of the enemy, 
who appeared to be completely stupefied. As 
soon as we faced about and bore down .toward 
the water, they sullenly left their fort, hurried 
around, and crawled into the rocks overhanging 
the water. As they were shifting from the for- 
tification, we had an opportimity of approxi- 
mating their nimiber, and I think that at least 
sixty left the hill and passed into the rocks, 
where also were others. Our train was halted 
within four hundred yards of the water, and we 
were ordered to advance. Our advance was a 
succession of charges or rushes from one cluster 
of rocks to another, one half of our force cov- 
ering while the other half charged. In about 
one hour the water was cleared, and about one- 
half of our fighting force had crossed the canyon 
and occupied the rocks lately in p(»session of 
the savages. 

"The train and horses were now ordered to 
the water. The Indians rallied and made a des- 
perate attempt to regain their lost ground, but 
tailed, losing one of their chiefs, quite a number 
of their warriors, and leaving us masters of the 
field. Thus ended two of the hardest contested 
Indian fights I have ever witnessed. I think 
they outnumbered us the last day at least five 
to one. The fighting was almost entirely done 
by the soldiers as, besides myself, there was but 
one citizen, William Fourr, in the fight. Our 
leader proved himself worthy the great reputa- 
tion he bears. He was everywhere, and always 
at the right place. ' ' 



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EXPEDITIONS AGAINST INDIANS. 27 

On August 14th, 1869, General Devin trans- 
ferred his headquarters to Tucson. The "Miner" 
of October 30th, 1869, prints a letter under date 
of October 13th, 1869, from Tucson, giving an 
account of Indian depredations in that locality, 
and especially one in whidi the band was headed 
by Cochise. The last paragraph of this letter 
is as follows : 

"Colonel Barnard has . now two companies 
under his command, with orders to follow Co- 
chise's trail by day and night, wherever it may 
lead." 

In the "Miner" of December 12th, 1869, is the 
report of Colonel P. F. Barnard of his fight with 
the Apaches imder Cochise : 

"On the 16th of October Colonel Barnard 
started from Camp Bowie with sixty-one men 
and fifteen days' rations, marching entirely by 
night, which rendered it difficult to follow the 
trail of the Indians. On the 20th he came upon 
a camp which appeared to have been deserted 
but a day or so, where he halted the command, 
not being able to see the trail. The Colonel 
galloped into a canyon, while the guide with five 
men climbed toward a rocky mesa. The Colonel, 
looking back to, see how the men were getting 
up the bill, saw several Indians running for the 
crest. He got back as quick as his horse would 
carry him, and ordered his men to tie their 
horses to the trees and get to tiie tops of the hills 
as quickly as possible, leaving six men with 
the horses. Before the men had reached half 
way up the hUl, the Indians had opened fire 
on the guide and the five men with him, com- 
pelling them to take shelter behind rocks. At this, 



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28 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA. 

firing commenced at all parts of the rocks above 
us. The troops were placed about thirty yards 
from the ledge occupied by the Indians, which 
enabled them to shoot arrows at any person 
who might show himself. Here two men were 
killed and one wounded. The men then made 
themselves secure behind the rocks, and the 
sharp-shooting commenced in earnest and was 
kept up for a half hour, when the Colonel gave 
the command of the troops occupying the rocks 
to Lieutenant Lafferty, while he disposed of the 
rear guard and pack train which was just com- 
ing in. When the Colonel reached the place 
where he had left the horses, he found that they 
were greatly exposed to the enemy's fire, and, 
it being impossible, to advance, Lieutenant Laf- 
ferty was ordered to fall back and bring the 
dead with him, which he was unable to do. One 
man in coming down the hill, fell over the rocks 
and broke his leg. The animals were then re- 
moved to a place of safety, leaving the Lieuten- 
ant and a few men to protect the dead bodies 
until something could be done to drive the In- 
dians from the rocks. The Colonel with twenty 
men moved to the left in hopes of being able to 
get in the rear of the enemy, but found every 
point on the mesa well guarded, and as he got 
within gunshot, they would open fire upon him. 
He then took thirty men and went to ttie right, 
determined to get to the top of the mesa if pos- 
sible. This movement was made around a hill 
so that the Indians could not see him until he 
reached the place that he intended to charge 
from, where he foimd a deep canyon that he 
had ti) lead his horses down and up before reach- 



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EXFEDITIONS AOAINST INDIANS. 29 

ing the top of the mesa. He had not more than 
made his appearance here until they commenced 
firing upon him. He then gave his first sergeant 
fifteen men, with orders to occupy the hill near- 
est the mesa and try to make the Indians leave 
their stronghold near the dead men. This fire 
had great effect on them as several men were 
killed from this point. He again returned to 
the place where the animals were left and gave 
Captain Adams all the men he could spare, 
witii orders to report to Lieutenant Lafferty 
to make a charge and get the bodies of the dead 
men. Just as Captain Adams arrived and was 
about to report to Lieutenant Laflferty, he, Lieu- 
tenant Lafferty, was shot, the ball taking effect 
in the cheek, breaking and carrying away the 
greater portion of the lower jaw, the bullet and 
broken bones greatly lacerating his face. Suc- 
cess was now made a toss, and there being no 
place where the command could camp in this 
vicinity out of gunshot range of the hill, besides 
which the whole country being thickly settled 
with timber, night appeared very dark, as it 
had been raining all day, the Colonel thought 
it best to withdraw and not lose more men in 
the vain attempt to dislodge the enemy, which 
coidd not have been done with twice the number 
of men. In his report the Colonel says; 'The 
men all fought well, and no men could have 
done better than they did. I feel certain that 
I could not have dislodged the Indians with a 
hundred and fifty men without losing at least 
one-half of them. The Indians were brave, but 
many of them must have been killed and 
wounded.' He is returning to the place of ac- 



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30 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

tion on the night of the 24th, with every man 
mounted. He says further: 'The enlisted In- 
dians you have sent me will be ,of great assist- 
ance to me in finding the camp at ui^ht, and, 
I hope, in a more accessible place. I will march 
altogether by night, when I can follow the trail. 
In contending with Cochise I do not think I 
exaggerate when I say that we are contending 
with one of the most intelligent hostile Indians 
on the continent. ' 

"Eighteen Indians are known to have been 
killed during the fight, and in Colonel Barnard's 
command two privates were killed, and Lieuten- 
ant LafEerty was wounded." 



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A. P. BANTA. 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDUN OOTTNTRT. 



CHAPTER III. 

EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTEY. 

Santa's Discovert of "Meteoric Crater'* — 
Banta, Cooley and Doih> Organize Expe- 
dition to Hunt "Doc Thorn Mines"— 
Banes op Lutle Colorado Used as Neit- 
TRAL Ground by Indians for Trading Pur- 
poses — ^Abrival of Expedition in Apache- 
land — Objection op PiNAia to Progress op 
Expedition — Expedition Retreats — Ap- 
proach op the Military — Feats op Indian 
Foot Runners — Organization op Peace 
Party to Talk With Military — Peace 
Party Arrested by Military — Release op 
Peace Party — Military Officers Enter- 
tained BY Apaches. 

A. F. Banta figured as prominently in the early 
history of Arizona as any other American. As we 
have seen, he eame into tiie Territory vrith the Gu- 
bernatorial Party, and his activities thereafter 
cover almost every line of work. In 1866 he was 
adopted into the Zuni tribe. He was a scout for 
Gteneral Crook, and in 1871 discovered what is 
now known as Meteoric Crater, in Crater Can- 
yon, while carrying dispatches from Fort Whip- 
ple. Banta 's own story of the discovery follows : 

"In 1871 1 was acting as scout and guide for 
Lieutenant Wheeler, who was at the head of 
an expedition exploring tiie Canyon Diablo. I 
was always scouting out around whenever the 
expedition was in camp, and one day I came 
to the edge of a great saucer-shaped hole in the 



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32 HIBTOBT OF ABIZONA. 

ground. The more I looked across it the fur- 
ther away the other side seemed to be. I, of 
course, had my rifle with me, and took a notion 
to fire a shot across the hole. My first shot I 
shot almost straight across the hole. To my 
astonishment I did not see any dirt fly on the 
other side, but did see a cloud of dust rise from 
the bottom of the hole, about half way across. 
I then fired another shot, at a considerable ele- 
vation, but it didn't reach across. I then fired 
a third shot, at a still higher elevation, and it 
barely reached the other side. Upon my return 
to camp I reported my discovery to Lieut. 
Wheeler, who investigated it, and called it 
Franklin's Hole, by which name it was known 
for many years, and which it is sometimes called 
to this day. I was known as Charley Franklin 
in those days, and Lieut. Wheeler named it after 
me." 

In Volume 2 of this History, on page 241, a 
short biography of Mr. Banta is given, in which 
it is stated that he was a member of the 10th 
Legislature, from Apache County. This is an 
error, for Apache Coimty was not then created. 
During the session of the 11th Legislature, Mr. 
Banta was a member of the "Tliird House," 
and was instrmnental to a large degree in the 
formation of Apache County, in which county 
he was appointed Probate judge. He was a 
member of the 12th Legislature, under the name 
of C. A. Franklin. His name was afterward 
changed to A. F. Banta. 

Banta does not tell us why he changed his 
name, and, in accordance with his ethics, it is 
unwise, and rude to ask. 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO DJDUN OOUNTBT. 33 

In July, 1869, Banta, with C. E. Cooley and 
Henry Wood Dodd, organized an expedition 
to look for the Doc Thorn Mines. They had 
with them a few Coyotero Indians for protec- 
tion and guidance. Before they left the Indian 
village, Captain Cressy, of the 3rd U. S. Cav- 
alry, stationed at new Fort Wingate, witii a de- 
tacmnent of soldiers and a guide, was sent over 
to inspect the outfits of the three prospectors, 
which he did on the morning of their departure, 
July 12th, 1^9. The purpose of this inspec- 
tion was to prevent illicit traffic in arms and 
ammunition with hostile Indians. 

Says Mr. Banta: "Of our three selves, each 
one bad his pet object in the consummation of 
this most remarkable expedition and wild goose 
chase, viz.: Cooley was for seeking the Doc 
Thorn placers, in the existence of which he was 
a firm believer; Dodd to escape, for a time at 
least, his oldtime and implacable enemy, John 
Barleycorn ; the writer, at that time being young 
and fuU of the Quixote spirit for adventure, and 
not caring a tinker's wink where he went or 
didn't went, simply went along as a matter of 
course; anything tor adventure and the glad, 
free life in the open. 

"In the great extent of territory which has 
been subdivided into the counties of Coconino, 
Navajo, Apache, Greenlee, Gila, and a part of 
Graham, any one of which is much larger than 
is many an eastern state, all segregated from 
old Yavapai county, mother of counties, since 
the year 1869, and which was an almost un- 
known and imexplored region of mountain- 
ous country, not a single habitation of civiliza- 



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31 HffiTORY OF ARIZOXA. 

tion existed. But over all the Apache was the 
undisputed despot, who defied the white man to 
intrude or bring his crime-begetter, civilization. 
The Little Colorado, in its 1^ miles of sinuous 
course to a junction with the Rio Colorado 
Grande, near the northern base of the San 
Francisco mountain, did not contain a settle- 
ment. The present towns of St Johns, 
Springerville, and all others, even Fort Apache, 
had not been thought of at this time. Never- 
theless the Little Colorado possesses an imique 
distinction among all the rivers of the great 
southwest; not on accoimt of any scenic terri- 
tory through which it flows, although its great 
canyon near the San Francisco mountain is sec- 
ond in grandeur only to the Grand ; nor to any 
medicinal or sanitative properties of its waters, 
but to the fact that from time immemorial, and 
since the extinction of a once semi-civilized peo- 
ple that dwelt here, this stream has been recog- 
nized by all warring tribes of Indians to be neu- 
tral territory, and immune from the whoop of 
savage warfare. Between hostilities, the vari- 
ous tribes occupying the territory upon either 
side of the Little Colorado river, met in armed 
neutrality on their respective banks of the river^ 
to barter and sell their simple commodities. On 
the summit of a distant mountain peak peace 
signal smokes were made, and at once trading 
parties were organized and armed to meet the 
coming Apaches at the river. The writer ac- 
companied a party of Zuni Indians on one of 
these expeditions in the summer of 1866, and at 
other times thereafter. 



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EXPEDITIONa INTO INDUN COUNTBT. 35 

"Notwithstanding the peaceful nature of 
these 'trading trips' it was necessary at all times 
to be prepared to fight a hostile party if met 
while en route to the neutral ground. Every 
precaution was adopted to guard against sur- 
prise, and, if a small party, to deceive the 
enemy as to nxunbers. At night a good watch 
was kept. Do you know how Indians 'stand 
guard'? Never like the fool white man who 
goes stumhling about in the darkness, making 
more or less racket, thus enabling a skulking 
foe to hand him a bunch of lead, or an arrow, 
the silent messenger of death. No, the Indians 
never do these fool stunts ; on the contrary, all 
lie down in a circle, and the more warriors, the 
larger the circle, and vice versa. In this posi- 
tion most any noise can be heard, and at a much 
greater distance than in an upright position. 
Lying within reach of one another, the watch- 
time divided so as to cover all for that duty, the 
watch starts on its round ; one lies there awake, 
listening, and when his time is up, he touches 
ttie one next, and No. 1 goes to sleep while 'next' 
listens, and so on aroimd the circle, and when 
tile last in the circle has completed his watdi, 
it is time to move. In case of an alarm the 
touch goes aroimd the circle almost instantly 
and every warrior is wide awake and listening. 
If necessary, the chief gives his orders, and 
likely a few scouts are sent out, while the others 
slip to cover like silent shadows or noiseless 
spectres. The writer has, at divers times, 
formed one of the xmits in the circle above de- 
scribed. 



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36 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA. 

"Following the old Apache-Zuni trail, at noon 
the third day out from Zuni, we reached the 
Little Colorado river, at the point of rocks 
which juts out into the river perhaps a mile to 
the east of where Colonel Himt's old ranch was 
subsequently located. After crossing the river 
into Apacheland, noon camp was made, and 
Cooley caught a mess of bonytails for our din- 
ner. That night we made camp about the 
middle of Concho wash, which was thickly cov- 
ered with grass and willows, the grass being 
more than knee high. Among the willows I 
foimd an Apache wickiup, and a heavy storm 
of rain coming on, I slept the night in the 
Apache house. Without further incident de- 
serving of mention, our party arrived at the 
home of the Coyotero Apaches on the Carizo 
Creek, late in the afternoon of July 18th, 1669. 
"Coming with the diief and some of his best 
and most teusty braves, we were most cordially 
received by the people in the rancheria. By a 
system of signals used by all Apaches, our com- 
ing was known at the Coyotero camp two days 
before we arrived there, and was known by 
tribes farther to the westward, so on the morn- 
ing following our arrival at the Carizo, several 
Pinal and White Motmtain Apaches came into 
camp to 'size us up,' having been sent to do so 
by their respective chiefs. By this system of 
signalling, news is transmitted to all parts of 
the Apa(5ieria inside of twenty-four hours. 

"It became necessary that we remain at the 
Coyotero camp for several days to recuperate 
ourselves .and animals; to better study the sen- 
timent of the Apaches, and to organize a suit- 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTET. 37 

able party before we attempted to invade the 
country of the fierce Finals to the westward. 
In the meantime the women and girls bxiilt a 
good wickiup for our use, which was well 
thatched, dry and comfortable. 

*'My outside clothing consisted of a suit of 
buckskin and moccasins in which I slept every 
night. My saddle animal was tethered close to 
me at night, and on my saddle, which I used 
for a pillow, I had a canteen of fresh water and 
a small buckskin sack, holding nearly a quart, 
filled with pinole (parched cracked com or 
wheat), on which I was good for three or four 
himdred miles of travel. Being always ready 
for an emergency, ever watchfiu and alert, the 
Apaches named me Bah-dah-cleshy, the Gray 
Fox, and I was pretty well known to many of 
the old-timers as * Buckskin Charlie.' In the 
old days it was never considered good form to 
ask anyone his name ; as a matter of fact, to do 
so, was a piece of blankety-blank impertinence. 
Wherefore, I have known many men for more 
than twenty years, without once hearing their 
names spoken. 

"The simple life of the Apache, as he was in 
his native element before contamination and 
utter degradation by the noble ( t) white man, 
was one of proud manhood and independence. 
He was not, as now with schools and civilization 
( f ) the dirty, immoral vagabond that he is to- 
day. Had Alexander Pope witnessed, as the 
writer has witnessed, the degrading evolution 
of the Indian trying to imitate civilization in 
his nondescript habiliments, the great poet 
would have said more than: 'Lo, the poor In- 



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38 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

dian, whose untutored mind sees God in the 
clouds and hears him in the winds. * He would 
have unmercifully scored the 'noble' white man 
for his debauchery of the simple red man. 

"Having gained the confidence and consequent 
friendship of the Coyoteros, we secured a party 
of warriors, including the chief and his brother, 
El Diablo, also the interpreter, Miguel, and one 
middle-aged woman, to accompany us on our 
phantasmal expedition in search of a more than 
El Dorado, the 'Doc Thorn gold placers.' 

"Cooley had obtained from Doctor Thorn, 
before leaving the Rio Grande, all necessary 
data as to 'landmarks,' etc, which included the 
'Sombrero Butte,' the Sierra 'Pintados' and 
the 'Stone Corral.' As Doc Thorn was a cap- 
tive among the Apaches in the late fifties, by 
whom and for what purpose was' the 'stone cor- 
ral' built? It was an old structure in Thorn's 
time. A legend of the Santa Catalina moun- 
tains, eastward of Tucson, says that at one time 
the Jesuit priests worked a veiy rich mine in 
those mountains. Thirty-nine years ago Johnny 
Hart and the writer, on a prospecting trip into 
the Santa Catalinas, foimd an old stone house 
and stone corral in a deep canyon, but at the 
time knew nothing of the 'legend'; it simply 
excited our wonder and no more. 

"The day set for our departure arrived. We 
bade our Coyotero friends goodby, and hit the 
trail leading over the range to the eastward. 
On the afternoon of the second day out from 
the Coyotero camp on the Carizo, we made camp 
in the ^ade of a large cottonwood tree, near 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 39 

the east bank of Gibicu Creek. At this time 
the Cibieu Creek was the division line of terri- 
tory between Coyotero and Pinal Apaches, and 
therefore it was neutral ground. In early times, 
and in fact, in all times, it was the imiversal 
custom among the American Indians to have 
their hunting grounds strictly defined, each 
tribe possessing territorial rights, and for a 
member of a neighboring or other tribe to tres- 
pass thereon was a casus belli, and one of the 
principal causes for the many intertribal wars. 
It was also customary to designate certain 
places as neutral or common groimds, where 
members of various tribes could meet to barter 
and sell. It was absolutely necessary for all 
parties to respect the neutrality pact, otherwise 
all intercourse between the people must cease. 

"Prior to the Kit Carson campaign against 
the Navahos, and for some years thereafter, it 
was no uncommon sight to see a party of Nava- 
hos encamped on the north bank of the Little 
Colorado River, and a similar party of Apaches 
on the south bank, having met on this 'neutral' 
strip to exchange commodities; although at the 
time the bitterest hatred existed between the 
two camps. There are other reasons for these 
'neutrality grounds' but I have said enough, 
and will not go further into the details in this 
matter. 

"The following morning our semi-war party 
were in no rush to break camp at the Cibieu, 
as, before leaving this neutral strip, it was neces- 
sary to have some definite plan of action in case 
of war. before we crossed the Rubicon and 
plunged into, as it was afterwards proved, a hos- 



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40 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA. 

tile territory. Therefore, the forenoon was de- 
voted mostly to 'war-talk.' Whilst engaged 
discussing the pros and cons of a prospective 
war, we were not a little surprised to see in 
our midst a fierce-looklDg Apache brave, splen- 
didly mounted bareback upon a fine black stallion. 
He carried a long lance, and his whole body was 
naked, except the 'indispensable,' painted in 
the war colors of the Apache nation. The war- 
rior's appearance was so sudden and silent, he 
seemed to have dropped from the heavens. 
When we first observed this strange Indian, he 
was silently and stoically sitting on his horse, not 
having as yet uttered a word, nor did he speak 
until first addressed by our chief. After an 
exchange of a few gutteral words with our chief, 
and a significant gesture with his lance, he re- 
crossed me Cibicu and disappeared westward 
into the territory of the Finals. 

"After the swift departure of the Pinal war- 
rior, our Apache allies had a war talk among 
themselves, and immediately at its close, through 
the interpreter Miguel, we were informed of 
their decision. The chief said: 'Our visitor 
was a Pinal brave and his mission from his 
chief, Bah-dah-clah-nah, Black Wolf, was to 
warn us that further progp^ss westward into 
Pinal territory was prohibited ; that if we per- 
sisted it involved war; that his people kmew 
our object was pesh-la-chi, yellow metal, which 
they did not want us to find ; that if you i)eople 
found gold, your people, meaning Americans, 
would cover the whole country and take posses- 
sion as they did of the lands of the Hualapais.' 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 41 

He had reference to the Prescott section of the 
Territory. 

"Here was a dilemma, though not wholly un- 
expected to be sure, but a real situation con- 
fronted us, and it was no theory by any means 
and it necessitated another, or supplemental 
'war-talk* by our little party. This we pro- 
ceeded to do in the usual manner, sitting in a 
circle, with a small fire in the center of the ring. 
The customary smoking having been indulged 
in, the Apaches talked over the situation for 
perhaps a half hour, in which they decided on 
a plan of action. The chief did about all the 
talking, as he discussed the predicament, and 
the only signs occasionally made by the other 
members of the tribe were evidently those of 
approval. Having finished his talk to his peo- 
ple, the chief turned to us three Americans and, 
through the interpreter, said: 'The question of 
going on in defiance of the Finals would be left 
to our decision ; if we said go, they were willing 
to go; that the Coyoteros (referring to them- 
selves), were all true warriors, accustomed to 
following the war trail, and were not like timid 
fawns, arfraid of their own shadows, and if the 
Finals had decided for war, then let it be war 
to the death, for they did not possess any more 
skill, endurance or bravery, man for man, than 
the Coyoteros; but,' said the chief, 'I leave the 
matter to you; I have spoken and you have 
heard and understand my words.' 

"It was evident that our Apache allies were 
perfectly sincere, and it was further evident 
to us that they did not care to assume the respon- 
sibility of a war with the Finals, or else they 



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^ HISTOBY OF ABIZONA. 

wished to rely upon the (supposed) superior 
judgment of the 'white man.' Having heard 
the talk made b^ the Apadie chief, we talked 
over our situation, and it was unanimously 
agreed between our three selves that we had 
bumped up against a serious difficulty. 

"The situation presented itself this wise: 
There were three of us in the Apacheria, sur- 
rounded on all sides, for a distance of from one 
to two hundred miles, by hostile foes who, at 
that very moment, were fighting to the death 
for their hereditary rights, and for their lives 
and for their liberties, and that, too, with our 
own nationality, the 'white skins.' However, 
Webster truthfully defines the so-called Ameri- 
can savage when he says: 'The savages of 
America, when uncorrupted by the vices of the 
civilized man,, are remarkable for their hospi- 
tality to strangers, and for their truth, fidelity, 
and gratitude to their friends, but implacably 
cruel tmd revengeful toward their enemies.' 
But, in this matter of cruelty and savagery, the 
civilized Christian man, with his inquisitional 
instruments of torture, and his witch tortures 
and burnings, and other methods of cruelty, is 
so far ahead of the so-called savage in devilish- 
ness, that he can give the red man cards and 
spades in the game, and then win out, thiunbs 
down. This is a bitter pill for the 'civilized' 
egotist to swallow; nevertheless it is the gospel 
truth, and cannot be truthfully contradicted. 

"In our deliberations we arrived at the con- 
clusion that a fight with the Finals was an abso- 
lute certainty so soon as we passed westward 
beyond the limits of the neutral strip; that to 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 43 

involve our Apache friends in a war with a 
neighboring tribe and other tribes westward, and 
solely in a selfish interest of our own, was hardly 
the square way to act, no matter what amount 
of yellow inducements were or might be in front. 
Therefore, we told the diief that notwithstand- 
ing the well known bravery of himself and his 
warriors, we had decided it was prudent, con- 
sidering the smallness of our party, to execute 
at once a 'masterly retreat' back to the Carizo 
creek. 

''Whether or not it was the prospect of avoid- 
ing a fight with the Finals, or the returning 
to the rancheria and their women and children, 
I cannot say, but I do say they seemed pleased 
with our decision to take the back trail. The 
pack animals were immediately loaded and the 
'retreat' began, with more or less precipitancy. 
StilJ, I don't wish to insinuate that our party 
was at all timorous, and the haste made at the 
beginning of the return march may have been 
caused by the burros being anxious to return 
home and be relieved of their packs. This 
seems to be the most plausible reason for the 
fast time made in returning. 

"In due time we were again occupying our 
wickiup in the rancheria on the Carizo. The 
day following our inglorious skiddoo back from 
the Cibicu, reports of a big military expedition 
penetrating the Apacheria from the south be- 
gan to reach us by Apache runners. The char- 
acter of this military expedition was, of course, 
wholly unknown to us, we being at that time 
at least six days' march to the southward of 
our Carizo camp. The first runner came into 



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44 HI8T0BY OF ABIZONA. 

camp some time during the night of July 23rd» 
and the following morning all were informed 
of the ^proach of an armed force ; this runner, 
by the way, in proof of his report, displayed a 
badly shattered arm, which had been almost ^ot 
away by a soldier or other person along with the 
troops. Of course, in a crude way, we fixed 
his arm with improvised flints and bandages, 
and our surgical work proved successful, for 
the man got well and recovered the use of his 
arm. At this juncture of affairs, Cooley and 
Dodd became seriously alarmed; as for myself, 
knowing the troops to be so far away, I had not 
the slightest imeasiness, for I never thought 
once of danger from our own Apaches. On the 
contrary, both Cooley and Dodd feared our 
Apaches would kill us in retaliation for the kill- 
ings by the soldiers. In accordance with the 
generally accepted notion of the red man, our 
massacre would naturally follow ; hence the rea- 
sonableness in the alarm felt by Cooley and 
Dodd. 

"The evening of the 24th, another runner 
came in and reported the soldiers were still 
advancing, and tlmt they were numerous enough 
to cover ^e whole country. On the evening of 
the 25th, another messenger arrived, who re- 
ported 'the soldiers are many, and when break- 
ing camp this morning many of them were al- 
ready on the top of a high mesa before all had 
left tiieir camp. ' Of course four troops of cav- 
alry with their Indian allies and a big train of 
pack-mules, all strung out in single file along 
an Indian trail, must naturally make a very 
long and picturesque line of blue coats, their 



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ESFEDTnONa INTO INDIAN COUNTBT. 45 

arms and accoutrements glinting in the rays of 
the morning sun. The evening of the 26th an- 
other runner came in and said the troops were 
still headed in our direction, and he estimated 
their number at about four hundred men. 
Early in the evening of the 27th one of our 
Apaches came in and said: 'The soldiers are en- 
camped at the jimction of two streams, ' giving 
their Apache names, which have slipped my 
memory, but are now known by the whites as 
the east and west forks of White river, and he 
had talked, at a long distance, with a 'cautivo,' 
the interpreter for the military; and that he 
imderstood the interpreter to say: 'His party, 
(the military), wished to see all the Indians and 
have a peace talk with them.' 

"I have gone into detail in the matter of the 
daily movements of the military in order to show 
how utterly impossible it was for the troops to 
surprise or capture our camp. Had our people 
known the falsity lying b^iind the white flag 
displayed by the interpreter, and that his words 
were 'forked like a snake's tongue,' the troops 
could not have found a living sotu in our ranche- 
ria had we any reason or desire to escape from 
them. It can readily be seen that our camp 
was daily informed of the movements of the 
troops, fully five days prior to their encampment 
at the junction of the east and west forks of the 
White river, on the 27th day of July, 1869, 
thirty-five or forty miles from our rancheria on 
the Garizo. 

"The foregoing daily reports made by the 
runners may appear to many to he incredible, 
but to illustrate the great Stances that were 



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46 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

covered by Indian foot-runners, I will cite feats 
performed by the Yuma Indian foot-runners : 

*'In the old days of the Colorado Steam Navi- 
gation Company at Yuma, it was the custom 
of the company agent at Yuma, Captain Pol- 
hamus, after the river steamer had been gone 
two days, three days were usually required, to 
dispatch a message to the agent at Port Ysabel, 
at the head of the Gulf of California. This mes- 
sage was given to a Yuma, who carried it afoot 
across a sandy desert a distance of ninety miles, 
reaching his destination the same day the river 
steamer was due to arrive, but invariably in 
advance of the boat. The Indian always cov- 
ered the distance between sunrise and sunset, 
performing the same feat on his return. An- 
other celebrated Yuma runner cleared his 121 
miles between sunup and sundown, and the fol- 
lowing day repeated the same feat. This was 
done under a prearranged test case made by 
Americans at Yuma. 

"Chief Es-cah-pah came to our wickiup and 
requested Cooley and the writer to accompany 
him to the camp of the soldiers, to have a 'peace- 
talk' with the *hig chief of the soldiers.* We 
promised the chief that we would go, but Dodd 
objected to the plan and declared that he would 
not remain behind in the Indian encampment. 
Dodd did not care to be left alone with the 
Apadies for the reason, as he said, 'the soldiera 
had been killing the Indians at every opportu- 
nity, and destroying their corn and other crops, 
and the Indians might retaliate by killing me.* 
It was necessary that one of us should remain in 
camp to look after our common and personal 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 47 

I>lunder, and to act in case some unforeseen con- 
tingency should come up. Therefore, I said to 
Dodd, 'You and Charley go with the chief, and 
I will stay here with the Indians. ' 

"The chief accepted the change and smilingly 
said: 'I did want my younger brother with me, 
but he is without suspicion or fear, and shall 
remain with my people.' All matters being sat- 
isfactorily arranged, the 'peace party,' consist- 
ing of Chief Es-cah-pah, El Diablo (the chief's 
oldest brother), the cautivo, Miguel, as inter- 
preter, C. E. Cooley, and Henry Wood Dodd, 
started for the camp of the unknown soldiery, 
forty miles away to tiie southwest. 

"Our 'peace party' reached the soldiers' camp 
in the afternoon of the same day, but instead of 
being received with open arms and crowned with 
white blossoms, they were immediately sur- 
rounded and disarmed by the troops and a strong 
guard placed over them, with orders to shoot 
down anyone or all of them should any move be 
made to escape. 

"Here was a dilenama of which our Apaches 
in the rancheria and myself were in total igno- 
rance. Huero, the sub-chief, left in charge of 
our rancheria on the Carizo, sent out scouts to 
take note of all movements in and about the en- 
campment of the soldiers. The scouts, return- 
ing at intervals, reported that our peace party 
had undoubtedly been shot as not one of them 
could be seen in the soldiers' camp, and that 
the soldiers continued to fire upon any Apaches 
who exposed themselves. This situation of af- 
fairs naturally placed me in a very embarrassing 
position, to say the least, alone in the camp of 



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4& HISIOBY OF ARIZONA. 

a wild, savage people, any one of whom might 
plug me at any moment, in retaliation for a 
relative killed by the troops. However, I 
deemed them a reasonable people; that tttey 
knew it was the original intention of the chief 
to have me along with his peace party and why 
it was otherwise ordered; that had I gone with 
the peace pariy my fate would have been the 
same. Therefore, tlie Apaches must know that I 
was no party to the 'white flag treachery' and 
the supposed murder of the peace party. Tak- 
ing this view of the situation I felt no alarm in 
the least, and carried myself as one of their own 
people. I talked with tiie sub-chief, Huero, and 
endeavored to convince him how improbable 
was the supposition that our peace party was 
killed, and how all would be well in the end. 

"A little while before the sun set behind the 
range which bordered our rancheria on the west, 
and the third day after the departure of our 
peace party, Huero came to me and said: 'A 
large body of soldiers and some Apaches are 
now about two miles away;' that he did not see 
any one of our people with the troops, and, 
therefore, they must have been killed. I argued 
that it was unreasonable to suppose them to be 
murdered; that undoubtedly our friends were 
along with the approaching troops, but he had 
failed to distinguidi them, owing to distance and 
they being mixed up with so many people. We 
discussed the situation ; Huero was for leaving 
the rancheria at once, saying: 'We can easily 
get away from the soldiers,' and asked my ad- 
vice about the matter. I argued with Huero 
against his plan of running away; that to do so 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTBT. 49 

looked bad ; and indicated a cause for doing so. 
Furthermore, to abandon the place at the ap- 
proach of the troops would endanger the lives 
of our peace party, all of whom would be held as 
hostages for our return, and would be cowardly 
abandoned by us to their fate. My coimsels pre- 
vailed, and not an Indian attempted to leave the 
rancberia. When the soldiers appeared in 
sight, one woman whose husband had quite re- 
cently been killed, became so frightened, she 
picked up her baby and fled. 

"Seeing the troops yet a quarter of a mile 
away, Huero took" my towel, which hung on the 
comer of our wickiup, and fastened one end of 
it to a stick, and the other end of the stick he 
tied with twisted bow strings into the top of a 
dwarf cedar near the soum end of the Uttle 
mesa, upon which was situate the rancheria, and 
perhaps fifty yards from our camp. When the 
troops were within about three hundred yards 
I walked out towards the soutii end of the mesa, 
where lay an oak log upon which I stood that I 
might have a better view of the approadiing 
troops. All the Apaches, men, women, and chil- 
dren, followed me and stood about the log, the 
sub-chief by my side on the log. It was about 
sunset when the troops filed past us at a distance 
of perhaps forty yards. As they passed I 
looked for the members of our party but could 
not see them, nor did Huero see them, and when 
the last man had passed, Huero said, * Where are 
our people f I replied, 'Damfino, we must have 
overlooked them. * The troops made camp 
about a hundred and fifty yards north of and 



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50 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

above our rancheria. During the passing by of 
the troops I failed to note a single friendly ex- 
pression on the face of &nj one of them ; on the 
contrary, there was a sinister look and only a 
sidelong glance of the eyes towards me and the 
Indians; yet, I was not suspicious, and attrib- 
uted the ominous expressions to fatigue. Soon 
after the soldiers made camp our peace party 
came into our camp, and, as a consequence, there 
was much quiet rejoicing among our people, 
dissipating all thoughts of treachery on the part 
of the troops. 

"The officers with this troop of horse were 
Captain Barry in command, lAeut. Frank Up- 
ham, since retired as Major, who died a few 
years ago at Santa Monica, California, and 
Lieut Calhoun. Also with the troops were two 
civilians, one acting as interpreter, and the other 
one was George Cooler, for many years a resi- 
dent of Tucson, but who recently died at the 
Soldiers Home, Santa Monica, California. The 
twelve (tame) Apaches, including their chief 
Manuel, were along to do the trailing and mur- 
dering stunts. 

"That evening the officers came down to our 
camp and had an Indian supper with us, the 
Apache women and girls, all of whom were more 
or less scantily clad, doing the culinary act. The 
guilelessness and wholesouled hospitality of the 
females, in their simple endeavor to entertain 
and to please the strangers, were imsuspicious of 
the fact that they and their little ones were to be 
most foully murdered on the morrow. When I 
looked on this, and that nif^t learned of the in- 
tended massacre to take place early on the fol- 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTBT. 51 

lowing moming, my very soul revolted at the 
heinousness of the crime and the foul treachery 
to be perpetrated. 

"There was one man in our rancheria that 
was suspicious and who did not like the looks of 
things; it was Huero, the sub-chief. Several 
times during the evening and before the people 
went to sleep, he came to where I was sitting 
apart from the officers and taking no part in the 
general conversation, and asked what I thought 
about it, and if I thought the soldiers were all 
right. I answered him in the afEirmative, and 
tlut so far as I could see or knew at the time, 
'everything seems to be all right, and I see or 
know of no cause for apprehension on our part.' 
Finally he appeared to be satisfied, as I saw him 
no more that night. 

"In the early days a story was current 
throughout New Mexico and Arizona that the 
Apaches used the precious metals in lieu of lead, 
which they made bullets of. I never gave mudi 
credence to the story, deeming it mythical and 
on a par with the numerous legends of 'lost 
mines* and 'buried treasures.* 

"One day I was away from the rancheria in 
company with an Apache who was about my own 
age. We had sat down on a point overlooking 
iJie rancheria, and while we sat down, talking 
as best we could, a mixed .jargon of Apache, 
English and Spanish, he pulled out his pouch, 
a pouch similar to those used by frontiersmen 
in the old days of the muzzle-loading rifle, a 
chunk of white metal, and, handing it to me, 
asked what it was. I wag not a bit wiser than 
he, as I had never seen any but coined silver. 



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52 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

The chunk was the size of a large hen egg, and 
heavy as lead. I told him it was some kind of 
metal, and probably it was lead. At that time 
I did not know that lead was never found in a 
pure state, but only as a sulphide. As I re- 
turned the chunk to him, I asked him where he 
got it, and he pointed southward and said, 'It's 
about three sleeps from here, lying on the 
ground and is black ; plenty of it there and some 
day when the other two, Cooley and Dodd, go 
away, we will go and get some to make bullets. ' 
Of course they could not melt it in the ordinary 
bullet ladle, but had to cut it into small squares 
and with smooth stones poimded it into bullets. 
It was only used in this way when they were 
short of lead. The Apache insisted that I keep 
the chunk and I put it in my sack. I handed it 
to Jack, and he said it was a silver nugget, and 
wanted to know where I got it I told Jack the 
story as I tell it here. I never once attempted 
to find those 'planebas de plata.' " 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COTJNTET. 53 



CHAPTER IV. 
EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY (Con- 
tinued.) 

Captain Babby Obdered by Colonel Oreen to 
Massacre Indians — Captain Babby Dia- 
OBETS Orders and is Placed Under Ab- 
BE8T — Big Dance op the Pinai^— *'Dodd's 
Dance" — Reception by the Tontos — ^Ab- 
BiVAL AT Camp Reno — Intercede With 
General Devin foe Captain Babby — Cap- 
tain Babbt Released and Rettjbned to 
Dtjty — Disbandment op Expedition — 
Desceiption op C. E. Cooley, His Ranch 
and His Squaws. 

"After the officers had returned to their camp 
and all the Indians were quietly sleeping in their 
several wickiups, the time being between one 
and two o'clock, Cooley said to me, 'What do 
you suppose those soldiers are here for V 
'Well,' I replied, *to see the Indians; locate the 
rancheria; note the topography of the country, 
and take a look aroxmd generally.' 'Not a 
bit of it,' replied Cooley. 'Captain Barry's 
orders were to secure you, then to kill every 
Indian in this camp, regardless of age or sex; 
that was Colonel Green's order for I heard it 
given. As for ourselves, we have been declared 
outlaws, subject to a drumhead courtmartial and 
summarily shot, unless we can clear ourselves of 
the charges.' To me this was a most astounding 
revelation and my blood fairly boiled with 
horror and indignation. I was responsible for 



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54 HI3T0BY OF ABIZONA. 

the presence of the Apaches, and to acquiesce in 
and become a party to such a dastardly, double- 
dyed act of treachery, was an act that even a dog 
would not be guilty of doing. I then resolved 
that come what may, no such dastardly work 
should go on if it was within my power to pre- 
vent or avoid it. I berated both Cooley and 
Dodd for bringing the troops there for so out- 
rageous a purpose, and told them that we, (my- 
self and tiie Indians), had ample time to get 
away, but that I had persuaded the Indians to 
stay there, and I would not stand for any such 
dirty work. As for Captain Barry, after re- 
ceiving the simple hospitality of these people, to 
reward kindness and hospitality with treachery 
and cold blooded murder, he would be a disgrace 
to humanity ; that even the fiends in hell would 
feel themselves di^raced by such an act, and I 
could not nor would not stand for it. Cooley 
said in reply: 'I know it's an outrage and a 
shame, hut Dodd and I were powerless to pre- 
vent the troops coming here, as all of us (the 
peace party) were prisoners and under the eyes 
of a strong military guard, so you now under- 
stand the situation we are in. ' Yet I failed to 
comprehend and said to Cooley, 'If you two are 
prisoners, how is it you are here in our camp?' 
He replied that hiinself and Dodd were on 
parole, having pledged their honor not to escape, 
and that this was done to aUay suspicion among 
the Indians ; that the massacre woiild have taken 
place this evening had the troops arrived ear- 
Uer; ttiat the massacre was postponed until 
morning, fearing that in the darkness m any of 
the Indians might possibly escape. WMle 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDUN OOUNTBY. 55 

Cooley was making the foregoing statement, I 
had risen and was ready for flight, and then he 
asked me what I was going to do, and I said, 
'Notify the people that they may make their 
escape. ' 

"It will be remembered, as before stated, that 
the rancheria was located near the edge of a 
small mesa on the east side of, and overlooking 
the Carizo creek on the west. The narrow val- 
ley of the creek was thickly covered with wild 
cane (carizo) and on the west side of it was a 
steep mountain inaccessible to cavalry. It was 
the usual custom among the Apaches to have 
their camps on a mesa or point, with a mountain 
or rough country for a background. This was 
done as a precaution and for protection against 
any sudden raid by horsemen. Our rancheria 
was no exception to the rule, having a mountain 
adjoining both front and rear, and all our peo- 
ple had te do was to quietly slip off the mesa into 
the thick cane, then climb the precipitous moun- 
tain on the west side of the creek. 

" 'Good God, don't do that,' said Cooley, now 
thoroughly excited, *we are now outlawed and 
would be shot in the morning.' I answered, 
'There's catching before hanging;' that I was 
not imder parole and would hike with the 
Apaches; they could say to Captain Barry in 
the morning that they had mentioned the matter 
to me, and that sometime in the night I had 
warned the Indians and all had silently stolen 
away. Before this I had suggested to Cooley 
and Dodd that both skin out as they were made 
prisoners under a white flag, and imder such cir- 
cumstances they had a perfect right to take ad- 



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56 HurroBT of abizona. 

Tantage of the situation, but both refused to do 
so. 

"Cooley then proposed that Dodd and himself 
get up and go to the soldiers' camp, awaken the 
officers and have another talk. I promised to 
say nothing to the sleeping Indianw until they 
returned; but I wam^ tiiem that too mudi 
treachery had already been practiced, and on the 
slightest sign of any more I would alarm the 
people, and 'I mean it, so help me God.* Both 
went up to the soldiers' camp, and I walked 
around among the Indians' wickiups, but kept 
a watchful eye on the military encampment. 
This was nearly liiree o'clock in the morning 
and I could see, but dimly, the sentries over the 
picket line. 

"You must first catch your fish before you 
can eat it. To one like myself, whose whole life 
has been spent on the frontiers of our common 
country, and who is as familiar with the moun- 
tains and plains as most people are with the 
streets of their native villages, it appeared to 
me the acme of absurdity to even suppose that 
Ixmibering cavalrymen could catch me in the 
open should I dioose to evade them. Hence it 
was evident to me that if you eat any fish, you 
must first catch them. 

"At the first sign of treachery I intended to 
give the sleeping Indians warning. Cooley and 
Dodd were absent about an hour, perhaps, so it 
seemed to me, but it may not have been half 
that time, when both returned to camp. 

" 'Well, how it is I' I asked at once. Cooley 
being our talking man by the common consent 
of Dodd and myself, replied: 'I think Captain 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COTTNTBT. 57 

Barry will disregard his Colonel's orders and 
not massacre the Indians.' I said, 'What you 
think dont go. I want more than guesswork in 
a matter of this kind.' He then said they had 
gone over the situation with Captain Barry and 
his Lieutenants; they intimated my attitude in 
the matter; that George Cooler had also ti^en 
part in the talk; that Cooler told Captain Barry 
that he knew Mr. Cooley at Fort Craig, New 
Mexico ; that Cooley was Lieutenant and Quar- 
termaster at that post and that he, George 
Cooler, was a government wagonmaster under 
Cooley at that time, and a lot more was said at 
this conference. Yet I was not satisfied and 
Cooley said, 'Great God, Dodd, how did you 
understand Barry?' Dodd replied, *If I un- 
derstand the meaning of words, the Captain 
will not murder the Indians in the morning,' 
and to me he said, 'I pledge you my word on it.' 
I had great confidence in Dodd as he was a man 
of few words and ahsolutely fearless. By this 
time the stars in the eastern s^ had commenced 
to grow dim, and relying on Dodd's statement, 
I lay down to sleep. The following morning, 
August 1st, I awoke quite late, and, springing 
up, I saw Captain Barry and Cooley walking 
along the hrow of the mesa, and instantly felt 
that no massacre would take place. 

"Captain Barry decided to hold a 'big talk' 
and told the chief to send out runners and have 
all his people in the rancheria for a 'big peace 
talk' next day. The Indians assembled, and I 
saw a few Finals and White Mountain Apaches 
squatted among the bushes on the outskirts of 



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58 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA. 

the rancheria, who were there to observe and 
hear what was said at the big pow-wow. 

"On the 2nd of August the pow-wow took 
place. Captain Barry explained his orders 
from Colonel Green; that he had decided to dis- 
obey his orders to massacre them as a matter of 
humanity ; that the consequences to himself for 
disobeying his superior's orders was a very seri- 
ous matter and would cause him much trouble ; 
that the Colonel received his orders from still 
higher authority which was above Colonel 
Green, and, said the Captain, 'I want the prin- 
cipal men of this tribe to go with these Ameri- 
cans to Camp McDowell where you will see 
General Thomas E. Devin, who is the only person 
that has the right to make peace with you, and 
if the General makes terms with you, he will 
give you papers that will protect you hereafter. ' 

"There was consternation among the females 
when the Captain made known his murderous 
orders, and a distinct murmur went the rounds 
among them. The women appeared greatly 
frightened and looked furtively about, and they 
nervously clutched their little ones as if to flee 
from the presence of some hideous monster. The 
men, on the contrary, received the news in 
silence and stoical indifEerence. On the chief's 
face appeared the shadow of a smile and a bale- 
ful glitter in his one eye. And I can never for^ 
get the look of the sub-chief, Huero, when our 
eyes met as the captain stated his orders. How- 
ever, when the people learned of my actions of 
the night before, they simply idolized me as if I 
had done something heroic, and the stand I took 
the previous night undoubtedly had all to do 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDUN COITNTBY. 59 

with the attitude of the Apaches toward me 
afterwards when in a worse and more dangerous 
predicament. 

"The following day, August 3rd, Captain 
Barry returned with his troop to Colonel 
Green's camp at the junction of the east and 
west forks of the White river. When Captain 
Barry reported to his Colonel the results of his 
trip to ^e Apache rancheria on the Carizo, 
Colonel Green became very angry and ordered 
Barry to consider himself under arrest. The 
Captain was relieved of his command, and his 
First Lieutenant was ordered to assume com- 
mand of the troop. 

"Soon afterwards the Colonel selected an- 
other site for Camp Ord, locating it on the mesa 
a little further eastward, where it is to-day, 
known as Port Apache. This camp was strate- 
gically situated as it was in the center of the 
Apacneria. Having established a permanent 
military camp, with a part of his command as a 
garrison, Colonel Green returned with the re- 
mainder of his force to Camp Goodwin south of 
the Gila. Soon after his arrival at Camp Good- 
win the Colonel formulated a set of 'charges and 
specifications' against Captain Barry, in which 
he alleged 'disobedience of orders' and the viola- 
tion of certain articles of war; all of which, 
summed up, was 'conduct imbecoming an officer 
and a gentleman. ' These charges, specifications, 
etc., were sent to General Devin, commanding 
the southern military district of Arizona, and 
whose headquarters were then at Camp 
McDowell. 



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60 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

"In pursuance with the agreement with Cap- 
tain Barry, our three selves, the chief Es-c^- 
pah, the chief's brother, El Diablo, one middle- 
aged woman, Miguel, the eautivo interpreter, 
and twenty-six picked warriors, about ten 
o'clock A. M., August 3rd, 1869, made another 
and second start westward. This time our ob- 
jective point was Fort McDowell, and not, as in 
the first instance, a search for an El Dorado, 
with Sombrero Butte, Sierra Pintados, and the 
Stone Corral, the guiding landmarks by which 
we were to find a goleonda. Arriving at the 
outskirts of the Pinal territory, our litUe party 
of thirty-three was met, as before, by a Pinal 
warrior, but this time without his warpaint. 
Notwithstanding the pow-wow on the Carizo 
was held only the day before, the Pinals and 
other distant tribes were aware of our coming, 
and all knew the object of our mission to Camp 
McDowell. 

"The Pinal warrior said he was sent by his 
chief, Bah-dah-clah-oah, to guide our party to a 
certain place where the Pinals would meet ua 
and have a big dance as a welcome ceremony by 
the Pinals. This place was afterwards known, 
and is down on all the military maps, as Dodd's 
Dance. It was here we, or at least Cooley and 
Dodd, came very close to the end of our earthly 
careers. Our party reached the place desig- 
nated, imder guidance of the Pinal warrior, a 
little while before sunset, but not a single 
Apache was then in sight. About dark the 
Pinals made a sudden appearance, and in half 
an hour more there were probably four hundred 
in sighl The Apache women made their indi- 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 61 

vidual camps in a horizontal line along the base 
of a small hill that extended east and west, and 
which was thickly covered with small trees and 
bushes. Our camp was located about two hun- 
dred yards further southward upon more level 
and open ground, having bushes of chaparral 
scattered here and there. As soon as darkness 
set in, the Finals made a large fire of pinyon, a 
short distance south of the line of campfires; the 
big fire to make light for the dancers. Shortly 
after this the tom-toms were heard, and the 
dancing began in the manner of all the North 
American Indians. Occasionally peals of 
laughter were heard, and a general feeling of 
good himaor seemed to prevail. Cooley and 
Bodd had already gone up to the 'dance fire* and 
were seated nearby upon a log among a number 
of Indians. I remained standing in our camp 
for a while, Ustenin^ to the babel of sounds and 
watching the ghostlike figures moving about in 
the firehght. Finally buckling on my two six- 
shooters, and throwing a large red blanket about 
my shoulders, I went to where the dancing was in 
progress. I was always wary and watchful, and 
ready for any emergency, however sudden and 
unexpected; hence, instead of squatting down 
within the iirelight, where one could be so easily 
plugged, I attempted to pass unseen around on 
the west aide. But the keen eyes of the Apaches 
discerned me, and finding myself observed, I ap- 
proached to the outer rim of the firelight. The 
Apache girls, ranging in age from fullgrown 
down to four or five years, gathered together 
with joined hands, the tallest in the center 
and tapering both ways from the center, the 



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62 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

ends of the two horns terminating with five-year 
old girla Thus, in the shape of a crescent 
moon, they danced up to me and back again, the 
tallest one in the center repeating a few words, 
and the others joining in a sort of refrain. At 
times the wor(& caused mudi laughter among 
the men who had stopped their dancing to look 
at the girls dance. By the laughter among the 
men I imagined they were guying me, so with- 
drew back into the darkness. Passing around 
to the north side I sat down amidst a lot of 
bushes and small trees, outside the range of the 
firelight, but where every movement of the In- 
dians could be seen plainly. 

"The Pinal chief, Bah-dah-clah-nah, during 
the smoke and talk guaranteed protection, and 
his responsibilitv for the safety of our animals 
and other plunder. The chief's hair had re- 
cently been cut off close to the skull, a sign of 
mourning for the death of a brother killed by 
the troops a short while before. The chief 
didn't present a very prepossessing appearance, 
squatted on a blanket in front of we three 
Ainericans who were standing, Dodd on the left, 
Cooley next, and I on the right. Always pos- 
sessed of a keen sense for the humorous or 
ridiculous, in whatsoever guise it might appear, 
I was forced to chuckle when the cmef said he 
would be responsible for our property, and, 
nudging Charley, remarked, 'Look at that Jack 
Sheppard head, it has a responsible look, don't 
it?' Cooley, taking my remark seriously, said, 
'Great God, what else can we do, we are helpless 
and in their power.* Cooley often said to me, 
'You would laugh at some fancied absurdity, no 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COtTNTBY. 63 

matter how serious or dangerous the situation, 
even when tied to a mesquite tree to be burned, 
perhaps, simply because you see something ab- 
surd, while I see nothing to laugh at under such 
dangerous situations.' 

"While sitting down amongst the bushes and 
small trees, having been there perhaps an hour 
or more, I suddenly heard a rustling noise over 
to my right. Looking quickly in that direction 
I could see a bunch of Apaches apparently 
struggling together. They were outside the 
fireli^t and I could see but dimly their outlines 
as they struggled amidst the brushwood. Once 
or twice I caught the faint glint of arms. All 
this took place in less time than it takes to tell 
it, and several shots were fired. Simultaneously 
with the shooting every infernal imp, big and 
little, male and female, as it seemed from the 
great uproar, began yelling and whooping as 
only the American Indian knows how to whoop. 
Pandemoniimi was sure in evidence at that par- 
ticular moment. In less than a minute after 
the first shots were fired, not an Indian campfire 
could be seen along the line, and only the big 
dance-fire remained to lighten the impish-look- 
ing scene. 

"To realize and to fully comprehend that aw- 
ful hubbub and scene, it must be seen, as words 
cannot describe it. Just imagine all the women 
screaming at their little ones at the top of their 
voices as they scattered like so many quail into 
the brush, and the screaming of the women more 
than supplemented with the whoops and yells 
of two or three hundred demoniacal, hideously 
painted savages, all yelling or whooping for tihe 



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64 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

lives of the * white skins.' Truly it was an in- 
teresting scene to look upon, from a flying 
machine at a good, safe elevation. That night's 
scene is vivimy impressed upon my mind, and 
although it is now over forty-two years since it 
took place, yet I can see it to-day as plainly as 
I then saw it. 

"Shortly after the pandemonium had broken 
loose, a half dozen young Apaches came to where 
I was sitting in the brush and said to me, 'Yu- 
cooshe, Apache donjudah, Apache mata,' which 
translatec^ was, *Go away, the Apaches are bad 
and will kUl. ' I went with them, keeping out- 
side the range of firelight, and the young 
Apaches forming a line behind and between me 
and the howling and shooting mob. We made 
a circuit and arriving at our camp, the young 
fellows pointed in a certain direction and told 
me to go, and to-morrow make 'the smoke' on 
the top of a high hill and they would eome to it. 
The young men then returned to their people. I 
secured my rifle and canteen and my buckskin 
sack of pinole, previously described, yet I could 
not go and leave the other two, if yet alive. I 
decided to make a sneak on the howling bunch, 
and try to ascertain if Cooley and Dodd were 
alive. I made the sneak all right without being 
observed or recognized by the Apaches. As a pre- 
caution I took off my hat, and, holding my red 
blanket well up about my head, the sneak was 
comparatively easy. All this was a risky piece 
of business, or piece of foolhardiness, seeing that 
the yoimg Apaches had assisted me, and pointed 
out the way for my escape. But I had made up 
my mind that there were not enough Apaches in 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTBY. 65 

the country to make me desert my two com- 
panions, if alive, and I could rescue them. 
Reaching the outskirts of the mob I stood for a 
few moments in the semi-obscurity and looked 
for my fellows. Presently I saw Cooley in the 
rear of our friendly Coyoteros, and, slightly 
stooping, I made my way to him. Wifliout 
speaking, I caught hold of the tall of his coat 
and gave it a slight jerk. Cooley turned his 
head and, at first took me to be an Apache until 
I whispered: 'Get out of this.' We cautiourfy 
slipped back and made our way to our camp. I 
then asked after Dodd and he said, 'I haven't 
seen him since the row first began, and don't 
know if he is alive or not. What had we better 
do?' Getting our rifles ready for instant use, my 
advice was to wait a short time to see if Dodd 
would show up ; that the chief of the Finals had 
pledged our safety and the return of our ani- 
mals, and It was best not to be too hasty ; that the 
chief was for us and he must have an influence 
and a following, and with our Coyoteros, a 
majority was on our side. Now that Cooley 
still lived it was also probable that Dodd also 
was alive, and it is always best to take matters 
philosophically and not allow yourself to become 
'rattled' however serious the situation. There- 
fore, I said to Cooley, 'If Dodd don't show up, 
and if the red fiends make a break, we wiU give 
them a hot reception, abandon our outfit, take 
to the brush, and then it is each one for himself 
and the devil or the red fiends for the unlucky 
one who may be caught. ' 

"We had stood there, rifles in hand, for per- 
haps fifteen or twenty minutes, watching the 
vm— 5 



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66 HIOTOBY OF ABIZONA. 

painted imps jumping, yelling, shooting, and 
altogether making themselves absurdly ridicu- 
lous, causing us to wonder if we should see an- 
other simrise. Presently Dodd came to us, 
panting, blowing, and mad as a hornet. His 
dander was up and^ cursing the Apaches for all 
he could think, he snatched up his sixteen-shoot- 
ing Heniy rifle, and had not Cooley caught his 
arm, Dodd woiild have fired into Uie crowd of 
howling savages, regardless of either friends or 
enemies. The wrath of Dodd, like that of 
Achilles, was finally mollified, and, taking off 
his hat, he exhibited several bulletholes in it, also 
as many more holes in his coat which were made 
by the same means. The Apaches had made our 
friend do some pretty lively dancing, at the same 
time they amused themselves by shooting bullets 
through his hat and coat; hence the wrath of 
Dodd and the name thereafter of 'Dodd's 
Dance.' 

"The Apaches possess a grim sense of humor 
and it is often displayed in an imique manner, 
and had not the Apaches warned me of their in- 
tention to kill us, I should have concluded that 
the whole thing was done to test the courage of 
the 'white ddns.' It seems, however, that quite 
a lai^e number of the tribe had lost a number 
of relatives in fights with the troops and others, 
and they wished to have revenge by killing us, 
and it was thus the rumpus started. 

"That night it was decided among us to 
* sleep with one eye open. ' Cooley and Dodd lay 
down near the packs, but I lay down a short 
distance away among some thick brush. I kept 
awake as long as I could, listening to the inces- 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO DJDUN COXTNTBY. 67 

sant yelling of the Indians, but finally went to 
sleep. Awakening early in the morning, I 
looked about and saw perhaps a hundred war- 
riors lying in a double circle around our camp. 
They were the chief's trusted men, and, with our 
Coyoteros, were placed there on guard to pre- 
vent our assassination while we slept. Instantly 
realizing the situation, and hearing some terrific 
snoring by Cooley and Dodd, the whole matter 
struck me as being a bit hiunorous, and I was 
forced to laugh at it. Jumping up, I went 
around to the feet of the two snoring men, and, 
kicking their feet, I yelled, 'Get out of this.' 
The way their blankets flew and the alacrity 
Willi which they sprang to their feet with rifles 
in hand, womd sure have surprised Davy 
Crockett himself. My actions and those of 
Cooley and Dodd caused our Indian guards to 
laugh, in which Cooley and Dodd joined as soon 
as uiey could get their eyes open to see and com- 
prehend the situation. Both declared that my 
kicking them up out of their sound sleep would 
lessen the length of their lives at least five years. 
"Of course we were very thankful to see the 
rising sun, and Cooley said, 'I didn't expect to 
see stmrise again.' About eight o'clock the 
chief, Bah-dah-clah-nah, came down to our camp 
to talk and laugh over the pleasant ( ?) scenes 
and events of the past night. However pleas- 
ant and entertaining they may have been to the 
chief and his people, we held very radical views 
to the contrary, and at once requested the chief 
to have our animals brought in as we wished to 
push on at onee to Camp McDowell. The chief 
demurred to our great haste, urging us very 



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Go HI8T0BT OF AltlZONA. 

strongly to remain for another night's enter- 
tainment, and, as a further inducement for us to 
tarry longer, he said more of his people would 
be tjiere and a bigger dance would be given. 
Cooley, being 'talkmg-man,' said: *We regret 
very much the necessity which compels us to 
hurry forward; otherwise we would esteem it 
one of our greatest pleasures to remain another 
night or for a week, to enjoy the delightful 
entertainments and pleasant sensations which 
their 'welcome dance* had given us. Neverthe- 
less, we declined, with regrets, further hospi- 
tality at this time from tiie fact that our time 
was limited and we were forced to hurry on- 
ward.' After listening to Cooley 'a soulful, if 
not very truthful, but diplomatic harangue, 
Dodd and myself then and there voted Cooley 
to be the Chief Monumental Liar of the United 
States, and the puny efforts of Ananias and wife 
were as the simple prattle of little children com- 
pared with Cooley 's easy flow of prevarications. 
"The chief appeared to be satisfied with 
Cooley's (truthful) statements and at once or- 
dered our animals to be brought in, and we 
saddled and i)acked and were on the move by ten 
o'clock. To protect us while passing through 
his territory, and until we reached the confines 
of the Tontos, the chief sent along with us a con- 
siderable number of his best warriors under a 
sub-chief. Our Pinal escort travelled with ua 
to the camp of a large body of Tonto warriors 
under the famous chief Da-chay-ya. As before, 
however, we were met by a Tonto warrior who 
led us to the camp of the Tontos, but in this 
camp there were no women and children, and 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COTTNTRY. 69 

no signs of a 'welcome dance' as was the pro- 
gram with the Finals. All the Tontos were in 
their war paint and, at that time, on the war- 
path. Arriving at tiie Tonto encampment, the 
sub-chief of our Pinal escort formally turned us 
over to the chief of the Tontos, with whom we 
made camp that night. The Finals then with- 
drew some distance and made camp all to them- 
selves. There appeared to be a spirit of 
hauteur existing between the two peoples. 

*'In the earlier days, before the advent of 
white settlers, and with no common enemy, the 
white skins, to fight, the various tribes scrapped 
one with another, as much to keep up the war 
spirit, and the practice of their art of war, as 
for any other purpose. At this time, August, 
1869, tiie whites had been only a few years in 
the country north of the Gila river. Prescott, 
then but a little more than five years old, Wick- 
enburg, Yuma, and Tucson, were about sM the 
towns in Arizona. True, Fhoenix had been sur- 
veyed and platted at this time, but where the 
city now stands was covered with sagebrush 
and greasewood. Therefore, the feuds between 
the Apache tribes had not yet died out, hence 
the apparent coolness between Final and Tonto. 

"Early on the following morning the two In- 
dian parties broke camp, the Finals returning 
eastward and the Tontos, under Chief Da-chay- 
ya, as our escort, continuing westward. Here I 
wish to remark, by way of parenthesis, that 
during our previous days' marches, after leav- 
ing tte Pinal camp, known thereafter as 
'Dodd's Dance,* that our friend Dodd had 
seriously proposed that we kill any Indian who 



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70 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.. 

met U8 with propositions of any more 'dance 
welcomes.' 

"During our travels with the Tontos nothing 
worthy of note occurred until we reached the 
western rim of the Sierra Anchas, a wide range 
of mountains. At this point we had a magnil- 
cent view, the whole valley of Tonto creek lay 
spread out at our feet, wiui the Mazatzal range 
of mountains bordering the valley on the west, 
in which are the celebrated Four Peaks. At the 
southern end of the Mazatzals, near the south- 
eastern base of the Four Peaks, and a short dis- 
tance below the junction of Tonto Creek and the 
Salt River, is now located that most wonderful 
structure, the great Roosevelt Dam and 
Reservoir. 

"We made a halt at the rim while the chief 
made his 'peace smokes' to notify other Tontos 
who might be in the intermediate section be- 
tween us and Camp Reno that our parly was not 
to be molested. Away off to the westward be- 
yond the valley of Tonto creek, and close up to 
the eastern base of the Mazatzal range, could be 
dimly seen a small brown or bare spot, which the 
chief pointed out and said, 'There are the sol- 
diers, there your people.' It was Camp Reno. 
*Tou are my friends and can go there in peace,' 
said the chief. *I cannot ^o for I and my peo- 
ple are even now at war with those white skins, 
but my warriors over there now will not molest 
you. I have signalled to them that you are 
friends, and when you reach your people do not 
forget your true friend, Da-chay-ya.' He also 
said, 'I have desired to live in amity with the 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 71 

whites, and all I asked for was the right for me 
and my people to live. ' 

"Bid(fing good-by to Da-chay-ya and his peo- 
ple, we began the descent of the precipitous side 
of the Sierra Anchas. In the miles of travel 
from the rim to Gamp Heno, we saw no Indians, 
although plenly of the freshest sign was seen 
en route. 

"Gamp Reno, (long since abandoned) was 
located two or three imles west of Tonto creek, 
upon an open mesa that gently sloped down 
toward the Tonto from the eastern base of the 
Mazatzals. Upon either side of the camp were 
two deep brushy ravines containing water. 
These ravines run parallel to and perhaps two 
hundred yards distant from the military camp, 
and they afforded an excellent screen for an 
enemy approaching the camp. 

"After we had ascended from Tonto Greek 
to the top of the mesa, the military camp was 
plainly in view, probably three thousand yards 
away. Our party of thirty-three, all on foot, 
excepting the cautivo and us three Americans, 
marched along in plain view of the camp, and 
while we could see soldiers walking about, not 
one of tiiem perceived our approach until we 
had arrived within perhaps three or four hun- 
dred yards of the camp. Suddenly an alarm 
was raised and we could see the troops rushing 
hither and thither, and falling into line under 
arms; a skirmish line thrown out composed of 
the eommandinar officer, the first sergeant, the 
citizen blacksmith, and the post trader. Ob- 
serving the excitement in the camp, we halted, 
and told the Indians to remain where they were 



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72 HISTOET OF ARIZONA. 

while we three rode up to the skirmish line. 
We were within forty yards of the line before 
they discovered we were whites. The com- 
manding officer, a Major Collins, who had been 
standing pretty *^ciose* to a convenient stack of 
hay, came out and shook hands, declaring he 
was 'glad it was no worse, for I fully expected 
an attack upon the camp. ' He appeared to be 
unduly excited, but was to be excused this time 
as he arose from a sick bed to repel a supposed 
assault, there being no other commissioned 
officer in the camp at the time. I called the 
Major's attention to the two ravines and said: 
'Had an attack been planned, those ravines 
would have been used.' The Major admitted 
the correctness of my observations, but said: 'I 
am too sick to give proper consideration to any 
matters.' 

"At the time the alarm was first given, the 
tables had just been laid for dinner, and this 

?robably accounts for the bad lookout; an(L 
urtiiermore, the cattle herd had been attacked 
only the day before, in which attack one herder 
had been killed and a soldier wounded ; this, too, 
no doubt, had to do with the great excitement 
manifested at our approach. 

"Major Collins invited us to his tent for din- 
ner. All used tents, there being only one small 
adobe hut which was used for ammunition. We 
sat at the table, but the Major, being sick, took 
to bed again. Soon after we sat down at the 
table, we were a little surprised to see a lady 
enter, having a baby in her arms, who laugh- 
ingly remarked: 'This is a pretty country for 



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EXPEDITI0N8 INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 73 

a white woman, where she must be locked up in 
a powderhouse to prevent capture by Indians. ' 

"We lay over here three days, and two of my 
party had a strenuous bout with their old-time 
enemy, John Barleycorn, and, as usual in all 
such scraps, they were badly worsted in the 
encounter. Our Apaches refused to go any fur- 
ther, but would not give any reason for not car- 
ing to go on to Camp McDowell, which was only 
forty-five or fifty miles from Reno. The inter- 
preter for the camp had told them that Mc- 
Dowell was full of Pimas and Coco-Maricopas, 
the hereditary enemies of all Apaches. 

"Our Apaches were encamped in the ravine 
on the north side of the military camp, and on 
the night of our second day at Reno, the chief 
asked me to go to his camp. He then told me of 
his intention to start on the following morning 
for their rancheria on the Carizo, and tried to 
persuade me to return with them, saying: 'The 
people on this side are no good ; all the Apaches 
like you as a brother; let them, (Cooley and 
Dodd) go on, we don't want them any more, but 
you go with us to our home.* Finding I was 
determined to go on to McDowell, the chief said : 
'When you come back, go to the top of mountain 
east of rancheria and make signal smoke, and I 
will come or send others to you, but be sure to 
come alone and stay by the smoke until I come 
to you.' Had I been anything but the young 
fool that I was, having no business at McDowell, 
or anywhere else, I would have returned with 
the Apaches, and in due time, have gone with 
them for the 'white metal' and, even if ignorant 
of its true character at the time, I woidd have 



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74 HISTOBY OF ABIZONA. 

known after a time. But I didn% and possibly 
lost a fortune in those planchas de plata. 

"Our Apaches positively refused to go on to 
Camp McDowell and, on the morning of our 
third day at Camp Reno, they took the trail 
back to their randieria on the Carizo. In order 
to anticipate Colonel Green and to help Captain 
Barry out of his difficulty, we deemed it neces- 
sary to proceed to McDowell. Taking advan- 
tage of an escort of cavalry, under Colonel 
Elger, that were going over to McDowell, we 
accompanied the escort for protection, and, 
without incident worthy of notice, we reached 
headquarters of the southern Military District 
of Arizona in safety. 

"The day after our arrival at Camp Mc- 
Dowell we called upon General Thos. E. Devin 
and explained the situation at Carizo, and the 
action of Captain Barry, with an earnest re- 
quest that the Captain be as leniently dealt with 
as the case would permit. The General gave us 
to understand that at the proper time due con- 
sideration would be given to our statements and 
all extenuating circiunstances bearing upon the 
matter. Suffice it to say, soon afterwards 
Colonel Green's charges, specifications, etc., 
were received at headquarters, but were 
promptly returned 'disapproved,' and Barry 
ordered to be returned to duty. 

"We remained at McDowell ten or twelve 
days, and then proceeded to the Salt River, 
stopping at the ranch of Captain Jack Swilling. 
Here we separated, Cooley and Dodd going up 
to Prescott, whilst I remained with Jack, whom 
I had known some years before." 



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C. E. COOLEY. 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 75 

Banta thinks the Doc Thorn mine a fable. 

The C. E. Cooley mentioned above, after- 
wards became one of General Crook's most re- 
liable scouts. He married, according to the 
Indian custom, two Apache girls, sisters, of the 
Coyotero, or White Mountain tribe, and, 
through his influence that tribe to a great ex- 
tent, became idlies of the whites. 

In 1874 Mrs. Summerhayes, in her book 
"Vanished Arizona," gives the following de- 
scription of Cooley's house at his ranch, not far 
from Fort Apache : 

"Towards night we made camp at Cooley's 
ranch, and slept inside, on the floor. Cooley 
was interpreter and scout, and, although he was 
a white man, he had married a young Indian 
girl, the daughter of one of the chiefs, and was 
known as a squaw man. There seemed to be 
two Indian girls at his ranch; they were both 
tidy and good looking, and they prepared us a 
most appetizing supper. 

"The ranches had spaces for windows, cov- 
ered with thin unbleached muslin (or manta as 
it is always called out there), glass windows be- 
ing then too great a luxury in that remote place. 
There were some partitions inside the ranch, but 
no doors ; and, of course, no floors except adobe. 
Several half-breed children, nearly naked, stood 
and gazed at us as we prepared for rest. This 
was interesting and picturesque from many 
standpoints perhaps, but it did not tend to 
make me sleepy. I lay gazing into the fire 
which was smouldering in the comer, and finally 
I said in a whisper, 'Jack, which girl do you 
think is Cooley's wife?' 



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76 HISTORT OF ARIZONA. 

'* *I don't know,' answered this cross and 
tired nuin; and then added, 'Both of 'em, I 
guess.' 

"Now, this was too awful, but I knew he did 
not intend for me to ask any more questions. I 
had a difficult time, in those days, reconciling 
what I saw with what I had been taught was 
right, and I had to sort over my ideas and deep- 
rooted prejudices a good many times. 

"The two pretty squaws prepared a nice 
breakfast for ua, and we set out, quite refreshed, 
to travel over the malapais (as the great lava- 
beds in that part of the country are called)." 

The two young squaws mentioned by Mrs. 
Summerhayes were good cooks and house- 
keepers, having learned their trade through 
association with the wives of the officers at Fort 
Apache. 

This remained Cooley's home until the time 
of his death. Jim Bark, well known in Phoe- 
nix, and now a resident of Mayer, Arizona, made 
a visit to Cooley a few years ago, and from him 
I derive the following : 

The house was well built and quite well fur- 
nished. The ranch had a fine ordiard of decid- 
uous fruits, and besides cattie and horses, 
Cooley had raised grain and other products, 
which found a ready market at Fort Apache at 
good prices. As far as material we^th was 
concerned, he was well fixed; his children were 
well educated and well cared for. His two 
wives ran the house, and, it is said, to a great 
extent, ran him. Bark relates the following 
episode which occurred during his visit there : 



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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN OOUNTBY. 77 

"They had some quarrel with Cooley, and to 
escape ttieir vengeance he climbed upon the roof 
of the building. One of the squaws threw rocks 
at him for a while. Coming down after the 
storm had ceased, he gave me quite a disserta- 
tion upon the advantages and disadvantages of 
polygamy." 

Bark states that he, Cooley, had grown fleshy, 
and during his visit Cooley received a letter 
from a New York firm and read it. It amused 
him to such an extent that, sitting in his chair in 
the shade of a tree in front of his house, he be- 
came so convulsed with laughter that he fell out 
of the chair and rolled over on the groimd, 
squirming with hilarity. The reason was that 
the firm, from whom he had ordered a suit of 
clothes, giving his measurements, replied that 
they made clothes for men and not for horses. 
Cooley measured somewhere about sixty inches 
around the waist. He died on his ranch in the 
summer of 1917. 



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78 HKTORT OF ABIZONA. 



CHAPTER V. 

the military. 

Repobt op Major-Genekal Qeoboe H. Thomas 

ON MHJTART AiTAIES IN ARIZONA — RePOKT 

OF General Obd — General Ord's Account 
OP Captain Barry's Disobedience op Or- 
ders — Expense of Supplying Rations to 
Troops in Arizona — Fourteen Militaby 
Posts in Abizona — Desertion of Troops 
— Policy op Extermination Followed by 
Both Military and Citizens — Conditions 
IN 1869 Described by Banta — Establish- 
ment op Camp Obd, Later Known as Port 
Apache. 

Major-General George H. Thomas, conunand- 
ing the Department of the Pacific, with head- 
quarters at San Francisco, in his report to the 
Adjutant-General of the TTnited States Army, 
under date of September 27th, 1869, made the 
following reference to Arizona: 

"Having performed duty in Arizona some 
years past, and then getting familiar with the 
topography of the country, and not having time 
to make a personal inspection of my whole com- 
mand, I have depended upon the report of the 
inspector-general of the division, and special re- 
ports of the department commander for infor- 
mation, and have to report as follows: Fort 
Yuma, at the junction of the Colorado and Gila 
rivers, is an important post as a depot of sup- 
plies for that Territory ; it is garrisoned by one 
company of infantry, and reported in good con- 



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THE MHilTART. 79 

dition. The garrisons at Tucson, Bowie, Grant, 
Goodwin, McDowell, Verde, Reno, Colorado 
and Mohave, I considered favorably situated for 
supervision of the Indian Territory, and have 
maintained them as found. Camps Willow 
Grove and Wallen having become useless, the 
garrisons of these posts, two companies, were 
used to establish a post at Toll Gate, which com- 
mands one of the passes most frequented by the 
Indians in their excursions from the north to 
the south. Active operations have been contin- 
ued against the Indians of Arizona during the 
whole summer, in which the troops displayed 
great energy and perseverance, and were emin- 
ently successful — 80 much so that one tribe, the 
Hualpais, have sued for peace, and the chief 
given himself up as a hostage for the future 
good conduct of the tribe. For details of the 
operations of the troops in Arizona, your atten- 
tion is respectfully called to the annual report 
of Brevet Major-General Ord, the Department 
Commander, to be forwarded, and the report of 
the inspector general of the division on Indian 
Affairs, which has been forwarded direct in 
obedience to instructions." 

The following is the report of General Ord, 
dated September 27th, 1869, referred to in the 
foregoing : 

"Sir: I have to report that during the past 
year my efforts, and those of the troops in this 
department, have been directed, first, to the re- 
duction of the hostile bands of Indians which 
have, since the country was known, infested Ari- 
zona and portions of Nevada; second, to the ex- 
ploration of extensive districts of which white 



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80 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA. 

men had little or no knowledge and which were 
supposed to be the retreats of hostile bands; 
third, the reduction of expenses by the evacua- 
tion of posts no longer needed, either because 
the country had become settled and the settlers 
capable of self-protection, or because it was 
found uninhabitable for whites or Indians, or 
because the garrisons were too small for offen- 
sive operations, and only invited roving bands 
to attack the government herds and trains which 
supplied the posts. 

"My return of expeditions and scouts will 
show the success of the troops in reducing the 
hostile Apaches and kindred tribes. These 
Arabs of Arizona have heretofore neither 
given nor asked quarter; their hands have al- 
ways been bloody, their favorite pursuit killing 
and plundering, their favorite ornaments the 
finger and toe-nails, the teeth, hair, and small 
bones of their victims. Their homes are in the 
high mountain ranges and mesas north of the 
Gila, which separate its tributaries from those 
of the Colorado. Some bands occupy moxm- 
tains south of the Gila, and their expeditions 
extend far into Mexico. 

'*0n taking command of the department I 
was satisfied that the few settlers and scattered 
miners of Arizona were the sheep upon which 
these wolves habitually preyed, and that, if that 
wilderness was to be kept free from Apache 
robbers and murderers, a temporizing poli<g' 
would not answer; therefore I encouraged the 
troops to capture and root out the Apache by 
every means, and to hunt them as they woxild 
wild animals. This they have done with un- 



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THE MZLCTARY. 81 

relenting vigor. Since my last report, over two 
hundred have been killed, generally by parties 
who have trailed them for days and weeks into 
the moimtain recesses, over snows, among gorges 
and precipices, lying in wait for them by day 
and following them by night. Many villages 
have been burned, large quantities of arms and 
supplies of ammtmition, clothing and provisions 
have been destroyed, a large number of horses 
and mules have been captured, and two men, 
twenty-eight women, and thirty-four children 
taken prisoners ; and though we have lost quite a 
number of soldiers, I think the Apaches have 
discovered that they are getting the worst of it. 
Some of the bands, having the fear of exter- 
mination before tbeva, have sued for peace; 
others, being driven to the defensive, compelled 
to fight for their women and children and plim- 
der, have not had much time, lately, to hunt 
miners, attack settlers, and capture stock. 

"There are, I think, not to exceed one thou- 
sand fighting men of the Apaches left; and if 
we continue as successful in reducing them as 
during the last year, the result is only a question 
of time. Colonel John Green, major First 
United States Cavalry, in a recent scout into the 
White Mountains, a country of which we know 
but little, after destroying some villages, killing 
a number of warriors, and destroying a large 
quantity of com, etc., having heard of a village 
fliirty miles north, where the Indians were re- 
ported friendly, and anxious to appease the 
troops, sent Captain John Barry, First United 
States Cavalry, to examine the matter, and, if 
he found them concerned in hostilities, to 
vm— « 



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82 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA. 

destroy them. Thus he describes the result: 
'On the night of August 1, Captain Barry re- 
turned witii his command, and reported that 
when he reached Miguel's village, there was a 
white flag flying from every hut and every 
prominent point ; that the men, women and chil- 
dren came out to meet them, and went to work 
to cut com for their horses, and showed such a 
spirit of dehght at meeting them, that the oi&- 
cers united in saying that if they had fired on 
them they would have been guilty of cold- 
blooded murder; even my chief scout, Manuel, 
who has no scruples in such matters, and whose 
mind was filled with taking scalps when he left 
camp, said he could not have fired on them after 
what he saw. 

" 'Captain Barry also foimd that the white 
men had nothing but some provisions and imple- 
ments, being what they represented themselves, 
prospecting miners. Miguel reiterated that he 
wanted to go on a reservation where he coxild be 
protected, and Captain Barry repeated what I 
had previously told him — ^that he must go to 
Camp McDowell and see the district com- 
mander. He also gave him a letter for that pur- 
pose. Miguel promised to start on the foUow- 
ing day, and commenced to make preparation 
at once. The white men were also to accompany 
him. The Apaches have but few friends, and, I 
believe, no agent. Even the officers, when ap- 
plied to by them for information, cannot tell 
them what to do. There seems to be no settled 
policy, but a general idea to kill them wherever 
found. I also am a believer in that, if we go for 
extermination ; but I think, and I am sustained 



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THE MILITABY. 83 

in my opinion by most of the officers accompany- 
ing my expedition, that if Miguel and his band 
were placed on a reservation properly managed, 
and had a military post to protect them, they 
would form a nucleus for the civilization of the 
Apaches, as they seem more susceptible of it 
than any tribe I have seen. I even believe that, 
if the Apache is properly managed, he could be 
used against the Apache, and so end the war in 
a short time. Miguel said that he had soldiers, 
uid would place them at my disposal whenever 
I wanted them. The reservation, with a mili- 
tary post, should be in the White Mountain 
country, where they could raise crops and sus- 
tain themselves with but little cost to the Gov- 
ernment, the climate and soil being excellent for 
such purpose. The only difficulty would be to 
make a wagon road into that coimtry; but by- 
proper exploration it might be accomplished. 
If this scheme should fail, a military post in 
that country would be of invaluable service in 
suppressing the Indian war in Arizona. ' 

*'0f course the extermination policy is re- 
solved upon only when every other means fail 
to protect our people; and if it is possible to in- 
duce the Apache to accept terms, it should be 
done ; and this being the first formal proposition 
for surrender from that section, General 
Thomas E. Devin, commanding in Southern 
Arizona, has been instructed to send Colonel 
Green, with sufficient forces, again into the 
White Mountain country, to visit Miguel's vil- 
lage, examine the vicinity carefully with a view, 
if deemed necessary, to open a road to it from 
the Gila Valley or from the West ; to learn how 



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84 EI8TOBY OF ABIZONA. 

far the country is adapted for a healthy reser- 
vation of sufficient extent to hold the friendly 
Apaches and afford them a field to hunt in and 
land to cultivate; and he will report on the 
probable expense of establishing a post in that 
vicinity; not that it is intended to increase the 
number of posts in that Territory, for I think 
we have too many there now. 

"The earnestness with which the troops make 
war on the hostile Apaches is in proportion to 
the good will which is shown toward the in- 
offensive or friendly Indians. Many of the bor- 
der white men, especially those that have been 
hunted, or lost friends or relations by them, re- 
gard all Indians as vermin, to be lolled when 
met; and attacks upon and mxirder of quiet 
bands, who in some instances have come in to 
aid in pursuit of more hostile savages, is noth- 
ing tmusual in Arizona. One citizen is now in 
confinement, arrested by the troops, for an at- 
tempt to murder a friendly Hualapai near 
Gamp Mohave ; and dozens of them are at large 
now who have tried it and succeeded. These 
citizens are not proceeded against by the civil 
authorities of the eotmtry. Reservations, to be 
at all safe from such attacks in that eotmtry 
must be forbidden groxmd to all white men, save 
the troops sent there to watch the Indians and 
guard them, and officers of the Indian Bureau. 
As an instance of the necessity of isolating 
reservations, the Pimas and Maricopas, always 
friendly, who cultivate the soil and render good 
service with the troops as scouts in reducing the 
hostile Indians, have a reservation on the Gila 
river. A number of Mexicans and some few 



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THE MnJTABT. 85 

American squatters have settled upon portions 
of it ; I am informed that the Indian agent is one 
of them. As the cattle of the settlers and In- 
dians will stray and be occasionally lost, and 
stock break into fields, there is no good feeling 
between the Indians and the settlers ; the latter 
accuse the Indians of trespassing against them, 
and threaten vengeance. The Indians, being 
numerous, are defiant and sullen, and difficulties 
of a very serious nature would have ensued had 
not General Alexander, commanding the nearest 
military post, interfered. The difficulties are 
still pending, and the new military superin- 
tendent should have authority to remove the set- 
tlers, as yet not numerous. 

' * The services rendered by some of the 
friendly chiefs as scouts to the troops are so im- 
portant and useful as to merit high commenda- 
tion from commanding officers, and deserve 
reward. If within the intent of the law author- 
izing the employment of such scouts, I would 
recommend temporary organization of com- 
panies with the most useful Indian chiefs as 
officers. 

"The scouting expeditions in Arizona have 
given us much useful information, and a few fer- 
tile valleys heretofore imknown have been found. 
A survey of the military reservation in Arizona 
has been completed. There was an extensive 
unexplored district between White Pine and the 
Colorado river, which was supposed to be rich 
in precious metals, and into which small pros- 
pecting and other parties were venturing, so 
that a proper regard for the general desire for 
correct knowledge of it required that it should 



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86 HISTORY OP ARIZONA. 

be surveyed and mapped. I, therefore, with the 
approbation of the division eommander, Gen- 
eral George H. Thomas, directed an expedition 
to be fitted out and an escort to be furnished, 
placing the whole under Lieutenant George M. 
Wheeler, United States engineer, who, assisted 
by Lieutenant D. W. Loekwood, United States 
engineers, and furnished with a small sum by 
the Chief Engineer, General A. A. Humphreys, 
is now engaged in this duty. A careful military 
and scientific reconnaissance of this portion of 
the great American desert, such as Lieutenant 
Wheeler will make, may result in much valuable 
information, which will be published as soon as 

Sraeticable. Lieutenant Wheeler, when last 
eard from, September 10th, had made good 
progress in his explorations. One of his party 
had reached the Pahranagat Valley, and another 
the Meadow Valley, en route to the Colorado. 
"In administering an extensive military de- 
partment like this, containing over four hun- 
dred and fifty thousand square miles, or greater 
by about one hxmdred thousand square miles 
than the original thirteen States, occupied by a 
population of savages estimated at from fifty to 
seventy-five thousand, garrisoned by three 
thousand men, or three to every four hundred 
and fifty square miles, who are scattered in 
thirty posts, camps, and cantonments, many of 
them only accessible at certain seasons of the 
year, and after crossing extensive deserts, the 
expenditures are principally due to the cost of 
transporting supplies. The expense of supply- 
ing rations at Camp Goodwin, one of the posts 
in Arizona, and of feeding animals there, can be 



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THE MILITART. 87 

compared with similar expenses in San Fran- 
cisco, when it is known that a barrel of good 
flour is bought in San Francisco for the army 
for from $1 to $5 in gold; and it has heretofore 
cost, to take two hundred pounds of freight to 
Camp Gk>odwin, in Arizona, about $30 in gold, 

foing by land from Tuma Bepot. A barrel of 
our purchased in Arizona costs, delivered at 
Gamp Goodwin, about $25 in gold ; so that it has 
cost the Government purchasing supplies there 
or thereabouts five or six times as much to feed 
the soldiers there as here, and the ration for a 
horse at Camp Goodwin costs now about five 
times as much as it does in San Francisco. 

"There are fourteen posts in Arizona, with an 
average garrison of one himdred and fifty men 
each, or two thousand one hundred men. There 
are in the Territory three thousand three hun- 
dred horses and mules; and to maintain these 
troops and animals it costs the Government, not 
including fuel, quarters, medical attendance, 
arms and accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, 
pay of the troops and employees, or stables, at 
least $4,000 per day; add the other items all tiie 
more expensive, where, as in Southern Arizona, 
a foot of lumber costs twenty-five cents, and the 
cost to the Government for the troops in Ari- 
zona is not far from $3,000,000 per annum. 

"Almost the only paying busmess the white 
inhabitants have in that Territory is supplying 
the troops, there being as yet but few mines in 
that country worked to profit; and I am in- 
formed from every quarter that if the paymas- 
ters and quartermasters of the army were to 
stop payment in Arizona, a great majority of 



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0» HISTOBX OF ABIZONA. 

the white settlers would be compelled to quit it. 
Hostilities are therefore kept up with a view to 
protecting inhabitants most of whom are sup- 
ported by the hostilities. Of course their sup- 
port being derived from the presence of troops, 
they are continually asking for more. There 
was in Arizona, January 1, 1860, according to 
the Army Kegister, not a single army post or 
soldier; and there was then more travel aOToss 
the southern part of the Territory than now, 
more need for troops there, and more Indians. 
It therefore becomes a question if this large ex- 
penditure cannot be reduced by reducing the 
number of troops in the country to the mini- 
miun, consistent with the interest of the whole 
country. For these reasons I have recom- 
mended, and the division commander has ap- 
proved and ordered, the concentration of troops 
in Arizona at the most important posts, botii 
with a view to economy and their greater 
efficiency. 

"The transportation of freight heretofore by 
land from Yuma Depot to Tucson, for the sup- 
ply of southern Arizona, will hereafter, (if 
present arrangements answer), be dispensed 
with, and supplies will be sent by water to 
Guaymas, and thence to Tucson, at a saving of 
nearly one-half. These and other means tt^en 
to that end, it is hoped, will reduce the quarter- 
master's estimates at least one-third. The ad- 
ditional comforts now furnished the troops in 
this department, such as better quarters, post 
and company gardens, canned fruits and vege- 
tables, (where vegetables cannot be raised), 
have reduced the number of desertions. There 



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THE MILITARY. 89 

were reported as deserted last year six hundred 
and ninety-four (694) men, to date this year, 
one hundred and sixty-three (163) only are re- 
ported, and the troops have ^own by their in- 
creased energy and zeal that there is much 
gratitude in tiie stomach, and that the best way 
to keep the soldier is to keep him comfortable 
when not in the field. 

"When the troops in Arizona are concen- 
trated, a portion of them can be usefully em- 
ployed as parties, with engineer officers and 
proper facifities, exploring the extensive district 
north of the Upper Gila, and on both sides of 
the Little Colorado, now comparatively un- 
known, and it may be found valuable in minerals. 
I recommend that €ongress be asked for an 
appropriation of fifteen or twenty thousand dol- 
lars and that three or four competent engineer 
officers be detailed on this duty. The division 
commander authorizes me to say that escorts 
can be furnished them from tins department. 
ShoiUd the appropriation I recommend be 
granted, these exploring expeditions will give us 
reliable information, now much needed, of the 
country through which the thirty-fifth parallel 
railroad is proposed to be built, and contribute 
to the protec^on of the parties of adventurous 
miners who are pushing their way into those 
wilds, many of them with insufficient supplies or 
means of defense, and who are not to be deterred 
because others have gone there and never been 
heard of. 

"Portions of a band of Pi-TJtes, from north- 
em Arizona, who frequent the valley of north- 
em California, and who, under tiie skillful 



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90 HMTORT or ARIZONA. 

soldiersMp of General Crook, commanding the 
department of the Coliunbia, were compelled to 
submit last year, have been recently troublesome 
in Surprise Valley. Additional troops have 
been sent there, and the matter has been, by 
order of the division commander, placed under 
control of the commander of tiie sub-district of 
the Lakes, composed of portions of this Depart- 
ment and that of the Columbia, with orders to 
act in the premises, so that no serious difficulty 
need be apprehended. 

"In connection with the reduction of civil 
employees, ordered from Washington, it was 
found mmecessary to discharge many civilians 
in this department, the reduction having been 
already made to nearly the maximum allowed; 
but I beg leave to call attention to the fact that 
the duties of blacksmiths, farriers, carpenters, 
wheelwrights, teamsters, guides, interpreters, 
packers, and other skilled laborers, are as neces- 
sary in building, wagonmaking and repairing, 
shoeing, transporting freight, and other similar 
duties for the army, as they are for the business 
and support of our frontier towns; that our 
army posts are the nucleus around which such 
towns collect; and there are not mechanics or 
skillful laborers in the United States willing to 
enlist as soldiers and perform such duties for 
sixteen dollars per month in greenbacks, when 
in every village or settlement among the moun- 
tains and plains such labor is worth from three 
to ten dollars in gold per day. The result is, we 
have not soldiers to do such work, and either 
civilians must be hired to perform it for the 
army, or the army posts and expeditions in the 



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THE HIUTABT. 91 

Indian country must be abandoned and the 
troops concentrated at places where they are not 
needed. 

"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 
your obedient servant, 

"E.O. C. OED, 
"Brigadier and Brevet Major-General Com- 
manding. 
"Brevet Major-General E. D. TOWNSEND, 
"Adjutant-General United States Army." 

In the foregoing report nothing is said of 
Colonel Green's order depriving Captain Barry 
of hia command, and preferring charges against 
him. An entirely different version of that epi- 
sode is given from that given by Mr. Banta, 
whose life was forfeit had Captain Barry obeyed 
orders. 

The policy of extermination of the Apaches 
was followed by the military and the citizens of 
Arizona to a great extent, up to 1870. In 1869, 
after the inauguration of President Grant, a 
Peace Commission was appointed. Their ac- 
tivities in Arizona will be treated fully in subse- 
quent pages of this history. 

In 1869, while the war was pressed ruthlessly 
both in the northern and southern territory 
of Arizona, the exterminating policy, to some 
extent, was relaxed in the northern portion of 
the Territory, but it seems was relentlessly 
prosecuted in the southern portion. 

The following, taken from a story by Banta, 
which was printed in his paper, "The Ob- 
server," in St. Johns, Apache County, in the 
year 1911, gives a vivid picture of conditions as 
they existed prior to and during the year 1869: 



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92 EUETFOBT OF ARIZONA. 

"That readers of 'The Observer' may better 
comprehend conditions as they existed forty-two 
years ago, in a country now covered with happy 
homes and settlements long since unused to tiie 
whoop of the cruel, bloodthirsty and savage 
Apache, a country known at that time as the 
*Apacheria' and unknown and unexplored by 
white men. True, King S. Woolsey, with a force 
of two hundred citizens, fought his way into the 
Tonto Basin in the spring of 1864, but after the 
celebrated 'Pinole Treaty,' was forced to fight 
his way out again, and from that time down, al- 
most to 1880, the country remained a terra in- 
cognita. The section of which I speak, included 
the whole eoimtry north of the Gila river, and 
east of the Verde river; also bounded on the 
north by the Little Colorado river, and on the 
east by the frontier villages of western New 
Mexico. These Mexican villages were subject to 
Indian raids, by either Navahos or Apaches, at 
any and all times down to comparatively recent 
times. 

"The military, ever in advance, had estab- 
lished camps at several points near the southern 
and western edges of this Apacheria; in fact, 
Camp Reno was located well inside the Apache 
lines, being near the eastern base of the Mazat- 
zal range, and perhaps two or three miles west 
of Tonto Creek. This camp was garrisoned 
with one company of infantry, and the camp 
was almost daily hiarassed by the Tonto Apaches 
imder the leadership of Chief Da-ehay-ya. The 
Apaches were so numerous and hovered so 
closely about the camp, that it was considered 
dangerous to even wander a hundred yards from 



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THE MIUTABT. 93 

the military camp. If wood were needed, a de- 
tachment of soldiers was sent with wagons, and 
many times the wood party had to fight for their 
lives. In all the country of which liiis story re- 
lates, not a single white man had his habitat, nor 
a settlement existed. 

"Before closing these preliminary remarks, it 
is necessary that I should say a few words anent 
the milita^, their camps, locations and opera- 
tions. 

"At the time the event of which this stoiy re- 
lates, the year 1869, the Territory of Arizona 
was subdivided into two military districts, the 
northern commanded by Brevet Brigadier Gen- 
eral Frank Wheaton, with his headquarters at 
Fort Whipple; the southern district, and the 
one in which this story is concerned, was com- 
manded by Brevet-Brigadier General Thomas 
E. Devin, with headquarters at Camp McDowell. 
Arizona at that time was in the Military Depart- 
ment of the Pacific, commanded by Brigadier 
General E. O. C. Ord. Camp Goodwin, first es- 
tablished by the California Volunteers in 1864, 
and named in honor of Arizona's first acting 
governor — ^not the first appointed by Mr. Lin- 
coln, but the first one to act— was situated about 
three miles south of the Gila river, but after be- 
ing occupied for a number of years, it was fin- 
ally abandoned on account of its unhealthful- 
ness. Camp Goodwin pertained to the southern 
military district, and in 1869 was garrisoned with 
several companies of the First Cavalry, besides 
infantry, under the command of Colonel John 
Green. The troops stationed in the Territory 
in 1869 were the First and Eighth Regiments of 



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M HUaXOBY OF ARIZONA. 

Cavalry; also the 12th Infantry, and the 'thiev- 
ing' 14th Infantry. 

"Along in the year 1869, and years prior 
thereto, the Apaches were exceedingly trouble- 
some — their normal condition, however — and 
were incessantly conunitting acts of pillage, 
rapine and murder throughout almost the whole 
of southern Arizona. General Devin was relia- 
bly informed that many of the depredations that 
were committed in various parts of southern 
Arizona, and laid at the door of Cochise and 
other bands of Apaches south of the Gila, were 
being committed by the Apaches from the 
Apacheria of the north. 

"Early in July, 1869, Colonel Green, com- 
manding at Camp Goodwin, received orders 
from McDowell headquarters, to take all his 
available force, and personally head a campaign 
of 'extermination' against the Apaches in tie 
mountains north of the Gila river. Pursuant to 
orders, Colonel Green crossed the Gila at the 
head of four troops of the first cavalry and a 
small auxiliary force of friendly Apaches under 
Chief Manuel. The Colonel plunged at once into 
the imknown mountain fastnesses, and after 
many days' clambering and climbing over almost 
precipitous and worse, canyons, the command 
finally encamped on the evening of July 27tli, 
1860, near the junction of two mountain streams, 
whidi are now known as the east and west forks 
of White River, and about a quarter of a mile 
west of the present Fort Apache. All along 
the line of march hostiles were met with, many 
of whom were killed, and more wounded. Any 
stock seen by the troopers were killed, and all 



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THE MnJTABT. 95 

growing crops destroyed. In fact, it was a cam- 
paign of retaliation — one of extermination and 
devastation. 

"At this point Colonel Green, finding himself 
in the very heart of the Apacheria, decided to 
establish a camp as a working base, and named 
it Camp Ord. His acts were afterward ap- 
proved by the General commanding, and the 
camp made permanent by a general order. That 
camp is now known as Fort Apache." 



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96 BISTORT OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE MILITARY (Cantinued). 

General George Stoneman Takes Command — 
His Policy — The "Ring" Again — Con- 
tractors' LuOT for Money Leads to War 
ON Indians — Methods Employed by 
Apaches — Apache Outrages — Killing of 
Kennedy and Israel — Attack on I^nt 
and Habpending Mining Party — Killing 
OP SniRLBy — **Jeff" Davis's Experience 
With Induns — Attacks on Wagon Trains 
— A. P. K. Safford Appointed Gov- 
ernor of the Territory — His Interview 
With the "New York Herald" — Asks 
That Arizona be Allowed to Raise 
Volunteebs — Government Fubnishes 
Arms and Ammunition for Citizen Mili- 
tia — How THE Apaches Secured Arms and 
Ammunition — Activities of Military — 
LmuT.-CoLONEL Sanpord's Expedition — 
— Lieutenant Cushino's ExpEromoN — 
Lieutenant Graham's Expedftion — Cap- 
tain William Cry's Expedition, 

About the middle of the year 1870, General 
George Stoneman was assigned to the command 
of Arizona, witii headquarters at Port Whipple, 
and assumed command in July of that year. 
General Stoneman was a general in the Civil 
War and, as a cavalry officer, left a distinguished 
record. The task assigned to him in Arizona 
was a difficult one. The people, as we have 
seen, were aroused to frenzy and demanded the 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



GENERAL UEORUK 8T0XEMAX. 



Digitized By Google 



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THE MnJTABT. 97 

immediate amuhilation or capture of the 
Apaches, and because speedy relief did not 
follow his appointment, he was censured to 
even a greater degree Hi&q his predecessors 
had been. Arizonans were impatient and could 
not await any natural solution of the Apache 
war, but demanded that victory should come 
at once. Stoneman went about his work care- 
fully. Arizona at that time was not fully 
explored. FuUy one-third of the Territory was, 
and always had been in the hands of the 
Apaches, and, so far as the general public was 
concerned, was a terra incognita. Stoneman 
was accused of spending too much time in the 
details of establishing new posts, and the im- 
provement of old ones, the huilding of roads, etc. 
Consequently, the "red tape" business of mili- 
tary circles received a liberal share of abuse. 
While this popular outcry against the General 
in command of Arizona was going on in the 
Territory, in the East a sympathetic feeling was 
gaining groxmd that demanded the use of pacific 
measures with the Indians, and Stoneman was 
censured for being too severe in attacking all 
Apaches for the offenses of the few. However, 
it must be said that much of his policy was good 
and finally led to a solution of the Indian 
prohlems. He believed by furnishing rations 
and blankets to a few friendly Indians, it would 
induce others to come in and so gradually lessen 
the work of subduing them. He believed also 
in placing them upon reservations, which was 
following Mason's idea, that putting them to 
work raising com was better than keeping 
them on the warpath, raising scalps. He be- 
vm— 7 



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96 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

lieved that they should be tau^t to earn their 
own living, but when this plan was attempted it 
was denounced by another class who cared not 
for blood or treasure. Contractors had much to 
say and pulled the wires to a great extent. If 
the Indians did work to maintain themselves, it 
lessened the contractors' chances of making an 
enormous amount of money out of their con- 
tracts, as many of them did. This element was 
strong and the "ring" was laboring to defraud 
the poor natives out of what the Government 
gave them. To be at the head of an Indian 
agency was a lucrative position, although the 
s^ary was small. The contractors' "ring" 
reached from Tucson to Washington, and in- 
cluded many men who held responsible positions. 
These men came to Arizona to make money in the 
quickest way possible, and that quickest way was 
to defraud the Government and the Indians. 
Says Fish : "Of all the contractors of early days 
it is hardly possible to find one who remained in 
the Territory. As soon as they made their 
money, they went East or to San Francisco to 
live. Not one of this patriotic fraternity cared a 
fig for Arizona. The people were taught to op- 
pose agencies where the Apaches worked and 
were fed. They feared that it would reduce the 
military force for one thing, and that it would 
suspend campaigns and lead to an inactive state 
of war. What they wanted was a war of exter- 
mination. It was under this state of feeling that 
the Camp Grant massacre was perpetrated," 
an account of which has been given in a previous 
volume. 



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THE MIIJTABY. 99 

"When the Indians encountered Americans 
and American troops they soon discovered that 
they had a different foe to deal with than the 
Mexicans. In tracing the adventures of differ- 
ent military bands and citizen nulitia who, aided 
by the friendly Indians, time and again under- 
took to dislodge the Apaches from their last 
fastnesses in the Santa Rita and northern 
ranges, one is compelled to award the Apaches 
the palm of bravery in defense of their nomes 
and the treasures inherited from their fathers. 
Very few of the warlike tribes were at peace 
with the Americans at this time. It is stated 
that at Camp Keno Da-chay-ya's band of Tontos 
and some others were peaceable and doing some 
work, but often those who pretended to be 
friendly were harboring and feeding the hostiles. 
John T. Dennis, who lived near the site of the 
present waterworks of Phoenix, lost a large 
number of cattle and horses through a raid of 
the Yavapai Apaches, and these raiders were 
probably aided by some who pretended to be 
friendly. 

In the winter of 1870 and spring of 1871, the 
Apaches, probably by agreement, resorted to the 
tactics of making attacks simultaneously in dif- 
ferent places at great distances apart, for the 
purpose of disconcerting their enemies, wearing 
them out and confusing them in their movements. 
They dared not meet the troops in battle, even 
where they had the advantage, but resorted to a 
Fabian policy. The Apaches, as we have seen, 
would often crawl up to the very edge of a fort, 
and kill a sentinel, a herder or a wagoner with 
a bow and arrow, which made no noise, and their 



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100 HISTORY OF AfilZONA. 

presence would not be known until the body of 
their victim was discovered. This mode of war- 
fare kept the soldiers and settlers in constant 
alarm, for they lost many of tiieir mmibers 
without even seeing or hearing the enemy. 
Murders were becoming frequent and the In- 
dians left no trail for their enemy to pursue. 
Matters were approaching a state as discourag- 
ing as that cast over the Territory when the 
troops vacated it some ten years before at the 
outbreak of the Civil War. 

From Bourke's "On the Border with Crook," 
Hamilton's "Resources of Arizona," and Hin- 
ton's "Handbook of Arizona," I condense the 
following stories of Apache outrages, which 
show the condition of Arizona at this time : 

In the spring of 1870 Kennedy and Israel 
owned a ranch about a mile below old Camp 
Grant on the San Pedro. They had gone into 
Tucson to obtain laborers to work on their ranch, 
and had hired a number of Mexicans. The 
party, consisting of about thirty, started for the 
ranch. Just after they left the Canyon del Oro 
they were attacked by about forty Apaches. 
Kennedy and Israel were both shot, Israel dying 
on the spot, but Kennedy, although badly 
wounded, succeeded in crawling a short dis- 
tance from the camp. Most of the party suc- 
ceeded in reaching some sheltering rocks and 
escaped from the Indians. The Indians plun- 
dered the wagons and set fire to them. One of 
the Mexicans, although badly wounded, suc- 
ceeded in reaching Camp Grant where he gave 
the alarm, telling the story of the massacre. 
The troops were immediately sent out to the 



:,v Google 



THE MILITABT. 101 

scene of the tragedy and reached the place a lit- 
tle before daylight They found Kennedy, shot 
in the breast with an arrow, perfectly rational, 
but suffering terribly. He stated that at the 
time of the attack he jumped upon a mule and 
was making good his escape when he was shot by 
an Indian. The mule was also shot, but Ken- 
nedy got far enough from the camp to avoid the 
Indians, and then laid down. He had broken 
the arrow off trying to pull it out. He was 
taken to the camp but died shortly after reach- 
ing there. A company under the conunand of 
Lieut. Howard B. Gushing started upon the 
trail of the Indians who had a considerable start 
of the troops, something over a day. One thing 
occurred which materially aided the purauers. 
Among the things taken by the Indians was a 
box of patent medicine. The Indians, blinking 
it was whiskey, drank quite freely of it The 
pursuers soon discovered that the medicine had 
affected them as the trail showed where they 
had staggered along, running against trees, 
bushes and cacti. The troops followed for sev- 
eral days, and finally succeeded in overtaking 
and surprising them one morning before day- 
light. The soldiers raised a terrific yell and 
poured a volley into the Indians which laid sev- 
eral low. The Apaches made for some rocks, 
but were soon driven from their shelter, many 
of them being killed and many being taken pris- 
oners. The soldiers had followed them to the 
northwest, the Apaches making for the Tonto 
country. Although taken by surprise many of 
the Indians mumged to effect their escape, the 
prisoners taken being mostly squaws. 



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1(^ HISTOBT OF ARIZOXA. 

In the summer of 1870 a party, from the 
Gomstock mines of Nevada, fitted out by Lent £ 
Harpeudiug of San Francisco, was on its way 
to Fort Bowie for the purpose of examining 
the mines in that vicinity which had lately 
been discovered and were attracting consider- 
able attention, aa they were reported to be 
extremely rich. The party passed Maricopa 
WeUs and all seemed to be going nicely. No 
signs of Indians had been seen, but, suddenly 
the party was surprised and attacked by the 
noted Cochise and his band. Many of the com- 
pany made their escape in various conditions, 
but as the day was hot and most of them had 
little on but their underclothes, they arrived at 
Camp Grant in sad plight. Running through 
the brush and prickly pears had almost stripped 
them of what they originally wore, and some of 
them were badly wounded besides. It was the 
old story; they had seen no Indians and sus- 
pected no danger. Lieutenant Gushing, with 
a company, left Camp Grant in pursuit of 
the hostiles, whom they followed for several 
days, going over the ground where the city 
of Globe stands to-day. They overtook a part 
of the Indians and in trying to run down two of 
them, they had one man killed. They also lost 
an animal or two and killed one or perhaps two, 
Indians. The hardships of the trip over the 
moimtains were such that both men and animals 
were about exhausted on their return to camp. 

In the north tiie Indians were not idle. In 
the summer of 1870 a Lynx Creek miner, named 
Shirley, while himting, went to a spring for a 
drink and was captured by the Indians. Being 



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THE MILITABY. 103 

missed, his friends searched for him and foimd 
his trail to the spring and saw where he had been 
surrounded and taken prisoner. All traces of 
him from that spot were lost, but a few years 
afterwards, in the Black Hills, the skeleton of a 
man was found tied by withes to a tree, head 
down, and the remains of a fire which had been 
built under Ms head were still visible. It was 
reasonably certain that the bones were those of 
the unfortunate Shirley, who was so tortured to 
death. 

C. Davis, better known as *'Jeff" Davis, had 
a lively experience. In those days he lived on 
a lonely ranch near the head of ihe Hassayampa 
and was engaged in farming and stock raising. 
The latter pursuit, however, was not a success, 
for whenever he had accumulated a few head of 
stock, the Indians would confiscate them. 
"Jeff" was a great hunter and on one of his ex- 
peditions he came upon a band of Indians in 
the heavy pine timber. Stepping behind a tree 
he waited until the foremost savage got within 
range, when his trusty rifle rang out and the In- 
dian fell to rise no more. The astonished red- 
skins looked around to see whence the attack 
came, and ere they could recover themselves, two 
more bit the dust. The remainder fled panic 
stricken, "Jeff" shooting as long as one was in 
si^t. 

In 1870 Stephens, Weaver, and some others, 
were on their way to Salt River, and a Mr. 
Hanna was on his way north with a load of grain 
for Prescott. They camped on the Agua Fria, 
twenty miles north of Phoenix, and had not 
separated long when the Indians attacked Hanna 



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104 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

and destroyed Ids train. It was the same band 
of Indians, no doubt, that massacred Major 
Sniveley and his party, and also captured a 
wagon and team out of Crete Bryan's train, be- 
sides committing numerous other depredations. 

A. O. Noyes had a sawmill twelve miles from 
Prescott, where he cut a large quantity of lum- 
ber. It is stated that on his books were crosses 
against the names of over three himdred men 
with whom he had dealings, who had been 
killed by the Indians. During the vears 1868, 
1869, 1870 and 1871, Arizona and her people 
suffered the most. 

General Stoneman, as has been stated, as- 
sumed command in Arizona about the middle 
of the year 1870, and was succeeded by General 
Crook in June, 1871. General Stoneman 's ten- 
ure of office, liie that of many of his predeces- 
sors, was of short duration, but he was very ac- 
tive. The expeditions which he organized, in 
some of which Governor Safford took part, ex- 
plored the entire Apache country much of which, 
up to that time, had been unexplored by the 
whites. The combats of the Federal forces un- 
der his command, were discouraging to the 
hostiles. Through him a truce was declared be- 
tween the Mohaves, the Wallapais, the Tavapais, 
and the Apache-Timaas, on the Colorado. 

A. P. K. Safford, of Nevada, was appointed 
Governor of the Territory of Arizona by Presi- 
dent Grant and took office in April, 1869. 

After spending a short time in the Territory, 
and familiari^g himself with conditions, he 
left for the East. The "Miner," under date 
of February 12th, 1870, has tiie following: 



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THE MILITABX. 105 

"In an interview with the 'New York Herald,' 
Governor Safford said that on the first of Janu- 
ary we had an army of fifteen hundred men, 
while the Apaches numbered over twenty thou- 
sand." (If this is meant to be twenty thousand 
warriors it is evidently incorrect, for the entire 
population of the Apaches at that time did not 
niunber twenty thousand; probably two thou- 
sand warriors were all they could muster). 
"There are only fifteen or twenty military posts 
throughout the Territory. We need hardly add 
that the force is barely sufficient to carry on 
even a defensive warfare, while the property of 
the inhabituits is some distance from tlie posts 
and is constantly in immediate danger. The 
Apaches want no peace whatever. Time after 
time have we tried to teach them agricultural 
pursuits and change their mode of esastenee but 
scarcely had they been courteously received when 
some daring outrage would be committed, after 
which they would fly to their strongholds in the 
thickly wooded forests. Plunder is their ruling 
l)assionj and they follow it with a will, and it is 
almost impossible to get at them. In reply to a 
question as to what military force would be 
needed, Governor Safford said about three 
regiments of cavalry and one thousand infan- 
try; that it was the opinion of military men that 
such a force would, within a year, eradicate the 
difficulty. 

" 'Reporter: 'Under the circumstances, what 
would you recommend as a proper course to be 
pursued f 

" 'Governor S afford: 'As a matter of econ- 
omy, to say nothing of humanity, I think the 



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106 HISTOHY OF ABIZOMA. 

Government should expend a sufficient siun to 
secure a permanent peace. Such a course would 
induce immigration. Surely, if you cannot pro- 
tect yourselves you cannot protect the country. 
I am firmly convinced that the policy which is 
now being pursued by the Government will never 
tend to develop the country." 

"He goes on to say that he does not believe in 
extermination, for ihe Indians have their rights, 
but the inhabitants of the Territory have also 
their rights, among which is peace. There are 
some peaceable tribes, including the Pimas, 
Fapagoes, Maricopas, Mohaves and Yumas, al- 
ways on good terms with the inhabitants, and 
they prosecute their agricultural labors with 
earnestness and honesty, but it is easy to be 
seen that over a Territory, three times as large 
as the State of New York, some sufficient force 
is requisite in order to protect the peaceably 
disposed." 

One of the first acts of Governor Safford was 
the writing of a letter to General Thomas, then 
in command of the Department, asking that 
Arizona be allowed to raise volunteer troops for 
service against the Indians, which had, as we 
have seen, been recommended by both General 
Halleck and General McDowell. The manner in 
which this eommimication was received by the 
military authorities is shown in the following 
proclamation by the Governor: 
"To All Whom It May Concern: 

"Whereas, the constant depredations and 
uniform successes of the Apache Indians in 
murder and pillage, require courage and sacri- 
fices by all our citizens, or the Territory will 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



THE MIUTABT. 107 

continue to be overnm, our fair fields des- 
olated, and our people driven out or extermin- 
ated; our lives and property, and the safety of 
our homes and firesides depend, to a great ex- 
tent, upon our own exertions. If we help our- 
selves, the Government will be stimulated to 
more effectually help us. I know we have al- 
ready lost many of our bravest and best; I also 
know that our people have been impoverished 
by constant robbery, and that few can even ill- 
afford to make additional sacrifices, but, on the 
other hand, if we continue to struggle and fight 
on in common, we may hope to soon witness the 
complete subjugation of our relentless foe, and 
thereafter possess in peace a Territory unsur- 
passed in leading resources and salubrity of 
climate; and 

"Whereas, moved by these positive convic- 
tions, on the 31st day" of August, 1869, I ad- 
dressed a communication to Major-Qeneral 
George H. Thomas, then commanding the Mili- 
tary Division of the Pacific, requesting rations, 
arms and ammunition for three companies of 
citizen volunteers, which communication was re- 
ferred to the General of the United States Army 
at Washington, and in reply the following cir- 
cular was issued : 

"•HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF 
CALIFORNIA, 

" *San Francisco, November 3, 1869. 

" 'CIRCULAR No. 20. 
" 'In answer to application to the General 
Commanding the Army for authority to furnish 
arms, ammunition and rations to three com- 



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108 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

panies of Tolxmteers, serring against the Indians 
in Arizona, the following reply is received : 

• •«••*•* 

" 'Whenever the commanding officer of an 
organized hody of troops in Arizona is moving 
against hostile Indians, there is no objection to 
his taking along such citizens as obey his orders 
and assist him with their arms. This is the best 
way for the people to aid the military. 
" 'Very respectfully your obedient servant, 
" 'E. D. TOWNSEND, 
*' 'Adjutant General.' " 
" 'Whenever armed citizens choose to join a 
command moving against hostile Indians, they 
win be furnished with rations, and, if necessary, 
with ammunition, but nothing more. 
" 'By Order of Major-General THO MAS, 
" 'WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, 
" 'Asst. Adjutant General. 
' ' ' Headquarters Military Division of the Pacific, 

" 'San Francisco. Nov. 1, 1869. 
" *By Command of Brevt. Maj.-Genl. ORD, 
" 'JOHN P. SHERBURNE, 
" *Asst Adjutant General. 
" 'OFFICIAL: 

'"E.W.STONE, 
" 'Brevt. Lieut-Col. U. S. Army, A. A. A. G.' 
and, 

"Whereas, the military force within the Ter- 
ritory is inadequate to cajry on an a^ressively 
destructive war against the Apaches, or to in- 
sure protection to life and property, even in the 
most populous settlements : 

"NOW, THEREFORE, the Government of 
the United States having furnished for the 



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THE MILXTABT. 109 

use of our citizens 744 improved breach loading 
guns, with ample ammmution, I, A. P. K. Saf- 
lord. Governor of the Territory of Arizona, and 
Commander-in-Chief of the militia thereof, call 
upon every able-bodied man, subject to militaiT- 
duty, to immediately aid in organizing the mili- 
tia in accordance with law ana with Sie recom- 
mendations of my proclamation of October 18th, 

1869, in order that the arms may be distributed, 
and the militia force prepared for active service 
in the field, and for co-operation with the regu- 
lar troops. 

"Given under my hand and the seal of the 
Territory, at Tucson, this second day of May, 
A. D. 1870. 

"A. P. K. SAFPORD. 
"By the Governor: 

"COLES BASHPORD, 

"Secretary of the Territory. 
" (Seal) "By THOS. E. McCAFFREY, 

"Assistant Secretary." 
From the foregoing it will be seen that al- 
though the General Government refused the 
Governor's request for authority to raise volun- 
teer troops, it was in favor of establishing a 
Territorial Militia, and furnished arms for that 
purpose. 
In the "Miner," under date of March 26th, 

1870, I find the following: 

"Governor Safford, according to a dispatch to 
the 'San Francisco Chronicle,' obtained the con- 
sent of the Senate Committee on Military Af- 
fairs, to recommend the raising of two volunteer 
regiments in Arizona for service against the In- 
dians." 



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110 HISTOET OF ABIZONA. 

It is uimeeessary to say that authority was 
never given to raise these volunteer regiments. 

It was a mystery at that time as to where the 
Apaches got their ammunition and guns. Of 
course they captured a great many guns, but not 
sufficient to account for the number of which 
they were possessed during this trying period. 
Many supposed that they were supplied by the 
Moqui Indians, as they were known to be con- 
stantly trading with the hoatiles. The follow- 
ing official commimication bearing upon this 
subject, was published in the "Miner" of July 
23rd, 1870: 

"Fort Wingate, New Mexico, 
"July 2, 1870. 
"To Brevet Major General George F. Wheaton, 

"Commanding the Northern District of 
"Arizona, 

"Port Whipple, Arizona. 
"Sir: 

"Your commimication of the 10th of May, 
1870, is at hand and I found it at Fort Defiance, 
Arizona, on my return from the Moqui Villages, 
where I took station on the 9th day of May last. 
The Moqui Indians have been in the habit 
of visiting Preseott and Fort Whipple, Arizona, 
from Oraibi, one of the Moqui villages under my 
charge. No doubt exists in my mind that the 
Oraibi trade more or less with different bands of 
the Apaches, as do several of the other villages, 
but not to so great an extent. During my stay 
I talked to them of the bad policy they were pur- 
suing and its probable effects if not discon- 
tinued, but as they are situated in a remote land 
and as liiey are but Indians, I doubt if any re- 



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THE MILITAEY. Ill 

monstrance I could make would have any effect. 
However, I made all the villages promise to treat 
hostile Apaches as their enemies, as well as ours, 
threatening a discontinuance of Governmental 
assistance, and the arrest and trial of the chief 
who allowed any further trading with any of the 
Apaches. I expect soon to make another visit 
to the Moqui villages for the purpose of vaccin- 
ating all their inhabitants and relating the con- 
tents of your letter to them. It would be 
impracticable to get any Moquis to act as scouts 
as they are lazy, cowardly, and have their grow- 
ing crops to attend to. I will mention the mat- 
ter to the chiefe and send an Indian to Prescott 
with such information in regard to the matter as 
I can collect 
"Very respectfully your obedient servant, 
"A. L. PALMER, 
"Captain U.S. A. 
"Special Agent for Moqui Indians, 
"Arizona Territory." 
The following is General Order No. 9, show- 
ing the activities of the military at that time : 
"Headquarters Department of Arizona, 
"August 2, ief70. 

"GENERAL ORDER NUMBER 9. 
"Following summary of successful operations 
against the Indians in this Department during 
the past three months is published for general 
information. Other scouts have been made 
creditable alike to officers and men engaged, but 
not having encountered Indians, no result other 
than scouting and acquiring a topographical 



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112 HISTOBY OP AKIZONA. 

knowledge of the country, although fecial men- 
tion of these are not made. 

"Lieutenant-Colonel G. B. Sanford left Gamp 
McDowell in the latter part of April, with an 
expedition consisting of Troop E, First Cavalry, 
Lieutenant Sherman; Troop B, 3d Cavahy, 
Captain Meinhold and Lieutenant Smith ; Com- 
pany A, 2l8t Infantry, Brevet-Major Collins, 
five officers and eighty men, and moved to Pinal 
creek where he established a scouting camp. The 
expedition remained out over seventy days, and 
marched over five hundred miles. The follow- 
ing is a brief summary of the principal events: 

"The command moved down Tonto Creek and 
up the Salt River and across to the Pinal Creek, 
where a large field of wheat was discovered and 
destroyed. On the 30th of April, Brevet-Major 
Collins was detached with a portion of the com- 
mand, consisting of Lieut. Smith, 3rd Cavalry, 
and twenty-five men from E Troop, 1st Cavalry; 
twenty-five men from B Troop, 3rd Cavalry; 
three men of Company A, 2l8t Infantry, with 
citizen Murphy as a guide. Moving in an east- 
erly direction and striking a trail, he followed 
it for eig^t miles and came upon a rancheria 
where a large quantity of mescal seeds was 
foimd and destroyed, the Indians having aban- 
doned it but a few hours before its discovery. 
Pushing on eight miles further, he charged and 
succeeded in killing nine and capturing four, 
and destroying large quantities of mescal, 
blankets, seeds, etc. On returning to where he 
struck the first rancheria he discovered three 
Indians, and succeeded in killing two. He then 
returned to camp upon Pinal Creek, having 



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THE MHJTABT. 113 

been out twenty-four hours, marching forty-five 
miles, and succeeding in killing eleven Indians 
and capturing four, besides destroying a large 
amount of property of great value to the 
Indians. 

*'The horses of B Troop, 3rd Cavalry, being 
in bad condition and the infantry having been 
constantly on the march. Colonel Smith replaced 
B Troop vrith E Troop, 3rd Cavalry, Captain 
Sutorius ; and Co. A, vritii Co. G, of tiie 21st In- 
fantry, laeutenant J. M. Poss, one hundred and 
ten men in all, including E Troop, 1st Cavalry, 
which was not relieved. On the 21st, near Can- 
yon Creek, for the purpose of moving vrith great 
rapidity, the pack train was placed in a secure 
position and left in charge of Lieutenant Poss 
with a guard of fifty men. 

"Colonel Sanford started on the 25th vrith 
part of his command, and moved in an easterly 
direction towards the Black Mesa. About day- 
light on crossing the Aurora Colorado, evi- 
dence was discovered of the Apaches being pres- 
ent in large numbers, also com fields, etc. Just 
before sunrise the command entered a large 
fertile valley bordering a beautiful stream of 
water, and almost immediately discovered a 
rancheria. The command was at once deployed 
and ordered to charge, which they did with a 
will. Other rancherias were found in various 
directions, and the men scattered in pursuit. 
About 10 A. M., the command was reimited, 
when about twenty-one Indians were found to 
have been killed, and twelve prisoners taken, 
also tiiree horses and three mules cwtured. 
Large quantities of articles valuable to Indians 



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114 HISTORr OF AltlZONA. 

were destroyed. The valleys for miles were 
planted with com. The command then re- 
turned, scouting through Turkey Valley, across 
Sombrero Butte, Salt River, Rio Knto, and 
Tonto Creek, the result of the expedition being 
as follows : 

"Apaches killed, 33. Captured 16 animals, 
horses 3, mules 3, besides having destroyed large 
fields of wheat and com, and nimierous other 
things of value to the Indians. In the ranch- 
erias on the Chevelon the scalp of a white man 
was found, and numerous articles which had 
been taken from citizens and volimteers. 

"On the 29th of May, Lieutenant Cushing, 
3d Cavalry, with Lieutenant Smith, 3rd Cav- 
alry, fourteen men of B, and twenty of F, 
troops, 3d Cavalry, and thirty men of K Troop, 
Ist Cavalry, started in pursuit of a band of 
Indians who had attacked and captured a wagon 
train and killed some citizens near Canyon del 
Oro, on the road between Tucson and Camp 
Grant. Having discovered the trail, it was fol- 
lowed for a distance of about a hundred and 
seventy miles, when, in the afternoon of the 
4th of June, having reached the top of the 
Apache mountains, discovered signs of being 
in their vicinity. The command was withdrawn 
down the eastern slope of the moimtains into 
camp without having been discovered. At mid- 
night the command moved towards the point 
where the campfires were seen, crossing the 
summit and moving down the western slope 
within about three miles of the rancherias, 
where the conmiand was divided, Lieutenant 



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THE MIUTABT. 115 

Gushiiig leading the direct attack, and Lieu< 
tenant Smith moving on the flank. At day- 
light on the morning of the 5th, the attack was 
made. In thirty minutes the rancherias were 
struck by Lieutenant Cuahing's party, and the 
Indians, taken by surprise, ran down a canyon, 
where they w^re met by Lieutenant Smith and 
his party, and many kUled. The Indians scat- 
tered in every direction, thirty being wounded 
in the immediate vicinity. Many hostiles were 
reported as killed by the men and two guides. 
The rugged nature of the ground where the 
rancherias were situated made it more than 
probable that many Indians were killed which 
were not seen by the commanding officers. 
Large quantities of prepared mescal and prop- 
erty, taken from the captured Indians, were de- 
stroyed, also two mules recaptured, the others 
having been killed. 

"Lieutenant Gushing reports that the men 
behaved throughout in a manner worthy of the 
highest commendation, particularly recommend- 
ing to the attention of the Deparlxnent Com- 
mander Sergeants Warfield of the 3d Cavalry, 
and Whooten of the 1st Cavalry, and guides 
Manuel and Oscar Hutton. 

"These expeditions were made pursuant to 
instructions from Colonel Cogswell, command- 
ing tlie subdistrict of Southern Arizona; and 
he reports them as having been in every way 
satisfactory. 

"On the 3rd of June Lieutenant Graham, 
with fourteen men of M Troop, 3rd Cavalry, 
started in pursuit of a band of tidians who had 
driven ofE a herd of cattle from the immediate 



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116 HiaroBY OF abizona. 

vicinity of Fort Whipple. Lieutenant Graham 
started without waiting to saddle, and pushed 
them to such an extent that they abandoned, the 
herd, except three which they had killed, which 
he recovered, and killed two Indians. 

"Expedition mider the command of Captain 
WUliam Ory, 3rd Cavalry, consisting of lieu- 
tenant Cra^ebaugh, 3rd Cavalry, acting as as- 
sistant sergeant, and thirty-five enlist^ men 
of Troops A, C, L, and M, 3rd Cavalry, left 
Camp Verde on the 27th of May, 1870, with 
instructions to locate a practicable wagon road 
from Camp Verde to the new post in the White 
Mountains, and to the mouth of Cottonwood 
Fork on the Colorado Cbiquito. Captain Ory 
returned on the 27th of June, having been suc- 
cessful in finding a practicable road to both 
points indicated. In one of the several engage- 
ments with the Indians, the command killed 
one and captured seven, having one sergeant 
and two privates wounded in me attack. The 
commanding officers convey their thanks to the 
officers and men engaged in the above operation 
for the energy and perseverance displayed. By 
such exertions they not only reflect credit on 
themselves but on the regiments to which they 
belong. 

"By command of Brevet ]tfajor General 
Stoneman, 

"E. W. STONE, 
"B. L. COUilNS, 17. S. A., 
"Acting Assistant Adjutant Genend.'* 



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OircaiQES BY INDIANS. 117 



CHAPTER VII. 
outbaqes by indians. 

"Miner" £^itobial Bescribino Trip Through 
Indian Country — Interviews Between 
General Stoneman and Indians — 
"Mineb" Prints Petition to President 
With List of Three Hundred and One 
Persons Killed by Indians in Seven Years. 

On the 15th of October, 1870, the "Miner" 
had an editorial written by John Marion, which 
follows: 

"On a trip through Arizona the Indians had 
not changed much since last we saw them in 
1866, but we missed some familiar faces, and 
as the members of the tribes could give no 
straight accounts of their whereabouts, the con- 
clusion forced itself upon us that they had fallen 
while raiding upon the whites. (This is from 
Camp Thomas.) The supposition was that all 
the Indians around the post were Coyotero 
Apaches, and it is probably correct. We eir- 
cmated about the post considerably during the 
evening of our first day there and gleaned some 
facts regarding our red brother and the coun- 
try, the relation of which may prove inter- 
esting to our readers. Our guide, who ap- 
peared to be well posted, assured us that the Coy- 
otero band or tribe numbered nearly six thou- 
sand souls, fifteen hundred of whom might be 
classed as warriors, which we think is an over 
estimate. They have four chiefs, the head one 
being Seskalthesala, whose chieftainship came 



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118 HI9T0RX OF ARIZONA. 

down to him. His ancestors were Pedro Miguel 
and Chiquita Oapitania. He has but one eye but 
manages to see clearer with that than do many of 
his brother chiefs with their two eyes. In a word, 
he is by far the shrewdest, most able Indian in 
the tribe. The Coyoteros profess to be at peace 
with the whites, but those who know them best 
look upon such profession as a good joke. 
SeskaKliesala and his followers have, for years, 
been friendly with us, not for any love they 
have for us, but for motives of policy, and no 
truer idea of the sentiments of the tribe can 
be given than the fact that Seskalthesala, whom 
they once reverenced and styled ' Capitania 
Grande,' has sunk into insign^cance and dis- 
repute among them. Yet we have some faith 
in the peaceable professions of the remaining 
chiefs, and believe that we can ally them to us 
by treating them squarely and properly, which 
is by keeping a respectable number of troops 
in their country, assisting them to raise crops, 
furnishing them with medicine, and seeing that 
they stay at home and do not steal away on 
exjiieditions. When all this is done the Coyo- 
teros may act honestly. Their country is a 
delightful one, and it is said they are passion- 
ately fond of it. Go where you will through 
it and you will find plenty of game, grass, tim- 
ber, and water, with sufficient agricultural lands 
to produce food for ten thousand people. They 
know how to raise com, wheat, and vegetables, 
at least the women do, and of late years they 
have had particular luck with their crops and 
have raised enough com and fodder to sell to 
the posts. We Imow it to be the fixed opinion 



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OTTTRAGES BY INDIANS. 119 

of Arizonans that the Apache cannot be tamed, 
as proper measures for doing so have never 
been tfUien, but it may be that the opportunity 
will soon be here. We hope so at all events, 
and it is cheaper by far for the eoimtry to 
further their civilization than it is to fight them, 
which latter mode of dealing with them has, so 
far, proven an expensive way of subduing them. 
The Goyoteros speak the same language as 
their friends the Pinalenos and Tontos, and 
perhaps the Apadie-Mohaves, which latter tribe 
IS now normally at peace with us. All being 
Apaches, they visit one another, intermarry, and 
get along together, so that it looks ridiculous 
to be at peace with one clan and allow them 
to become acquainted with our ways and means, 
while fighting tiieir friends and brothers. Al- 
though the Goyoteros say the other clans are 
anxious to make peace with us, the recent mur- 
ders and robberies committed by them do not 
look much like it. All Apaches are on good 
terms with the Zuni and Hoqui Indians, and 
a brisk trade is kept up among them. On the 
contrary, the powerful Navaho tribe, once part 
and parcel of the Apache nation, and still speak- 
ing the same language, are deadly foes to the 
Apaches, killing them whenever and wherever 
they can and robbing them at every opportunity. 
The Navahos are also the scourge of the Moquis 
and Zunis, and, being brave Indians, all others 
are afraid of them. But a little while ago a 
party of tliese King Robbers killed a Coyotero 
and stole his horse, and soon after cut down the 
wheat which the poor Zunis were growing, and 
packed it away with them. The Goyoteros, 



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120 BISTORT OF ABIZONA. 

male and female, are a hardy, good looking, in- 
telligent race of Indians. The women are noted 
for their virtue and industry. The men spend 
their time in gambling and lying aroimd, when 
not hunting or stealing. They manufacture 
from buck^dn very good monte cards, a pack 
of which was secured by Dr. Wirts. They are 
exceedingly suspicious, superstitious and re- 
ligious, consequently have great faitii in and 
reverence for their medicine men. If memory 
serves us right, they deposit their dead in cav- 
erns with all their personal effects. We would 
be delighted to find out something about ova 
near and very dear neighbors, the Pinalenos and 
Tontos, but only heard that the Pinalenos could, 
perhaps, muster fifteen himdred warriors, 
which, if true, is better for us, for they are a 
villainous set of robbers and murderers. 

"The next morning the sim shone brightly 
upon the camp, and we awoke with the first tap 
of the drum, ate a hearty breakfast, and started 
down the river to look for a new site for a 
post, that is, Colonel Stoneman, Major Cogs- 
well, Major Qreen, Captain Smith, and all tiie 
doctors went for that purpose and we accom- 
panied them so as to be on hand to record any 
incident that might occur, for there was a steep 
canyon in front of the site whose depth had to 
be determined, and in doing it some of the offi- 
cers might fall down and break their necks. 
The new site gave entire satisfaction to all, and 
Colonel Stoneman accepted it for the future 
home of his braves. It is on a high mesa a hun- 
dred feet above the level of the stream, and 
cannot be other thail a healthy location. An 



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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 121 

I ndian powwow was to take place this forenoon, 
and when our party got back to camp, many 
Indians were squatted under the trees near 
Colonel Stoneman's tent, anxious to shake hands 
with him and eager to talk in their smooth, wild 
dialect. After the usual presentations were 
made, Mr. Miguel took the floor and addressed 
himself to Chairman Stoneman, saying in sub- 
stance that he was glad to see him; that Ood 
made man different, the white man he made 
ridi and tiie red man he made poor, which was 
all a mistake on Mr. Miguel's part, but he con- 
tinued in regard to where he had made peace 
with Colonel Green, and had been a good man 
ever since. 

*'Seskalthesala spoke next. He commenced 
by saying that he had much to say and was going 
to say it, which remark made us feel uneasy 
for we were anxious to get on the road and strike 
on, but he continued and we were forced to listen 
to the whole speech. The veins in his neck 
swelled until they were as large as a man's 
finger; his mouth opened, and he said he had 
heard a good deal about Stoneman, and was 
glad to see him. God had brought them together 
to smoke in peace, (a gentle hint for some cigar- 
ettes which were immediately furnished and 
passed around), and what he had said or might 
say would be written on stone and he thought 
it would last. Of course this was merely a 
figure of speech, for neither the old fellow nor 
any of his tribe understood the art of writing 
on stone or anything else. Then in token of 
his love for the rations of beef that had been 
given to him, he said that he was always glad 



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122 HI8T0BT OF AfilZONA. 

to get to eat meat ; that snow would soon come 
and his people needed clothing. Once they 
were rich in horses, mules, asses, and cattle, and 
could trade with the Zunis for everything they 
needed, powder and lead included. Now they 
were poor, the soldiers and the frosts having de- 
stroyed their crops, and they did not even have 
powder and lead to kill game with. 

*' Pedro, who appeared in a green suit of 
manta, commenced in a hegging strain. His 
people wanted more rations, guns, powder, lead, 
and clothing. He declaimed against the Nav- 
ahos, and ordered them kept on their reserva- 
tions, or, if they would not stay there, he would 
fight them and steal from them. He wanted 
a phy^cian and an Indian Agent for his people, 
and expressed a laudable desire to learn some- 
thing about two Indians whom he once sent to 
Tucson and who, it was rumored, had been mas- 
sacred near that place. He furthermore said 
that one of Cochise's friends, named Gheis, had 
visited Colonel Green, and was anxious to make 
peace with the Americans, and that he believed 
that Cheis meant what he said. He then spoke 
about the Pinalenos, and said that all but one 
chief were tired of war. Pedro then subsided, 
and Miguel spoke in a new vein- He wanted 
hoes, axes, and other tools for his people, so that 
they could till the groimd and make themselves 
comfortable. This speech pleased Colonel Green 
and General Stoneman better than all the rest. 
General Stoneman inquired if they, the chiefs, 
had said all they desired. Upon being answered 
in the affirmative. General Stoneman then com- 
menced by promising to do all he could for the 



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OtTTRAOES BY INDIANS. 123 

Indians who had lived in peace with the whites. 
God, he said, wanted all people to live in peace. 
Away to the East were myriads of white men, 
and the great Father of all Indians and Ameri- 
cans would do right by all. This appeared to 
please the reds, who grunted their approval. 
General Stoneman then said that should the 
Navahos continue to war upon them, he would 
issue orders to the commanders of posts to send 
their soldiers against the Navahos. He advised 
them to abandon the foolish custom of burning 
the clothing of those who died as it kept them 
poor and naked. He said that he woiUd keep 
on giving them rations of meat, and perhaps 
flour, providing they would live peaceably and 
assist the .troops in himting and killing bad 
Indians. He tned to impress them with the 
idea of the great cost to the Government of 
flour, beef, etc., and promised them corn, etc., 
and said he hoped that thereafter they would 
raise grain and vegetables to feed themselves. 
He further said that the business of the 
soldiers was to kill bad Indians and protect 
citizens, and if they did not behave themselves 
and stop stealing from posts and settlements 
that they would all get killed. In two months 
he would be prepared to furnish them with med- 
icines, and would also write to Congress for an 
Indian Agent for them. 

"The Colonel's talk being ended, Miguel, with 
fitting words and great tact, asked the General 
what he intended doing with Barbrashae, an 
old and bad Pinal chief, who was then in the 
guardhouse in a wilted condition. After in- 
quiring about the case, the General asked Miguel 



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124 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA. 

what he would like to see done with him. Miguel 
would not say further than that the prisoner 
was in the General's hands; that he had been 
a bad Indian, but was then, and would there- 
after be, incapable of doin^ harm, for the very 
good reason that he was in feeble health and 
could not last long. Finally Miguel acknowl- 
edged that he wished Barbrashae set at liberty 
and he would go security for his good behavior 
in the future if the General demanded it, but 
that he first wished to give Barbrashae a piece 
of his mind. In answer to this proposition 
the General said, in substance, that he would 
release Barbrashae, but that if he wanted to 
keep on fighting he could do so and he would 
get killed. This pleased the Indians and they 
applauded with a vim. After a general hand- 
shaking, the conference broke up. We bade 
goodbye to our friends, and started for Camp 
Goodwin, never stopping until we arrived 
on the banks of thai noble stream, the Agua 
Prieta, or Salt Eiver, which was late in the 
afternoon. The distance traveled was eighteen 
miles over a very rough country, containing 
plenty of wood, water, and grass. During the 
night Paymaster Monroe and the Honorable 
Sylvester Mowry arrived and told us the news." 
Under date of October 14th, 18T1, the 
"Miner" prints a petition to the President, at- 
tached to which was a list of three hundred and 
one names of people killed by the Apaches since 
1864, which number was probably not one-half, 
but was at least ten per cent of the adult Ameri- 
can population of Arizona at that time. This 
petition and list follow : 



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OVTBAGES BY INDIANS. 125 

"The xmdersigned citizens of the Territory 
of Arizona, regarding the present anomalous 
state of affairs concerning the Indian difficiilties 
in the Territory as being in the highest degree 
unsatisfactory and perilous to our interests as 
a community, respectfully represent : 

*'That we desire nothing more earnestly than 
peace with the Apaches. 

"That last spring, many disheartened by our 
sufEerings and losses from hostile Indians, were 
preparing to abandon the Territory where we 
have labored and waited for years, hoping for 
the subjugation of the Apaches, when the as- 
signment of General George Crook to the com- 
mand of this Department gave us new hope, 
and we determined to hold on a little longer, 
and believed that the operations inaugurated by 
the General were calculated to result in a speedy 
settlement of our troubles, but, just as his plans 
were being successfully put in force, we learn 
that the matter is taken out of hia hands and 
turned over to the Peace Commissioners. 

"That although we had no confidence in their 
policy, being satisfied from past experiences that 
no peace treaty to which the Apache is an equal 
party can be lasting, we were willing to give 
all the assistance in our power to the Commis- 
sioners to aid them in their plans, but since the 
arrival of their agent here, we perceive with 
dismay tiiat the most hostile tribes refuse to 
treat with him, and have continued their mur- 
derous and thieving raids as boldly and viciously 
as ever. 

"That we are disappointed and discouraged 
by the policy of the agent in proposing to con- 



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126 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA. 

tinue the practice of giving asylum and aid at 
military posts indiscriminately to all Indians 
choosing to seek it, as the past has proven that 
the warriors can thus leave their families and 
property in security while they make maraud- 
ing excursions over the country, and return with 
their scalps and plunder to the protection of the 
posts. 

"That we are satisfied that the party having 
authority to make peace treaties with our In- 
dian enemies should also have power to promptly 
punish violations of such treaties. 

"Therefore, we, your petitioners, do most 
eMuestly ask your ExceUency to inform us 
whether it is the design of the Government to 
place the management of affairs pertaining to 
Indians in Arizona, not now living on reserva- 
tions, in the hands of the Peace Commissioners, 
or under the control of the Department Com- 
mander. 

"And we do further most respectfully repre- 
sent that if the policy here inaugurated by the 
agent of the Peace Commissioners is to be per- 
swted in, the deserted homes of our friends and 
neighbors, and the graves of those slain by the 
Apaches, which line every road and trail, and 
fill every graveyard in Arizona, warn us that if 
we remain here, we must expect a similar fate. 

"One cause for this movement is that we of 
Arizona, and the people of California in our 
behalf, have exhausted, to no purpose, every 
other means by which we hoped and believed 
the protection of life and property in Arizona 
might be secured, and, as a last resort, appeal 
to the President in a manner direct. 



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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 127 

' ' That the most prejudiced against the settlers 
on the frontiers might be convinced that this 
effort has not been wantonly put forth, and at 
the same time to prove the terrible necessity 
for some means, yet imtried, by which we may 
hope to obtain protection, we publish, in con- 
nection, a list of such of the Indian murders 
and robberies as have been recorded since 
Mardi, 1864. We will permit this cause to 
speak for itself, to the American people, and 
then, without apprehension, we will leave the 
fair and disinterested of our fellow citizens to 
draw their conclusions with regard to us. Here, 
then, is the list : 

'*We will commence with Yavapai county, 
where, on March 4th, 1864, the savages whom 
we had partially clothed and fed, dug up the 
hatchet, and without cause or provocation, com- 
menced a career of murder and robbery unpar- 
alleled in the history of the west, by murdering 
five Mexicans and three Americans: Upton, 
Mellen, and a man whose name is unknown to 
us. 

"March 16th, they attacked the ranch of Shel- 
don & Forbes, near Prescott, and killed a Mr. 
Cosgrove. 

"June 1st, Belnap was murdered near Walnut 
Grove. 

"June 6th, they waylaid and killed W. P. 
Jones in the Big Bug District, and shockingly 
mutilated his body. 

"On the same day Samuel Harrison was slain 
in Battle Flat. 

"July 24th, poor Jack Beauchamp lost his life 
while exploring the coimtry east of Prescott. 
The 'friendly' Coyoteros killed him. 



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1^ HISTORY or ARIZONA. 

"March 13th, three men, names unknown, 
were killed near Camp Date Creek. 

"March 15th, 1865, Charles Smith was killed 
near Wickenburg. 

"March 20th, they killed a Mr. Somers near 
the same place. 

"April 10th, L. Cross was murdered at the 
sink of the Hassayampa while herding a band of 
animals; twenty-one animals were stolen, and 
seventeen arrows shot into Cross' naked corpse. 

"Mr. Alexander was killed some time in this 
month about two miles west of Prescott. 

"March 2nd, a soldier, name unknown, fell into 
their hands near Prescott, and was butchered. 

"In April, 1865, a Mexican teamster was killed 
in Mohave County. 

"May 2nd, a Mexican was killed near Lynx 
Creek. 

"May 3rd, at Willow Springs, between Camp 
Date Creek and Kirkland Valley, Richard Bell, 
Cornelius Sage and Charles Cunningham fell 
victims to the savages. 

"May 26th, John Ryan, a soldier, was mur- 
dered near Wickenbui^. 

" Jxme 2nd, Harry, alias 'Hog' Johnson, mur- 
dered on Arrastra Creek, while on herd. 

"July 22nd, they killed a soldier named John 
Whitting, near Skull Valley. 

"Some time in August Sheriff Calkins and 
two soldiers were severely wounded, between 
Lynx Creek and Port Whipple. 

"In 1865 or 1866 they murdered a son of 
Pauline Weaver near Wickenburg. 

"In 1865 or 1866 they attacked Pauline 
Weaver and a man named Raymond, inflicting 



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OUTBAOES BY INDIANS. 129 

upon Raymond a wound which finally caused his 
death. 

"March 30th, 1866, Wallapais killed Edward 
Clower at the Willows, on the Prescott and Mo- 
have road. 

"May 1st, John Broderick, a soldier, was shot 
and killed on the Rio Verde, near Camp Verde. 

"About the same date a body of an imkuown 
man was found on the trail to Walnut Grove, 
corpse mutilated and filled witih arrows. 

"In September, 1866, Wm. Boone was killed 
in Mohave County. 

"November ©th, William Trahem, Leroy Jay 
and L. M. Linton were murdered while going 
from Woolsey's ranch to the Bully Bueno mill 
and mine. 

"November 10th, G.W. Leihy, Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, and his clerk, a Mr. Evarts, 
were most foully murdered while passing 
through Bell's Canyon, by Indians whom Mr. 
Leihy had treated with great kindness. 

"In 1866 or 1867, Steinbrook was killed at or 
near Walnut Grove. 

"April 27th, E. A. Bentley died from the ef- 
fects of a wound received in a fight with Indians 
at Weaver Hill, a ahort time previous. 

"February 19th or 20th they killed, near Mar- 
tinez's ranch, on the Preseott and La Paz wagon 
road, Jack Gould and two other men, whose 
names are unknown to us. 

"About this date two soldiers, named Harring- 
ton and Duvall, of Co. B., 32nd Infantry, lost 
their lives near Camp Verde. 

"In March J. Taggart was murdered in Mo- 
have County, 
vm— 9 



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X30 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"In the same month D. T. McCall was mur- 
dered in Mohave Coimty. 

"June, 1867, William Taggart was murdered 
in Mohave County. 

"July 27th, near Walnut Grove, Harvey 
Twaddle received a wound, from which he died 
August 5th. 

"August 1st, they killed a soldier on Big Bug 
Creek. 

August 3rd, two soldiers were killed in Bell's 
Canyon. 

"August Tth, I. A. Wamsley was killed on the 
Lower Agua Frla. 

"September 10th, they killed W. M. Sexton 
near Burnt Ranch. 

"March 31st, 1868, Indians attacked a mail 
party between the Willows and Cottonwoods on 
the Prescott and Mohave road, killed two sol- 
diers, Corporal Troy and Private Glover, and 
wounded tiie carrier, Charles Spencer. 

"May 13tii, Joe Green and John McWhorter 
were attacked and kiUed between Camps Mc- 
Dowell and Reno. 

"May 18th, they killed John C. Baker, east 
of the Rio Verde. 

"May 29th, a man was killed between Prescott 
and Skull Valley. 

"June 16th, between McDowell and Reno, 
four soldiers, Sergeant Lemon and Privates 
Murphy, Memll and Morrow, were killed. 

"July 23rd. a soldier named Joachim was shot 
dead near Williamson Valley. 

"August 30th, the savages killed a man named 
Oscar Kelly, between Wickenburg and the Vul- 
ture MlU and Mine. 



i,v Google 



OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 131 

"August, John Altman was murdered in Mo- 
have County. 

"September 2nd, a Mexican, Juan Teps, was 
murdered between Prescott and Lynx Creek. 

"In September a man named R. C. Bean was 
killed near the White Moxmtains. 

"September 4th, Robert Smith was shot and 
killed within sight of the Big Bug Mill. 

"October 28th, they killed B. F. Thompson, 
one and a half miles from Prescott. 

"October 24th, J. J. Gibson received a wound, 
from the effects of which he died November 7th, 
1868. 

"October 25th, they killed Josiah Whitcomb 
near the Burnt Ranch. 

"October 26th, they attacked a party near the 
Cienega and wounded George Bowers mortally. 
He died October 30th at Camp Verde. 

"November 26th, they killed a soldier near 
Wiekenburg, and a day or two afterwards a man 
named Robert Nix. 

"November 8th, they made an attack on a 
pack train in Big Bug District, and killed Jose 
Rico, Secundia Lopez and Jose Molino. 

"November 12th, Frank Pougeot fell into 
their clutches near Wiekenburg and was cruelly 
murdered. 

"December 1st, John OTDonnell was killed 
near Camp Willows, about sixty miles west from 
Prescott. 

"Some time in 1868 they attacked John Dick- 
son and Matt Welsh, who escaped. 

"In 1869 they killed as follows: 

"February 22nd or 23rd, William Burnett, 
near Granite Wash on the Prescott and La Paz 
road. 



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132 HISTOBT OF AiOZONA. 

"February 25th, John Howell, between Skull 
Valley and Kirklstnd Valley. 

"February 26tli, David Osbom, near Pres- 
cott 

"April 18th, Milton S. Hadley, at Camp Toll 
Gate. 

"May 29th, J. Sheldon, near Willow Grove. 

"August ISth, Harrison Gray, at Walnut 
Grove. 

"August 2l8t, a Mexican, name unknown. 

"August, William Taylor, murdered in Mo- 
have County. 

"About tie same time, near Beale Springs, a 
man called 'Doc' was murdered. 

"September 8th, four Mexicans, near the Vul- 
ture Mine. 

"October 16th, Julius Pelet, at the old Mexi- 
can camp, lower Lynx Creek. 

"November 27th, George Melvin, near Will- 
iamson Valley. 

"November 11th, they captured John Y. Shir- 
ley near Lynx Creek, about twelve miles east 
from Prescott, and burned him at the stake. 

"November 27th, Thos. N. Berry was killed 
near Prescott. 

"December 28th, an unknown Mexican was 
killed between Camp McDowell and Phoenix. 

"December 13th, Wesley Finnerty was mur- 
dered at Kirkland Valley. 

"February lOth, 1870, Indians stole four ani- 
mals from some placer mines on the Hassa- 
yampa, about twelve miles from Prescott 

"February 21st, the reds visited Phoenix, 
and got away with sixteen head of cattle. 

"February 28th, a man named Jacob Smith 
was killed on the Mohave road, seventeen miles 



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OUTRAGES BT INDUN8. 133 

from Prescott, his body stripped, horribly mu- 
tilated and fiUed with arrows. 

"March 18th, they made a raid on the herd 
belonging to the Big Bug Mill Company, 
wounded the herder, and got away with ten 
horses and mules. 

"March 22nd, a party of three men prospect- 
ing about eighty miles northeast from Prescott 
were attacked, all seriously wounded and their 
animals stolen. Ferdinand Wander was 
wotmded mortaEy and shot himself dead with 
his own revolver to end his sufferings. The 
other two reached the settlements two days later, 
nearly dead from loss of blood and want of 
water. 

"About the same date a party of prospectors 
on Bradshaw Mountain, about forty miles south- 
east from Prescott, had four pack mules stolen 
by the Indians. 

"April 1st, the rascals drove off a hundred 
and thirty head of sheep and goats belonging to 
H. Brooks, one mile from Prescott. 

"April Tth, a Mexican was shot through the 
arm while cutting wood, two miles above Pres- 
cott 

"The same day a large band of Indians made 
a descent on a herd of mules belonging to Mr. 
Ariola, Wickenburg, killed one Mexican herder, 
badly wounded another, and got away with sev- 
enty-four fine team mules. 

"April 17th, the Indians murdered William 
Pearson while he was plowing in Mint Valley, 
fourteen miles from Prescott, and drove off his 
animals. 



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134 HI8T0RT OF ARIZONA. 

"April 18th, P. Dorgan was shot and seriouriy 
wounded while prospecting near Camp Date 
Creek. 

"April 19th, a man named Qreel^, a station- 
keeper on the road ten miles below Wickenbui^, 
was murdered near his house. 

"April 23rd, a Mr. Seebright, who had charge 
of a herd of tliree hundred and fifty sheep, near 
Williamson Valley, was murdered and all the 
sheep stolen. 

"May 18th, Oliver Peterson was shot and 
three animals stolen, at Walnut Grove. Mr. 
Peterson died from his wounds about three 
weeks afterwards. 

"June 3rd, the Indians made a raid on a herd 
of sixty head of cattle between Fort Whipple 
and Prescott, belonging to A. G. Dunn. The 
herder was shot through the hand. Although 
the Indians were closely pursued for twenty 
miles, they got off with eleven head, and killed 
six head on the trail. 

"June 4th, Indians attacked the Government 
herd at Camp Verde, killed the corporal in 
charge of the herd, and drove away twelve ani- 
mals. 

"Jime eth, Alfred Johnson and Mr. Watson 
were murdered on the road between Skull Val- 
ley and Camp Date Creek. 

"June 13th, Indians stole two horses and ten 
burros from Burger & Lambertson, at Walnut 
Grove. 

"July 24th, Messrs. Thomas, Elliott and Daw- 
son, coming to town witti a load of barley, were 
attacked by thirty Apaches and, after an hour's 



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OUTRAGES BT INDUNS. 135 

fighting, were obliged to abandon their wagon 
and load, which the Tti d iant ^ burned. 

"August 10th, Apaches stole six head of cattle 
from Joe Fye on Salt River. 

"About the same date Indians stole nine 
horses and mules from the Eureka Mill, at the 
head of Lynx Creek, and drove off three animals 
from the Davis Ranch on the Hassayampa, also 
shot and slightly wounded S. BaU near the 
Bradshaw Mountaina 

"August 27th : during the week ending August 
27th, the Apaches gobbled up fourteen head of 
horses and mules in Williamson Valley, nine 
near Gamp Hualapai, two at Wickenburg, and 
five at Deep Wash Station on the La Paz Road. 

"September 14th, Indians stole nine head of 
cattle from J. H. Lee, at American ranch, in 
Rotind Valley, twelve miles from Prescott. 

"October 6th, Wm. E. Denniaon was murdered 
by Indians at Davis' ranch on the Hassayampa, 
eight miles from Prescott. 

"November 13th, Wm. Farley and J. T. Bul- 
lock were brutally murdered by Apaches near 
the Big Bug quartz mill. 

"November 15th, Thomas Rutledge was mur- 
dered and mutilated by Indians within half a 
mile of Prescott. 

PIMA COUNTY. 

"March 1st, 1864, Gilbert W. Hopkins and 
W. Wrightson were murdered near Fort Bu- 
chanan. 

"Here follows a lapse of two years during 
which no newspaper was published at Tucson, 
and consequently no record of the Indian depre- 



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136 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA. 

dations in Pima comity for that term is extant. 
It is probable that during this period eight 
Americans were burned at the stake near Apache 
Pass, and that murd^ and robbery became 
'wholesale' on the Santa Cruz, Sonoita and San 
Pedro. 

"March 2eth, 1866, Major Miller, U. S. A., 
and four soldiers were attacked and murdered 
at Round Valley, on the road from the Pima 
Villages to Gamp Grant. 

"June 7th, 18OT, three Mexicans were mur- 
dered between Camp Grant and Tucson. 

"June 4th, a white man, name unknown, was 
murdered on the ranch of Jesus M. EUas, near 
Camp Grant, and on the same day, another man 
was murdered on the randi of Tomlinson & Co., 
on the San Pedro. 

"March 23rd, 1868, Johnson and Daniels were 
murdered near Picacho. 

"May 6th, a Mexican, three miles from Tuc- 
son. 

"May 2i6th, four men, Brownley, 'Tennessee,' 
Knowles and King, between Tucson and the 
Rio Grande. 

"July 13th, near the Cienega, Soto and Barba 
murdered. 

"July 15tli, near San Xavier, a friendly In- 
dian was slain and a woman carried off into 
captivity. 

"July 16th, Alonzo M. Erwin murdered at 
Camp Grant. 

"July 23rd, near Camp Crittenden, two men 
were murdered and a man named Carroll cap- 
tured and carried off. 

"July 24th, a Mexican named Cozozo was 
murdeiW near Camp Grant. 



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OUTBAOES BY INDIANS. 137 

"August 27th, James Peimmg;ton, near San 
Xavier. 

"November lOth, a Mr. Ballon near Apache 
Pass. 

"November ISth, a Mexican near the same 
place. 

"February 2eth, 1869, they murdered two 
men, Price and Davis, near Camp Grant. 

"March 19th, two Mexicans were murdered 
near Picacho. 

"March 23rd, a white man was murdered near 
Camp Grant. 

"April 13, seven Mexicans murdered near 
Camp Crittenden. 

"April 14th, near same place, two soldiers 
were murdered. 

"M^y 11th, between Tucson and Camp Grant 
three men murdered. 

"March 28th, a man killed at San Pedro. 

"Jime 10th, the savages murdered Mr. Pen- 
nington and son, of Sonoita. 

"June 19th, Jose Jaramillo was murdered at 
Soldiers' Farewell. 

"June 26th, at the same place, two men lost 
their lives. 

"July 3rd, on the San Pedro, three men, 
Johnson, McMurray and O'Donnell, fell victims 
to the savages. 

"July 15th, a Mexican at Palo Parado ranch. 

"August 25th, man murdered at Soldiers' 
Farewell. 

"October 6th, seven men, four soldiers and 
three citizens, were murdered near Apadte 
Pass. Among them were Colonel Stone, Presi- 
dent of the Apache Pass Mining Company, and 



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138 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

a Mr. Kaler. The names of the other victims 
are unknown. 

"October 13th, two Mexicans murdered near 
Tucson. 

"November 26th, Benjamin Aiken and a Mexi- 
can were murdered on the Sonoita. 

"November 30th, Bichard Halstead was mur- 
dered near Florence. 

"December 14th, they murdered the mail car- 
rier between Florence and McDowell. 

"About the same date they murdered three 
men near the Cienega. 

"September 7th, 1869, Indians made a descent 
upon a ranch at the RiUito, and captured thirty- 
five head of beef cattle, the property of Don 
Pancho Gomez. 

"September 9thj two Texans, named Benton 
and Foster, returning to their native State, were 
murdered by Indians at San Pedro. 

"October 13th, a band of Indians captured a 
herd of ninely cattle at the Rillito, and killed 
one Mexican and four horses. 

"October 2l8t, a Mexican named Pesquiera 
was fired at by Indians near Nine Mile Station, 
and his horse shot dead under him. 

"November 27th, Indians captured Govern- 
ment herd at Camp Bowie. 

"November 27th, Indians stole two horses 
from the station of J. Miller at the Cienega. 

"November 28th, Indians visit Camp Critten- 
den at night, kill a cow at a distance of two him- 
dred yards from the post, and carry off a tent. 

"About the same date they attacked the prem- 
ises of Mr. Barnes at Camp Wallen, carried off 
his effects and then burned his store and store- 
house. 



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OUTBACKS BY INDIANS. 139 

"Deeember 1st, Indians steal tiiirty-two head 
of mxiles from the ranch of Mr. Allen, bordering 
on Tucson, in view of Gamp LowelL 

"December 4th, the homes of three Ameri- 
cans, recently murdered, were discovered near 
the Cienega. 

"December 10th, the mail rider on the route 
between Florence and Camp McDowell, was 
murdered and the mail captured. Indians en- 
deavored to fire a ranch at Gamp Grant and 
stole a Government mule. 

"January 8tii, 1870, Samuel Brown and J. 
Simma were murdered by Indians at the San 
Pedro settlement and their team captured. 

'* January 17th, Indians invaded the premises 
of Glint Thompson, at Sacaton, and captured 
forty-five head of cattle. 

"January 18th, thirty-eight head of cattle cap- 
tured by Indians near San Xavier. 

"January 20th, they attacked the Sonora mail 
stage near Sasabi Flat. E. A^erra, his clerk, 
and two passengers were murdered. 

"January 31st, Indians made a descent upon 
the ranch of Mr. Morgan near Gamp Crittenden, 
and drove off three mules belonging to W. J. 
Osbom. 

"February 2nd, Solomon Warner and Dr. 
Wakefield were attacked by Indians near Gamp 
Crittenden, the former woimded, and the latter 
killed. 

"February 3rd, Indians attacked a train near 
the Point of Moimtain, drove off the escort, 
killed two men, wounded one, drove off twelve 
mules, and carried off a considerable amount of 
property. 



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140 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"February 8th, Diego Gampio was murdered 
by Indians in the nei^borhood of Florence^ and 
teams and other property captured- 

' ' February 22nd, iQidiana stole six fine blooded 
cows from the ranch of Mr. Allen near Tucson. 

"February 26th, Indians visited the premises 
of Colonel Ruggles, near Florence, and stole two 
horses from the corral. 

"March 1st, Indians made a raid upon the 
ranches of Brown and Gardner, near Camj) Crit- 
tenden, and captured all the stock belonging to 
both ranches. 

"March 7th, the Paymaster's clerk, en route 
from Camp Reno to Camp McDowell, with an es- 
cort of thirteen soldiers, was wounded, and one 
of the escort killed. 

"April €th, a Mexican named Siez was mur- 
dered at Rillito ; his horse and the horse of his 
companion captured. 

"April 7th, a herd of two hundred cattle, the 
property of Juan Gregalba, stolen from a field in 
the vicinity of Tucson. 

"April 10th, A. J. Jackson murdered by In- 
dians at Ban Pedro. 

"April nth, a Mexican named Soto was mur- 
dered and scalped in the nei^borhood of Camp 
Wallen. 

"April 18th, Indians visited Camp Grant and 
stole three horses from Captain Hmds' wagon, 
and four mules, the property of C. Conwell. 

"April 17th, Indians visited the ranch of J. 
Miller at the Cienega, and killed one of the sol- 
diers stationed there. 

"April 21st, a party of Mexicans coming from 
Sonora were attacked by Indians at the Potrero, 
and six men killed. 



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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 141 

"June 6, two hundred Indians attacked the 
wagons of Messrs. Kennedy & Israel, near Can- 
yon del Ore, murdered both men, captured the 
teams and goods, and burned the wagons. 

"June 8th, Indians made a raid upon the 
ranch of Mr. Gardner, on the Sonoita, murdered 
David Holland, captured a Mexican boy, and ran 
ofE a herd of cattle. 

"June 15th, Indians take twenty-eight head of 
cattle from San Xavier, the property of Mr. 
Lazard. 

"June 25th, Indians attacked a prospecting 
party near Cottonwood Springs, on the road 
from Florence to Camp Grant, wounded Messrs. 
Myers, Johns and Curtis, and captured the 
wagon and its effects valued at about two thou- 
sand dollars. 

"July 1st, Indians attacked the train of Mr. 
Yerkes near the San Pedro and killed one mule. 

"July 10th, Mr. Yerkes' train again attacked, 
at Oak Grove, fifty odd miles from Camp Good- 
win, and one animal captured. 

"On the same day Messrs. Smith and Ynigo 
were murdered on tiie ranch of Peter Kitchen, 
fifteen miles from Tubac. 

"tfuly 14th, Indians visited Point of Mountain 
Station, eighteen miles west of Tucson, and cap- 
tured six mules. 

' ' July 17th, Indians attacked the randi of J. C. 
Blanchard, near Tubac, carried off all his effects, 
and fired the buildings. 

"August 7th, Thomas Venable, Peter Riggs, 
and a Mexican killed by Indians at Davis 
Springs, eighteen miles from Camp Crittenden. 
Wagons and goods to the value of over six thou- 
sand dollars burned, and the stock driven off. 

Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



142 HISTORY OP ARIZONA. 

''August 8th, the mail rider and two other men, 
Scott and Young, were murdered at the Cienega, 
tweniy-flve miles eastward from Tucson. The 
station, with much property, was destroyed. 

"August 13th, Indians attacked station at 
Point of Mountain and seriously wounded Mr. 
Blowe in the left shoulder. 

"August 18th, mail stage attacked by Indians 
halfway between the Cienega, and the San 
Pedro ; murdered Wm. Bums, driver, John Col- 
lins, stage superintendent, and two soldiers of 
Co. D, 2l8t Infantry. 

"December 28th, they attacked a freight train 
between Tucson and Camp Goodwin, killed Mar- 
tin Rivera, wounded two others and captured 
thirty head of oxen. 

*'The same day a party of Sonoranians were 
attacked near Tubac and two were killed. 

' ' September 23rd, 1868, John Killian was way- 
laid and murdered within one mile of Hardy- 
ville. 

"October 1st, in Sacramento District, four 
men, Messrs. Woodworth, Benjamin, Judson, 
and Baker, met their death at the hands of sav- 
ages ; Sam Knodle wounded, lost the use of his 
right arm. 

"June 24th, 1867, the savages killed a mail car- 
rier, name unknown, near Beale Springs. 

"August 20th, James H. Stimpson, Frank 
Messeur, and Edward Tonker lost their lives 
while visiting mines in Sacramento District. 

MISOELLANEOXTS. 
"January 5th, 1871, Indians made a night at- 
tack upon Lieut. Cradlebaugh's command, con- 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



OUTBAOES BY INDIANS. 143 

aisting of the Lieutenant himself, citizens Peck 
and MeCraekin, Surgeon Steigers, and twenty 
enlisted men, which resulted in the wounding of 
Dr. Steigers and private Meyers, the killing of 
twenty-three government horses, and the capture 
of three. This happened about forty miles east 
from Prescott. 

"January 11th, a Mexican train was attacked 
near the Agua Fria Station on the road from 
Phoenix to Wickenburg; one Mexican was killed 
and three were wounded. The savages took a 
horse and thirty-two head of cattle after having 
destroyed the contents of the wagons. 

"About this date the savages made a raid upon 
the Oila, and stole eighteen head of mules. 

"January 14th, Apaches stole thirty or forty 
mules from the vicinity of Arizona City. 

"About the same date they got off with seven 
head of cattle and twelve horses from Culling's 
Station on the Prescott and La Paz road. 

"On the 19th, near CampMcDowell, they at- 
tacked a train belonging to W. B. Hellings & Co., 
killed George King, wounded P. Fenton, and an- 
other man. They then burned the wagons and 
their contents and put off towards the mountains 
with Mr. Helling's animals, twenty-five mules. 

"February 8th, Indians fired on some citizens 
near Camp Verde. 

"About the same date Indians stole four 
horses from Phoenix. 

"Also at Willow Grove, a party of Wallapai 
Indians shot a man and ran off with several head 
of stock. 

"February 11th, a party of fifty savages was 
discovered when about to attack Beach's train, 



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144 HISTORT OF ARIZONA. 

near Prescott, and being charged by the whites, 
fled. 

' ' Soon after this they visited the ranch 
formerly owned by Litt^ on Lower Granite 
Creek, about twelve miles from Prescott, and 
opened fire upon two men who were at work for 
A. C. Williamson. The men held their ground 
for awhile and then fledL 

"About the same date a party of them paid 
their respects to the settlement on the Rio Verde, 
five miles below Camp Verde, and robbed a poor 
woman, Mrs. Ralston, of a lot of clothing and 
other property. Previous to this they tried to 
get some animals out of the corral, but did not 
succeed. 

"They next attempted to capture the stage be- 
tween Phoenix and Wickenburg. 

"January 23rd, the savages made a raid on the 
ranches near Tumaeacori^ wounded a Portu- 
guese named 'Joe,' and drove off four horses. 

"January 31s1^ near Sacaton, a party of 
Apaches attacked three men who were at work 
for D. C. Thompson, cutting hay, and at the first 
fire wounded a man whose name we do not know. 
The Indians were followed, but eluded their pur- 
suers, one of whom, A. Gonzales, strayed from 
his comrades and on returning in the night was 
taken for an Apache, shot and woimded by Frank 
Grififin. 

"On the night of January 29th, they attempted 
to steal some horses from the San Pedro, were 
discovered, when one Indian was killed and an- 
other wounded. 

"About the same time they attacked a party 
of three men and one woman on the road near 
Gamp Bowie, and robbed them of their stock. 

Digitized oy Google 



OUTRAGES BT INDIANS. 145 

"February 1st, they tried to steal stock near 
Tucson, but were unsuccessful. They tried 
again on the morning of the 4th with better suc- 
cess, for we learn that they drove off 110 animals 
from Adam Linn's ranch. 

"February 15tii, Indians attacked Lieutenant 
Riley and ten men while guarding a government 
herd, near Infantry Camp in the Pinal Moun- 
tains, killed one soldier, wounded two others, and 
captured about seventy bead of mules and a num- 
ber of cattle. 

"About the same date they poimced upon a 
herd of beef cattle near Camp Thomas, now 
Camp Apache, and drove them off and subse- 
quently they attempted to capture some stock 
near Camp Verde. 

"March 2nd, a white man, while at work near 
Phoenix, was chased into his house by Apache- 
Mohaves. 

"About the same time, near the same place, 
several Pima and Maricopa Indians killed about 
twelve head of cattle belonging to Messrs. Hol- 
comb & Murray. 

"March 7th, a band of Indians captured and 
destroyed the U. S. Mail near Gila Bend, 
wounded the driver and drove off the mules. 

"March 10th, Mr. Ainza's train, en route to 
Infantry Camp, with Government supplies, was 
attacked by a large band of Indians, and two 
teamsters wete kiUed and one wounded. 

"On the same day Indians attacked the train 
of Manuel Tnigo between Camps Grant and 
Pinal — skilled one soldier, one Mexican, and cap- 
tured sixteen mules, 
vm— 10 



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146 HISTOBY OP ARIZONA. 

'* March 11th, an Indian walked into the store 
of the post trader at Camp Apache, and stuck 
his lance through the body of Mr. Redmond, kill- 
ing him instantly. 

"On the 14th, Hinds & Hooker's herds, at In- 
fantry Camp was attacked; two herders were 
killed and tiieir arms captured by the savage 
assailants. Later in the day the sentinels at the 
post were fired upon. 

"March 18th, a band of Indians made a descent 
upon the ranch of Mr. Hughes at Camp Critten- 
den, killed Mr. Cook; captured his team, and 
sacked the building and premises. 

"The same day a party of savages attacked a 
ranch within sight of Camp Crittenden, mur- 
dered two men, robbed and burned several 
houses, stole two horses and other proi>erty. 

"March 21st, Indians in strong force de- 
scended to the valley of Tubac, killed L. B. Woos- 
ter and Miss Trinidad Aguirre, and destroyed 
property to the value of fifteen hundred dollars. 

"March 24th, Indians carried off ten head of 
cattle from a ranch five miles west of Tucson. 

"On the 26th Hanna's freight train was at- 
tacked near Agua Fria Station by about a hun- 
dred and fifty Indians, Apaehe-Mohaves, who 
killed Mr. Hanna and one ottier man ; burned the 
wagons and their contents, and took twenty-two 
mules. 

"April 1st, near Camp Date Creek, a large 
party of Indians attacked a train of five wagons, 
four belonging to Dr. W. W. Jones, and one to 
Henry Lachman. The savages killed Mr. Lach- 
man, wounded another man, plundered the 
wagons, and drove off the animals. 



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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 147 

"April 2nd, near Peeples' Valley, a party of 
savages killed a man named Wykoff, wounded 
John Burger, got three animals, two guns, and 
some ammunition. 

"April 9th, Indians captured the herd of Juan 
Elias, near San Xavier on the Santa Cruz. 

"April 12th, a band of Indians from the Camp 
Grant Reservation swept over the San Pedro 
Valley, killing Mr. Long, Mr. MeKenzie, and Mr. 
Cfaapin, and wounded a Mexican. 

"April 5th, Lieutenant Howard B. Cushing, 
W. H. Simpson, and a soldier named Green, 
killed by Indians in the Whetstone Mountains. 

"April 14th, Indians captured twenty headof 
stock from a herd belonging to Hinds & Hooker 
near Cababi. The U. S. mail wagon was cap- 
tured twelve miles east of San Pedro, the driver, 
Mark Revlin, kUled, and the animals captured 

"May 1st, Indians captured forty head of oxen 
from a train near Camp Verde. 

"May 8th, Indians captured ei^ty-seven head 
of animals from a train on its way from Camp 
Verde to New Mexico. 

"May 15th, the reservation Indians stampeded 
from Camp Apache, drove off the government 
herd, and captured the military mail. 

"June 3rd, Indians stole four head of horses 
from a ranchman on the Upper Verde. 

" Jime 5th, Indians killed Mr. Gantt, at Agua 
Fria, and captured the herd of Bowers Brothers, 
numbering one hundred and sixty animals. 

"June 7th, a large force of Indians devastated 
the Upper Santa Cruz Valley, killed four men 
and woxmded two. Among the killed were two 



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148 HiaroBT of abizona. 

Americans named Saunders and Blanchard; the 
balance killed and wounded were Mexicans. 

"June 16th, Indians stole four horses from Mr. 
LambertsoD at Walnut Grove. 

"Jxme 23rd, Indians murdered Mr. Cooper 
near the Vulture Mine. 

"July 7th, Indians killed a mall rider and cap- 
tured a mail wagon near the Apache Pass. 

"July 9th, Indians fired into a party of miners 
between Prescott and Bradshaw, and woimded 
one man named Leonard. 

' 'July 10th, Indians stole five mules from a set- 
tler near Wickenburg. 

"July 11th or 12th, a company of infantry, 
under Captain Smith, was attacked by a band of 
Cochise's Indians between the Cienega and Rio 
San Pedro; one private, W. H. Harris, was 
killed, and three woxmded. 

"July 22nd, Indians drove oflE a herd of cattle 
from the upper Santa Cruz, finishing a series of 
continual raids in the course of which two hun- 
dred head of horses and cattle had been captured 
from the valley. 

"July 20th, Indians captured the Government 
herd at Camp Bowie, killed the herder, one Me- 
Dougall, and wounded a soldier named Foley. 
"July 24th, Abraham Henning murdered by In- 
dians near Camp Hualapai. 

"July 25tli, two men fired upon by Indians a 
few miles north of Prescott, and one slightly 
wounded. Two horses killed' at the mining camp 
on the Hassayampa. Two mules stolen by In- 
dians from tile premises of C. Y. Shelton at Lynx 
Creek. 



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OUTBAGES BY INDIANS. 149 

"July 26th, a band of Indians visited Walnut 
Grove and stole eleven head of stock from the 
corral of Wm. Simmons. 

"August 3rd, Indians, a second time, captured 
the herd of Bowers Brothers at Agua Fria. 

"On the same day Indians made an attack 
upon Messrs. Rogers and Smith, near Camp Bate 
Creek. 

"August 5th, Messrs. Harrington and Whisler 
murdered and a Mexican wounded near Gamp 
Yerde, the animals and arms of the murdered 
men secured by the savages. 

"August 6th, Indians captured fourteen head 
of horses and mules, the property of Wales Ar- 
nold, near Camp Verde. 

"August 7th, Joseph Burroughs murdered by 
Indians near Camp Verde. Meul stage fired into 
while en route to Wiekenburg from Prescott. 

"August 14th, Indians stole thirty head of 
stock from a ranch near San Xavier on the Santa 
Cruz. 

"August 23nd, Indians drove off three horses 
belonging to Mr, Lambertson, from his farm at 
Walnut Grove. 

"August 25th, sis mules stolen by Indians 
from Captain Kaufman's escort, between Camp 
Verde and the Little Colorado. 

"September 1st, eight head of horses, the prop- 
erty of a party of miners, stolen by Indians from 
Pine Flat. 

"September 5th, Gabriel, a Mexican herder in 
the employ of Mr. Campbell, murdered by In- 
dians at Chino Valley. 

"September eth, Indians visited Camp Mc- 
Dowell, killed some stock, and carried off tents 
and clothing. 



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150 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

' ' September 4th, Indians captured seventy-five 
head of Govermnent animals from Gamp Critten- 
den. 

"September 10th, Indians fired into a detach- 
ment of Pinal prospectors, killed one man and 
two horses. 

"September 13th, a mail rider and a stock 
herder murdered by Indians two miles from Tuc- 
son, the mail captured and destroyed, and the 
mule of the mail rider taken by the Indians to the 
Camp Grant Reservation. 

"September 22nd, Indians visited the settle- 
ment at Agua Fria, and burned a house belong- 
ing to Daniel Hatz. 

'* September 23rd, a party of Indians captured 
a herd of twenty cattle from a ranch two miles 
south of Tucson. They were followed by a party 
of citizens, and so closely pursued that they aban- 
doned the plunder and took refuge on the Camp 
Grant Reservation. 

"Some three weeks ago an American and a 
German left Prescott to hunt for game, and not 
having been heard from since, the supposition is 
that they have been murdered. 

"Then, within the past few weeks, and while 
the Indians had full knowledge of the presence 
in their midst of a 'Peace Commission,' they 
broke into and robbed a house at Skull Valley; 
stole a horse from T. W. Boggs of lower Agua 
Fria, over a ton of com from John Townsend of 
the same place, and hundreds of bushels of com 
from farmers of other localities, shot at the mail 
carrier near Wickenburg, and fisred upon some 
men at Kirkland Valley. " 



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OTTTRAOES BT INDIANS. 151 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OUTRAGES BY INDIANS (Continued). 

QOTEBNOR SaFPORD'8 MeBSAOE CaLES ATTENTION 

TO Outrages— Public Sentiment in Refer- 
ence TO Camp Grant Massacke}— Militart 
Account op Camp Grant Massacre — Trial 
op participante — charge of judge titus — 
Defendants Acquitted — More Outrages bt 
Indians — Lieutenant Cushing's Expedi- 
tions Against Hostilbs — Kilung op Lieu- 
tenant Gushing. 

In his message to the Legislative Ajssembly at 
Tucson, January 14th, 1871, Governor Safford 
called attention to recent outrages in the month 
of August, linking the Indians in a simidtaneous 
movement along the Southern Overland Route. 
Two stage drivers were killed, one stage captured 
and all on board were murdered. A train was 
taken and all with it killed. A stage station 
twenty-two miles east of Tucson was taken, and 
but two of the inmates escaped alive. Several 
others were killed about that time. He said that 
the Coyoteros and Apache-Mohaves, branches of 
the Apache tribe, had expressed a desire for 
peace, and that a large reservation had been set 
apart for the former by the United States. He 
said: "I visited the reservation in June last, and 
believe the larger number of this band earnestly 
desire peace. I found they were very poor, with 
no seed for planting except tiiat furnished by the 
military authorities, and they were of necessity 
obliged to roam over a large extent of country, as 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



152 HisroBy of Arizona. 

Indians always are, unless provided with ample 
agricultural facilities. I found the military do- 
ing everything possible to provide them with 
seeds, but were not authorized to supply even 
their present wants, except in limited amounts ; 
consequently the Indians had to principally de- 
pend upon game for subsistence. Much dissatis- 
faction and ill-feeling exist on the part of the set- 
tlers on account of the general belief that por- 
tions of this tribe join with marauding hands 
against them, and, as soon as their nefarious 
work is done, retuni to their reservation for 
safety. The Apache-Mohaves have received no 
assistance except from the military authorities, 
and that of necessity has been limited; and from 
personal observation, strengthened by informa- 
tion received from officers and citizens who have 
been more or less among them, I am convinced 
that they have been for some time past in a suf- 
fering condition; and I shall not be surprised if 
in a few weeks, and perhaps days, they are again 
in open hostility. Three persons were murdered 
recently near Prescott, and it is charged, by well- 
informed citizens, to these Indians. They have 
also banded together in considerable mmibers, 
and made demands on the inhabitants of Chino 
Valley for food, with which the latter were un- 
able to comply. The Indians retired without ac- 
tually commencing hostilities, but informed tiie 
people that they would return with increased 
numbers and take what they wanted. The dan- 
ger was considered so imminent that all the fami- 
lies of the valley were removed to Prescott for 
safety, and quite as much alarm now prevails 
with tile people as when these Indians were in 
avowed hostility. 



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OTTCRAOBS BY INDUITS. 153 

"The Indians now engaged in open hostility 
are the Finals, Tontos, what is commonly known 
as Oochise's band, and more or less renegades 
from all the bands that assume to be on terms of 
peace. It is also a well established fact that the 
Navahos, who occupy a reservation in New Mex- 
ico, have made frequent raids, and stolen prop- 
erty and murdered citizens as far west as Pres- 
cott. I believe I have fairly stated to you the 
condition and position the Apache Indians oc- 
cupy toward us at present." 

An account of what is known as the "Gamp 
Grant Massacre" has been given in a previous 
volume in the biography of W. B. Oury. The 
following, clipped from the two leading papers 
in the Territory at that time, shows public senti- 
ment in reference thereto: The ".^jizona Citi- 
zen" of May 6th, 1B71, says: 

"The canyon is situated south of the Gila 
River, some forty miles east of Florence, and 
about sixty miles north of Tucson. For weeks it 
had been known that a band of Indians was 
camped in that vicinity, and numbers of animals 
were stolen from the friendly Papagoes near 
Tucson. Four citizens in the San Pedro Valley 
were murdered by the party there encamped. 
These discoveries were rendered more believable 
by the fact that it was redskins, and that they had 
made one of the old style Pinal Treaties with 
the commander at Camp Grant. They had been 
receiving rations from that post for some time, 
and had, in an apparently friendly mood, settled 
themselves in the canyon near the post, and while 
eating government supplies would make their 
murderous raids and return under the shadow, 



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154 HISTOBT OF AfilZONA. 

as it were, of Gamp Grant, gorging themselves on 
the meat of stolen mules, horses, donkeys, and 
cattle, rejoicing in their success, gloating over 
their plimder, living in fancied security, and pre- 
paring to make another raid on some settlers or 
travellers. Having proof of their treachery, the 
dwellers in Tucson and vicinity went after these 
Finals, and of the entire band in camp, after the 
attack, only seven are known to have escaped.'* 

The "Prescott Miner," under date of June 
10th, 1871, has the following: 

"Many declare that the £idians killed 'were 
under the protection of the Government, having 
surrendered themselves and being considered 
prisoners of war.' 

' ' Yes ! as prisoners of war, armed to the teeth, 
unrestricted, and under no surveillance what- 
ever. Prisoners of war, camped at a distance of 
four miles from the post to which they owed obe« 
dience. Prisoners of war who visited the valley 
of the Santa €ruz, distant eighty miles, and mur- 
dered two persons, and captured all the cattle and 
horses in the neighborhood, a few of which, to- 
gether with an ornament worn by one of the vic- 
tims, were recaptured at Camp Grant. Prison- 
ers of war who next captured the United States 
mail twelve miles east of the San Pedro, and 
sixty-five miles from their rancheria and mur- 
dered the driver. Prisoners of war who marched 
to the San Pedro settlement and there murdered 
the last settlers in the valley, whence the avfflo- 
ging force followed their trail to the Camp Grant 
encampment. Prisoners of war who had just 
succeeded in all their depredations and were 
again on the warpath to the number of more than 



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OTTTBAOES BY INDIANS. 155 

a hundred, with the conunanding officer at Camp 
Grant at the head of forty men following on their 
trail. Over five hundred Indians, fantastieidly 
styled 'Prisoners of War,' to whom provisions 
and ammimition were supplied. Less than three 
hundred and fifty Indians were present when the 
Papago Indians made the attack. The band 
were on the warpath with Captain Stanwood in 
pursuit. 

"We have seen the action of the Papago In- 
dians and the men who accompanied them termed 
a cowardly slaughter of helpless women and 
children. We do not know it to be such, but we 
are credibly informed that some of the women 
and children were Jiilled, which could not pos- 
sibly have been otherwise where men and women 
are collected indiscriminately, and men, particu- 
larly Papago Indians, in the excitement of battle, 
are not the proper persons of whom to expect wise 
discrimination. We should be as ready as any 
of our contemporaries, to denounce a war upon 
women and children, but such this was not. It 
was the action of the people, aroused by govern- 
mental neglect, who took up arms and marched 
forward, prepared to encounter the enemy of 
double their number, and avenge their wrongs, or 
perish in the attempt, and we say: 'God speed 
every such mission. ' ' ' 

From Bourke, "On the Border with Crook*'; 
Dunn, "Massacres of the Mountains"; and the 
Fish manuscript, I condense the following: 

In February, 1871, a party of women came into 
Camp Grant in search of a captive boy. 
Through them communications were had with 
Es-kim-in-zin, the chief of the band. The chief 



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156 HKTFOBT OF ARIZONA. 

said that his people wished to make peace. As 
there were no provisions made for caring for 
th^OQ, Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman, who was in 
command at the post, told them to go to the 
White Mountains. They were not willing to do 
this. It was finally agreed that they were to sur- 
render to him and remain around the post as 
prisoners for the present. By March 5th about 
three himdred had come in and surrendered. 
Some of them were too old to go on the warpath, 
and some were peaceably inclined. Whitman 
sent a full account of this to division headquar- 
ters, and six weeks later received an answer stat- 
ing that his communication had not been in- 
dorsed in accordance with oflScial etiquette, and 
it was returned therewith, with instructions to 
return it to Department Headquarters "prop- 
erly briefed. " The fate of three hundred people 
was of less importance than the manner of ad- 
dressing a report. The red tape business with 
our Government has caused much trouble and 
delays which could be avoided. These Indians 
were employed in some useful work, such as cut- 
ting hay, etc They were counted and rations 
issued to them every day, but soon after being 
removed a little further from the post, the count 
and issuing of rations was every third day. They 
behaved well as far as known by the officers in 
chai^. The citizens, especially at Tucson and 
vicinity, were indignant at this feeding of the 
Apaches, and refused to believe that they had 
surrendered in good faith. The military au- 
thorities had not taken the necessary precaution 
to prevent the hostiles from coming in and mix- 
ing with them. Most of these Indians were 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



OUTBACOS BY INDIANS. 157 

friendly, but there were, doubtless, some hostiles 
in this number who were on hand to aid those 
who were on the warpath. 

The following is the military account of the 
Camp Grant Massacre, condensed from the Fish 
manuscript : 

In accordance with the peace xwUcy which had 
been decided upon by the United States Govern- 
ment, these Indians were placed upon a reserva- 
tion not far from the post. They were princi- 
pally the Pinal and Aravaipa bands of Apache 
Indians. After some experimenting, Royal E. 
"Whitman, a lieutenant in the Third Caval^, was 
assigned to duty as their agent. He was imscru- 
pulous, and had outside parties in Tucson to 
work the business. A sutler's store wm firat 
started, then a blacksmith shop, and butcher 
shop. His sharp practices and moneymaking 
proclivities soon became disagreeable to the In- 
dians. Some have claimed that this caused dis- 
satisfaction when it was discovered that they 
were being cheated out of what the Government 
was giving them, but notwithstanding all these 
stories, and that Whitman was considered by 
many as a worthless fellow, he had great in- 
fluence with the Indians, and could do more with 
them than any one else. During the winter of 
1870-71, it was claimed that these Indians com- 
mitted many depredations within a radius of a 
hundred miles to the southwest. "Qn the killing 
of Wooster and wife on the Santa Cruz, above 
Tubac, indignation meetings were heldin Tucson. 
At tiiese meetings there was much "speechify- 
ing," as we are told, about killing the "red 
devils." It was claimed that it was these In- 



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158 HISrOBT OF ABIZONA. 

(lians around Gamp Grant that were committing 
the depredations. Arrangements were made at 
one of these meetings to organize a militia force, 
and W. S. Ouiy was elected captain. The reso- 
lutions (^awfi up received tiie signature of 
eighty-two of the Americans. One result of 
these meetings was the appointing of a com- 
mittee to visit the department commander, Gen- 
eral Stoneman, who was at that time on the Gila, 
near Florence. The committee consisted of 
W. S. Oury, S. R. DeLong, J. W. Hopkins, and 
some others. They made a trip to the Gila, and 
saw the General. The result of the conference 
was, in substance, that the General had but few 
troops and could not protect nearly all tiie places, 
and could not give them any aid ; as Tucson had 
the largest population of any place in the Ter- 
ritory, he gave the committee to imderstand that 
Tucson would have to protect itself. The com- 
mittee returned, a little disappointed in not 
getting the aid they had sought and hoped for, 
and feeling generally cross and grieved over 
their hard trip and the loss of a mule. 

In the ^rly part of April, 1871, a raid was 
made upon the San Xavier and stock driven off 
by Indians. They were pursued and some stock 
recovered. One Indian was killed. It was 
claimed that he was identified as one of the 
Camp Grant Indians, he having lost a certain 
tooth which made him a marked man. The pur- 
suing party returned to Tucson and claimed that 
the raiders were Camp Grant Indians. In a 
short time a plan was arranged to pursue the 
raiders. This plan was promulgated by one 
Jesus M. Elias. Some Papago Indians were 



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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 159 

sent for to assist, and it was arranged for all 
parties to meet on the Rillito on tSe 28th of 
April. This was done with great precaution 
and secrecy. Parties were sent to guard the road 
that no news should be taken to Camp Grant of 
any parties leaving Tucson. The various par- 
ties met as agreed, and comprised the following : 
Papagoes 92, Mexicans 48, and Americans €, 
total 146. The Americans made a very small 
showing considering the amoimt of blustering 
they had done. Adjutant General J. B. Allen 
furnished a wagon with arms and ammunition 
and stores for the expedition. The father of the 
project, Jesus M. EUas, was elected commander 
of tiie company, although W. S. Oury was along 
and seems to have been one of the main ones in 
the enterprise. The company left the Rillito at 
4 p. m. They rested most of the next day on 
the San Pedro to avoid being seen, then started 
at dark, making an all night's march, and 
reached the Indian camp just at dayl^t and, 
in full view of the post, fell upon their unsus- 
pecting victims, killing a hundred and twenty- 
eight of them in a few minute. The surprise 
was complete, and old and young of both sexes 
went down before Hie assailants. Not one of 
the attacking party was hurt. Twenty-nine 
children were spared and taken by the Papagoes 
and sold as slaves. Out of this number, however, 
two escaped, and five were recovered from Ari- 
zonans. It was the custom with the Pimas as 
well as the Papagoes to sell the children taken 
from the Apaches to other tribes and into 
Sonera. The bloody deed was accomplished on 
iiie morning of the' Holy 'Sabbath, April 30th, 



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160 HISIOBT OF ABIZONA. 

1871, The company then went into camp for 
breakfast and to spend a portion of the Lord's 
day in rest and thanks for their victory. Cap- 
tain Penn, commanding at Fort Lowell, sent 
word to Lieutenant Whitman of the movement. 
On receipt of the message the latter at once sent 
two men to tell the IncUans to come in, but the 
message was too late, the bloody work had been 
done. Dr. Biresly, post surgeon, with twelve men, 
was then dispatched to the place with a wagon 
to bring in any wounded tl^t might be found. 
In his report Dr. Biresly said: "On my arrival 
I found that I should have but little use for 
wagon or medicine. The work had been too 
thoroughly done. The camp had been fired, and 
the dead bodies of some twenty-one women and 
children were lying scattered over the ground. 
Those who had been woimded in the first instance 
had had their brains beaten out with stones. 
Two of the best looking of the squaws were lying 
in such a position, and from the appearance of 
the genital organs and of their woimds, there 
can be no doubt that they were first ravished and 
then shot. Kearly all tiie dead were mutilated. 
One infant of some ten months was shot twice, 
and one leg hacked nearly off." 

The party claimed as a justification of this 
massacre that they found an Indian boy riding 
a horse which was identified as one belonging 
to Bon Leopoldo, and that some of the clothing 
of Dona Trinidad Aguirre was also f oimd. Take 
it altogether the proof against these Indiana was 
very sli^t The trail followed led toward this 
point, but it does not appear that it was at- 
tempted to be followed for the last thirty miles 



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OUTRAOBS BY INDIANS. IGl 

at least, for the march was made in the night 
to avoid being seen ; besides, the trail was then 
some three weeks old. It matters but little as 
to the proof. No act could justify the indis- 
erinainate massacre of women and children. At 
the I>ecember term of court a hundred and four 
of the perpetrators of this deed were indicted 
and tried before Judge Titus at Tucson, and 
were acquitted, the jury being out twenty min- 
utes. It was impossible, under the existing feel- 
ing, to convict a person for the killing of an 
Apache. One of the principal reasons for this 
trial was, perhaps, the fact that President Grant 
wrote to Governor Safford stating that if the 
men who participated in this massacre were not 
brought to trial before the civil authorities, he 
would proclaim martial law in Arizona. At all 
events, the trial was had, and in his charge to the 
jury Judge Titus, among other things, said : 

"The Government of the United States owes 
its Papago, Mexican and American residents 
in Arizona protection from Apache spoliation 
and assaults. If such spoliation and assaults are 
persistently carried on and not prevented by the 
Government, then its sufferers have a right to 
protect themselves and employ a force large 
enough for that purpose. It is also to be added 
that if the Apache nation, or any part of it, per- 
sists in assaulting the Papagoes, Mexicans or 
Americans in Arizona, then it forfeits the right 
of protection from the United States, whether 
that right is the general protection which a Gov- 
ernment owes all persons within its limits and 
jurisdiction, or the special protection which is 
due to prisoners of war. 



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162 HISrOBT OF ARIZONA. 

"Now, gentlemen, what is the evidence before 
you on this branch of the question ? Have the 
Apache Indians, and especially that portion of 
them quartered near Oamp Grant on which the 
deadly assault described in the indictment was 
made on the 30th day of April last, been per- 
sistently assailing, despoiling and murdering the 
Papago, Mexican and American residents of 
Arizona, and has this been prevented by the 
United Statra ? The evidence is quite full on this 
subject, and I submit to you whether it does or 
does not prove that the Apache Nation, and 
especially that portion of it on which the assault 
charged in the indictment was made on the 30th 
of April last, then and now is in hostility to all 
the Papago, Mexican and American residents in 
Arizona, including the defendants and such as 
they ? Has this or has it not been continued for 
years? Has it been attended with loss of life 
and property? And has the Government of the 
United States prevented this ? Does or does not 
the evidence in the piresent qu^ion show that 
the clothing, arms and other property of mur- 
dered and despoiled Papago, Mexican and 
American residents of Arizona have been found 
in the possession of those on whom the assault 
ehajged in the indictment was made; that an 
obvious trail or Indian road leads from the place 
or places of this murder and spoliation direct to 
the encampment, and that these Indians, before 
and since the assault charged in the indictment, 
have admitted their participation in this murder 
and spoliation? After this is shown, is there 
any evidence that the United States Government 
has stopped this, or had done so on the SOUi of 



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OtTTRAOES BY INDIANS. 163 

April last 1 If you find that the evidence proves 
these practices, you will find whether it proves 
also that they were and are persistent. If you 
find that the murder and spoliation had been or 
were, on the 30th of April last, persistent, or if 
you find that this murder and spoliation were 
not persistent, you will find accordingly one of 
the following conclusions : 

"First: That the attack charged in the indict- 
ment was or was not a justifiable act of defensive 
or preventive hostilities, or 

"Second: That it does or does not cast such 
reasonable doubt on the motive in making the 
assault charged in the indictment as will render 
you unable to see whether the defendants were 
actuated by murderous malice in making such an 
assault. Accordingly as you find the affirmative 
or negative of these conclusions, your verdict 
will be guilty or not guilty." 

It must be admitted that this charge was 
eqiuvalent to instructions to acquit the defend- 
ants, which was done. 

Lieutenant Whitman seemed to have had re- 
markable success in gaining the confidence of 
the Indians, notwithstanding his moneymaking 
proclivities, as he induced many of them, imder 
their «hjef, Es-kim-in-zin, to return after the 
outrage, believing that the military had no part 
in the massacre, but soon one of the returning 
parties by some blunder was fired upon by a 
squad of soldiers, and the Indians fled to the 
mountains, more hostile than ever. 

The exterminating policies had received a fair 
trial in Arizona and had been found to be a fail- 
ure. A careful study of the Indians, their num- 



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164 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

bers two hundred years ago, and the numbers 
^\'ithm the United States to-day, sets aside at 
once the possibility of exterminating them. 
This policy has been tried several times, but the 
Indians continue as numerous as ever. 

There had been killed by Indians within a 
short time on the Pedro, Henry Long, Alex. Mc- 
Kenzie, Sam Brown, Sinoms, and others ; on the 
Santa Cruz, Wooster and wife, Sanders and 
others; on the Sonoita, Pennington, Jackson, 
Carroll, Rotherwell and others. These murders 
were all laid to the Indians on the reservation, 
but, as a matter of fact, Cochise and his band 
were constantly raiding the coimtry. 

During the winter of 1870-71, there was no 
cessation to the amount of scouting conducted 
against the Apaches, who resorted to a system of 
tactics which had often been tried in tiie past, 
and always with success. A number of simul* 
taneous attacks were made at widely separated 
points, evidently to confuse both the troops and 
the settlers by spreading a vague sense of fear 
all over the Territory, and imposing upon the 
militaiy an exceptional amoimt of work and 
hardship. Bourke says: 

"Attacks were made in southern Arizona upon 
the stage stations at the San Pedro, and the 
Cienega, as well as the one near the Picacho, and 
upon file ranches in the Babacomori Valley, and 
in the San Pedro, near Tres Alamos. Then 
came the news of a fight at Pete Kitchen's, and, 
finally, growing bolder, the enemy drove off a 
herd of cattle from Tucson itself, some of them 
beeves, and others work oxen belonging to a 
wagon train from Texas. Xjastly came the kill- 



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OUTRAOES BY IXDIAN8. 165 

ing of the stage mail rider, between the town 
and the Mission Church of San Xavier, and the 
massacre of the party of Mexicans going down 
to Sonora, which occurred not feir from the 
Souoita. 

**One of the members of this last party was a 
beautiful young Mexican lady — Dona Trinidad 
Aguirre — who belonged to a very respectable 
family in the Mexican Republic, and was on her 
way back from a visit to relatives in Tucson. 
That one so yoimg, so beautiful and bright, 
should have been snatched away by a most cruel 
death at the hands of the savages, aroused the 
people of all the country south of the Oila, and 
nothing was talked of, nothing was thought of, 
but vengence upon the Apaches. 

"Lieutenant Howard B. Gushing was most ac- 
tive at this time, and kept his troop moving with- 
out respite. There were fights, and ambuscades, 
and attacks upon Indian raneherias, and night 
marches without number, several very success- 
ful. When the work oxen of the Texans above 
referred to were run off, the Apaches took them 
over the steepest, highest and rockiest part of 
the Sierra Santa Catalina. Cushing followed 
closely, guided by Manuel Duran and others. 
Progress was necessarily slow on account of the 
difficulties of the trail. The only result of the 
pursuit, however, was the recovery of the meat 
of the stock which the Apaches had killed when 
they reached the canyons under Trumbull's 
Peak. Three of Cushing's party were hurt in 
the ensuing fight, and several of the Indians were 
killed and wounded." 



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166 HISrOBT OF ABIZONA. 

Lieutenant Gushing was afterwards killed by 
the Indians, an account of which, given by 

Bourke, follows: 

"On the 5th of May, 1871, Lieutenant Howard 
B. Gushing, Third Cavalry, with several civil- 
ians and three soldiers, was killed by the Chirica- 
hua Apaches, under their famous chief, Cochise, 
at the Bear Springs, in the Whetstone Moun- 
tains, about thirty-five miles from Tucson and 
about the same distance to the east of old Gamp 
Crittenden. Gushing's whole force numbered 
twenty-two men, the lai^er part of whom was 
led into an ambuscade in the canyon containing 
the spring. The fight was a desperate one, and 
fought with courage and great skill on both sides. 
Our forces were surrounded before a shot had 
been fired; and it was while Gushing was en- 
deavoring to lead his men back that he received 
tihe wounds which killed him. Had it not been for 
the courage and good judgment displayed by 
Sergeant John Mott, who had seen a good deal 
of service against the Apaches, not one of the 
command would have escaped aUve out of the 
canyon. Mott was in command of the rear- 
guard, and, in coming up to the assistance of 
Lieutenant Gushing, detected the Apaches mov- 
ing behind a low range of hills to gain Gushing 's 
rear. He sent word ahead, and that induced 
Lieutenant Gushing to fall back. After Gush- 
ing dropped, the Apaches made a determined 
charge and came upon our men hand to hand. 
The little detachment could save only those 
horses and mules which were ridden at the mo- 
ment the enemy made the attack, because the men 
who had dismounted to fight on foot were unable 



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OITTRAOES BY INDIANS. 167 

to remount, such was the impetuosity of the rush 
made by the Chiricahuas. There were enough 
animals to 'ride and tie,' and Mott, by keeping 
up on the backbone of the hills running along 
the Babacomori Valley, was enabled to reach 
Camp Crittenden without being surrounded or 
ambuscaded. 

"Inside of forty-eight hours there were three 
troops of cavalry en route to Crittenden, and in 
pursuit of the Apaches, but no good could be 
effected. Major William J. Ross, at that time 
in command of Camp Crittenden, was most 
energetic in getting word to the various military 
commands in the southern part of the country, 
as well as in extending every aid and kindness 
to the wounded brought in by Mott. 

"When the combined force had arrived at 
Bear iSprings, there was to be seen every evi- 
dence of a most bloody struggle. The bodies of 
Lieutenant Cushing and comrades lay where 
they had fallen, stripped of clothing, which the 
Apaches always carried off from their victims. 
In all parts of the narrow little canyon were the 
carcasses of ponies and horses half-eaten by the 
coyotes and buzzards; broken saddles, saddle- 
bags, canteens with bullet holes in them, pieces 
of harness and shreds of clothing scattered 
about, charred to a crisp in the flames which the 
savages had ignited in the grass to conceal their 
line of retreat. 

"Of how many Apaches had been MUed, there 
was not the remotest suggestion to be obtained. 
That there had been a heavy loss among the In- 
dians could be suspected from the signs of bodies 



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168 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA. 

having been dragged to certain points, and there, 
apparently, put on pony back. 

"The Chiricahuas seemed to have ascended 
the canyon imtil they had attained the crest of 
the range in a fringe of pine tynber; but no 
sooner did they pass over into the northern foot- 
hills than they broke in every direction, and did 
not re-unite until near our boundary line with 
Mexico, where their trail was struck and fol- 
lowed for several days by Major Gerald Ru^ell 
of the Third Oavalry. They never halted until 
they regained the depths "of the Sierra Madre, 
their chosen haunt, and towards which Russell 
followed them as long as his broken down 
animals could travel. 

"Of the distinguished services rendered to 
Arizona by Lieutenant Gushing, a book might 
well be written. It is not intended to disparage 
anybody when I say that he had performed her- 
culean and more notable work, perhaps, than 
had been performed by any other officer of cor- 
responding rank, either before or since." 

Lieutenant Gushing was one of the best and 
bravest officers in Arizona, and his continued 
campaigns against the hostiles had had a telling 
effect. He was considered the most successful 
Indian filter in the army; brave, energetic 
and tireless, he followed the foe to their strong- 
holds and there attacked them with vigor and 
spirit, dealing tiiem blows the savages could not 
withstand. In him Arizona lost one of her most 
worthy defenders; a man who, at this critical 
time, she could ill afford to part with. He was 
the Ouster of Arizona, and it can be said of him : 
"It is a part of life and the mystery of fate, that 



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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 169 

to all men who must have their will, there comes 
a time when there is neither turning back nor to 
the side. It must be on, and on, and on, to an 
end that is either immortal or better to be forgot- 
ten. And it is from such ends that the children 
get eilber the story of shame, or the luster of a 
name shining out on the dark night of the past as 
a star of the greatest magnitude." 

lieutenant Cushing belonged to a family which 
won deserved renown during the Civil War. One 
of his brothers blew up the ram Albemarle ; an- 
other died moat heroically at his post of duly on 
the battlefield of Oettysburg; another, enlisted in 
the navy, died in the service. 



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170 HISrOET OP ABIZONA. 



CHAPTER IX. 

CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILES. 

C. B, Genung's Descbiption of Townsend's Ex- 
pedition — ^Indians KiUi Herder and Steal 
Herbert Bowers' Cattle — John Townsend 
Appointed Captain of Purstjino Party — 
Joined bt Pabti of Soldiers Under Lieu- 
tenant MoBTON — Catch Indians and Kill 
Thirtt-fivb — Rest of Indians Escape — 
Again Catch and Kill Indians — ^Pursuers 
Retubn to Prescott and ABE Banquetted — 
FiFTT-six Indians Killed, and Almost Atj. 
Stock Recovered. 

One of the most successful raids against the In- 
diana by a volunteer party was made under the 
command of John Townsend in June, 1&71, an ac- 
coimt of which is published in the Los Angeles 
"Mining Review" under date of May 13th, 1911, 
by C. B. Oenung, who assisted in organizing the 
expedition, and was Townsend's lieutenant, 
which account follows : 

"In June, lOTl, I was farming in Peoples Val- 
ley, Arizona. Having occasion to go to Prescott 
and my wife not feeling safe at the ranch with the 
small force of men that I could leave behind, she 
concluded to go with me as far as Ed Bowers' 
ranch and station and visit with Mrs. Bowers 
until I returned. The Bowers family were our 
nearest neighbors at that time, and they were 
twelve miles away on the road to Prescott in 
Skull Valley. I took with me "W. H. Smith, my 
wife's brother, and a young man named Boyce 



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dTSZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINffT HOSTILES. 171 

for escort. We all stayed at Bowers' ranch the 
first ui^t, and the next morning as we were leav- 
ing, my wife called after me: 'Don*t forget the 
indigo. ' She had sent me for indigo before and 
I had forgotten it. 

"I had told my wife that I would remain in 
Prescott but one day and return the third day. 
I had some business with the Quartermaster 
which took me to Whipple where Herbert Bow- 
ers was keei>ing the sutler store. I foxmd Her- 
bert a very sick man, and, as he was a dear friend 
of mine, I spent a good deal of time with him, try- 
ing to cheer him up. He had a bad case of yellow 
jaundice, and was in bed all the time that I stayed 
with him. 

"I got settled up with the Quartermaster and 

fot my Toucher for what he owed me, and was 
ack in Prescott late in tiie evening and had 
everything ready to start home in the morning. 
At 9 :30 1 started from the Diana Saloon — across 
ihe plaza to where I slept. Right out on the plaza 
I came upon Herbert Bowers standing there like 
a statue. My first impression was that he was 
out of his head. I asked him what in the world 
he was doing there. He said, 'Charley, the In- 
dians killed one of the herders and have gone with 
a hundred and thirty-seven head of horses, mules 
and cattle from my Agua Fria ranch. The other 
herder escaped the Indians and brought the word 
to the ranch. Nathan, my brother, sent a courier 
in to me, also one to Camp Verde. I have applied 
at Whipple for help, but there are no men or ani- 
mals there to go ; all I can get there is one old 
pack mule.' 

"I said to him : 'You go to Brook & Lind's sta- 
ble and get all the saddle horses they have and 



Q,y,l,z.OLJy Google 



172 HiaroBT of abizona. 

have them brought down and tied here at the 
Diana Saloon, then go to C. €. Bean and tell him 
that I want lus buckskin team — one for me and 
the other for Smith, my brother-in-law. ' 

"I walked into the saloon and told the people 
what had happened, and called for volunteers to 
go out and get the stock back. The Diana Saloon 
stood on the comer where the St. Michael Hotel 
now stands, and there were several more saloons 
right along side by side. The news spread like a 
flash and &ere were plenty of men to go but they 
had no horses. Just two men who were willing to 
go had horses, Tom Rodriek of Kirkland Valley, 
and Jeff Davis of Davis ranch on the head of the 
Hassayampa. I saw John McDerwin in the 
crowd and called him to one side and asked him if 
he would tell my wife the next day that I had 
gone after Indians and not to expect me back un- 
til she saw me, which he agreed to do. By this 
time the horses began to come to the hitching 
rack. I singled out the men that I wanted, and 
we all got some lunch of whatever kind we could 
scrape together, and at eleven o'clock — ^just an 
hour and a half from the time I left the saloon to 
go to bed — tiiere were eleven of us mounted and 
ready to make the most successful raid against 
the Apaches that ever started from Northern 
Arizona. 

"I had met John Townsend and been intro- 
duced the day that I stayed in Prescott, and as 
he was an Indian fighter I made inquiry for him 
before we got started and learned that he had 
started for his ranch on the lower Agua Fria, 
which was about twenty miles below Bowers' 
ranflh ; that he had gone via the "Vickers ranch 
which was on the then only wagon road from 



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CmZEN EXPEDITIONS AQAINST H08TILE8. 173 

Preseott to the Agua Fria. I wished to take the 
short trail, so sent two men via Vickers' ranch to 
ask Townsend to join us, which he did, and we 
were all at the Bowers ranch before daylight. As 
several of our horses needed shoeing, we got the 
negro blacksmitii who was working for Bowers 
and had a good shop, to fit the shoes, while the 
men drove them on as fast as three hammers 
could do it 

"By sunrise we all had had breakfast, and had 
a sack of flour, some bacon and coffee that we had 
got at the ranch. Just as we were ready to start 
I called all to attention and suggested that we 
elect Townsend captain of the company, which 
was agreeable to us all. Then we were off, six:- 
teen of us, having picked up four men besides 
Townsend in the Agua Fria settlement. 

"What provisions and some cooking tools that 
we had were packed on tih.e old Government mule. 

"We travelled pretty fast after we got strung 
out on the trail of the stock until about noon, 
when we stopped to water and rest our horses. 
Tom Rodriek had been in town drinking pretty 
hard for several days and was very anxious to 
have a drink of whiskey, thinking perhaps some 
of the men had a bottle in their saddle bags. We 
all had saddle bags on our saddles those days. 
Tom called to Townsend and said, *Captain, if I 
cant get a drink 111 die sure.' Townsendre- 
plied : *Oh ! not so bad as that, Tom. ' Says Tom : 
'I bet you two hundred dollars 111 die in fifteen 
minutes if I don't get a drink.' He lived, al- 
though he didn't get the drink. 

"The first night we camped on a sidehill where 
there was good grass, and the next morning we 
were moving by daybreak, and about sunrise we 



D,y,lz...JyG00l^Ic 



174 HIOTORT OP ARIZONA. 

ran into a soldier camp where they were just eat- 
ing their breakfast. The soldiers had started 
from Camp Verde and had a Mexican for guide 
who had been a prisoner with the Apaches for a 
number of years, and he knew about where to 
cross the mountains to strike the trail that he 
knew the Indians would have to take the stock 
over. So when he struck the trail they made 
camp, where we came upon them. There were 
twenty-eight enlisted men, a doctor, and a young 
lieutenant named Morton, in charge. The lieu- 
tenant was fresh from West Point, and as we rode 
along, Townsend being in the lead, the lieutenant 
asked one of our party who the leader was, and 
was told that Mr. Townsend, the man in the lead, 
was our captain. The lieutenant called to Town- 
send and walked out a little way toward him, as 
Townsend puUed his horse a little to one side and 
stopped. He said:* Mr. Townsend, my name is 
Morton, and I suppose we are all out on the same 
business and I would like to accompany you.' 
*A11 right,' said Townsend, 'come ahead,' and he 
rode on. 

"We had a bad, slow trail all forenoon, climb- 
ing over a rough malapai country, and for long 
stretches the mescal was so thick that two horses 
could not pass on the trail. 'Hie mescal leaves 
were as sharp as needles and as hard as steel. It 
would ruin a horae if he happened to run against 
one. 

"The soldiers soon came stringing along and 
overtook us about the time that we got to the top 
of what was known as Ox Yoke Mountain. There 
we found several ox yokes which had been taken 
ofE of oxen that had been run off in other raids 
by the Ijidians. The Mexican guide told us that 



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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILEa. 175 

it was twelve miles down the mountainside to the 
Verde river from that point. 

"Here the Mexican guide said that the Indians 
were liable to fire the brush ahead of us; so we 
rushed our horses down the steep brushy trail as 
fast as we could, but we had not gone more than 
two or three miles before we saw the smoke ris- 
ing down the canyon below us. The trail led 
down the north side of a ridge which was cut with 
steep gulches, and as it was on the north side and 
the mountain was very steep the brush and grass 
did not bum very readily. Still nearly all of the 
soldiers were cut off by the fire and had to leave 
the trail and make their way around as best they 
could, everybody for himself. 

' ' We reached the Verde river about two o 'clock 
in the afternoon, horses and men all pretty tired 
and hungry, but all safe and soimd. We crossed 
the river at the mouth of the east fork, and 
camped to let our horses rest and graze while we 
got something to eat ourselves. Here we scoured 
the coimtry thoroughly to be sure that the In- 
dians had not divided tiieir party, but satisfied 
ourselves that the whole lot of them had gone the 
one trail up the east fork. About four o'clock 
we started again on the trail, which led up the 
river for several zniles, then turned up the face of 
a great table mountain which was one mass of 
lava boulders and the trail so steep that most of 
the men had to dismount. Townsend had told 
me about this place, having learned of it from 
some soldiers who had been there and had to turn 
back as the Indians had rolled boulders down 
from the top until the whole face of the moimtain 
seemed to be flying rocks of all sizes. The moim- 
tain is several miles long, and from the top 



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176 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

down for many hundred feet it is a perpen- 
dicular bluff, then slopes to the river below. 
The trail ran along under this bluff, and 
the Indians could stop an army from passing 
along that trail if they were to throw over even 
small sized boulders. Several parties before us 
had gone as far as the foot of this mesa where the 
trail 8tiu^:ed up, and then had given up the job 
and turned badi. When we got to this point we 
all bunched up and some of the men started up 
the trail. Townsend let them go a little while 
and then called them back; told one of the 
soldiers to fire a shot to recall those that were out 
of hearing of his voice. When the men were all 
turned back we strung out single file, which was 
the way we travelled s^ the time, and before sun- 
down were back at the place we had left several 
hours before. 

"Townsend said to the lieutenant, 'Have some 
of your men fire a shot or two at a mark.' Town- 
send wanted the shots fired, but did not want the 
citizens to waste their ammunition. He thought 
it did not make so much difference whether the 
soldiers had ammunition or not. When we over- 
took the soldiers that morning Townsend was 
mad^ for up to that time the citizens and soldiers 
when they hunted Indians together never could 
get along agreeably. The officers had always 
wanted to boss the job, and made a failure of it 
every time. So far Lieutenant Morton had not 
made any suggestions at all, but had just come 
along, which was agreeable to Townsend and all 
the rest of us. 

"We built up big camp fires, fired a few shots, 
put out a strong guard and made down our beds, 
which among the citizens consisted of saddle 



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CanZEN EXPEDinONB AGAINST HOSTTLES. 177 

blankets and saddle for pillow. We knew the 
Indians were watching our every move from the 
high rough points wmch surrounded us on all 
sides. We got our suppers and still kept the fires 
burning bright, and all lay down to rest if not to 
sleep. The guard -was changed every two hours, 
and at two o 'clock the fires were all out, and as 
noiselessly as possible we mounted and retraced 
our steps to the foot of the big mountain which 
we reached just as the light began to show in the 
east Noiselessly we began to climb up the face 
of that mountain, and. by the time it was light 
enough to see to shoot, we were all over the worst 
of it ; but we had now several miles to travel along 
the face of the mountain directly under that 
great bluff which seemed to hang over in places. 

'*It was very slow travelling until we got past 
this big black mesa, then we had rolling hills to 
cross with occasionally a pretty rough canyon. 
About six o'clock the Mexican guide, who was 
ahead, threw up a hand and we were all on the 
alert. There had just gone over the ridge about 
a mile ahead of us an Indian on a horse. We 
were then in si^t of quite a large piece of com- 
paratively level land and could see eottonwood 
trees in the bottom along the East Fork, which at 
this place proved to be dry. Townsend and I 
jumped off our horses to tighten the cinches on 
our saddles, which let several of those that were 
in the line behind na go by, and they were going 
as fast as they could. Among the others that 
passed us was tiie lieutenant. 

"When we had travelled about a quarter of a 
mile, Townsend ahead of me, he saw an Indian 
track in the dry dirt which bore off the main trail 
vin— 12 



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178 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

to the right, and we followed it as fast as our 
horses and eyes would allow, and of course all 
who were behiiid us followed ua Across the flat 
that we had seen from a distance we all went as 
fast as our horses could carry us, and on the op- 
posite side of the river we ran into an Indian 
camp pretty well hidden in the brush. The 
Indians had most of them gotten out of their 
camp and were making for the hills through the 
thick brush, but we were shooting everyone we 
could see that was near enough to make it worth 
while trying our guns on. 

"As we were crossing the dry river bed I 
noticed one Indian running apparently behind a 
hill, and I started for the top of the hill as fast as 
I could, and just as I readfied the top I caught 
sight of a big fellow running down a gulch. 
I dropped him, and as he fell, I saw another in a 
bunch of oak brush about seventy-five yards 
away. I shot him, and he fell in the brush. 
Among the soldiers was a Corporal Flynn who 
had done duty for a long time between Camp 
Verde and Prescott as mail carrier, and Flynn 
saw the last Indian that I had shot when be fell, 
Flynn having followed me up the hill. FIjTm 
said, 'you hit, but I think you only wounded him. ' 

"So I told Flynn if he would ride up on a little 
point of a hill that overlooked the place where the 
Indian fell so that he could see if he ran out, and 
at the same time cover my horse, which I left 
where we stood, that I would go into the brush 
and see what I had done to the red. Flynn sta- 
tioned himself where he could see all around, but 
could see nothing of the Indian, so I advanced 
cautiously into t£e brush and in a few minutes 
heard shots off to my right. I looked and there 



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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILBS. 179 

were seven or eight soldiers about two hundred 
yards away, and then I heard a bullet strike a 
rock close to me. Flynn began to yell like a 
crazy man, and said: 'What are you d — d boys 
doing? Trying to kill a white manf ' The sol- 
diers had seen my black hat moving in the bushes 
and mistook me for an Indian, and had all taken 
a shot without dismounting. I found the Indian 
who had crawled into the thick brush; but he 
was a good Indian. 

"We had spent so much time looking for the 
Indian that l^ere was no use in doing anything 
but to go and find the balance of the people. We 
returned to the Indian camp, and were the last 
to get there. 

"Morton, the trailer, some citizens and a few 
soldiers had struck a big trail while running on 
the main trail that we had been following. This 
trail crossed the main trail at right angles and 
led up a small ravine to another Indian camp, 
but much smaller than the one we had struck. 
The lieutenant had no rifle, but killed a big buck 
Apache with his forty-^five — about the first one 
that was killed. Altogether we had killed thirty- 
five Indians that we Imew were dead. We plun- 
dered the camp and about five o'clock took the 
trail and followed it until dark. 

"After we had eaten something and were sit- 
ting around camp, Townsend asked the trailer 
what was the meaning of 'Wapop' in the Indian 
languf^. He said it meant * Oh, Father I ' Then 
Townsend told of shooting a young Indian about 
eighteen or twenty years old and breaking his 
leg. The fellow grabbed hold of a brush and 

Clled himself up, stood on one foot and slapped 
breast and cri«i out: * Wapop! Wapop 1' two 



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IBO HISrOBT OF ARIZONA. 

or three times before he got the second shot. 
This was probably a white man who had been 
with the Lidians so long that he had forgotten 
his mother tongue, as all who saw the body said 
it was much whiter than any Indian. 

"The next morning we took the trail as soon 
as we could see distinctly, not wishing to miss 
any sidings, as we were on the rolling country 
wMch we knew was the divide between the Bast 
Verde and some other stream, and we were ex- 
pecting the Indians to break up into small par- 
ties as was their custom when followed and 
pressed by the whites. However, this did not 
happen in this instance, as we had completely 
fooled them and put them entirely off their 
guard by doubling back to the Verde from 
the foot of the big mesa. It was very lucky the 
Indian the men saw on horseback the day before 
did not see us, or the alarm would have been 
spread, and we should only have got the thirty- 
five. 

"We traveled on a trot or lope for several 
hours the morning of the fourth day out, through 
cedar and juniper timber, over mesa and rolling 
hills along the foot of the mountain. About ten 
o'clock the leaders came right on to a big ran- 
cheria in a big canyon, the banks of which were 
so high and so near perpendicular that there 
was no way of getting down into the canyon only 
by single file down a narrow trail. The Indians 
were getting away. I took in the situation at 
a glance, and saw several Indians skulking into 
a gulch that ran into the main gulch near their 
camp. I forced my horse to jiunp down about 
ten feet, where he landed on loose eloping dirt, 
and made across the big gulch (which was about 



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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AOAINST HOSTILES. 181 

one hundred yards wide) up on to the mesa on 
the opposite side, and made a dash to try to head 
off the Iiidians that I had noticed Koing up the 
mouth of the small side gulch. The mountain 
to the west of them was so steep and bare of 
brush that they dare not try to elimb it, and I 
managed to get ahead of them and shot two. 
One raised up in a sitting posture, and I was 
about to give bim another shot when 'Hold on, 
boys,' came from the corporaL He had been 
right at my heels, the same as the day before. 
'Hold on, boys! Don't waste your ammunition. 
Ill finish him wid a rock ! ' 

"I had seen an Indian down the gulch when 
I jumped off. to shoot the first one, and I tried to 
watch the banks to prevent him from escaping ; 
I had never taken my eyes off the place where I 
saw him long enough for him to climb the steep 
bank, and the mountain was too bare for him 
to try that side. Several of the men had fol- 
lowed up the gulch on foot from the Indian camp 
at the mouth, and I had asked them to look care- 
fully, which they thought they did, but none 
found him. Still I would not give it up and 
remained in my position. Finally a young fel- 
low named John Bullard came in sight from 
among the jumper trees and stopped right above 
where I had lost sight of the Indian. I hailed 
him and told him what I had seen, and for him 
to get into the gulch and himt carefully while I 
watched from where I stood. 

"With as little delay as possible he climbed 
down, and pretty soon a big boulder hid him 
from me ; then a gun went off and Bullard 's head 
came up from behind the boulder. Then down 
it went again out of my sight. Then up came 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



1B2 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

the head again, and Bullard climbed up on the 
boulder and, holding up bis right hand (from 
which a part of the forefinger had been shot 
oflE with tiie guard of his pistol a couple of years 
before by Ijidians who waylaid him while he was 
on his way from Townsend's ranch on the Agua 
Fria), he halloos to me, 'I've got even with ttiat 
finger. I'm very much obliged to you, Charley.' 
On all the trip Bullard had not got an Indian 
until this one. 

"I went back now to the place where the In- 
dians were camped, and the men had already 
plundered the camp, looking for valuables, and 
among other thin^ they had found a buckskin 
sack with a lot of indigo balls in it, and that re- 
minded me of what my wife had sent me to Pres- 
cott for. I poured about a pound of them into 
my saddle holsters to take home with me. The 
men had captured several guns, a few buckskins, 
etc., but notJiing of much value. 

"In the scrap at the Indian camp Townsend 
had a very narrow escape from an Indian bullet. 
He was walking through some brush and was 
within a few feet of a woimded Indian who was 
lying behind a boulder, so that Townsend could 
not see him, with his rifie cocked and sighted, 
and if Townsend had taken one more step he 
would have been within range, but Providence 
was with him. Jeff Davis caught sight of the 
Indian, called out to Townsend and stopped him, 
and, in the same breath, finished the Indian. We 
got a lot of roasted mescal and some horse meat 
at this camp, and took up the trail again, which 
led to the southeast from this point tibrough low 
hills and long i 



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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOeTILES. 183 

"We had traveled some tliree or four hours 
and were following a long, low grassy ridge which 
was skirted on the south and west by a big wide 
canyon which seemed to run far back into the 
moimtain. The trail ran along the top of the 
ridge, which in some places was quite narrow as 
it wound around the head of some short gulch 
that ran off toward the big valley below to the 
east There was quite a little rise in this ridge 
just before it pitched off into the large gulch 
to the west of us, and as the Mexican trailer 
rode nearly to the top of the ridge, he threw 
up his hand and stopped and turned his horse 
partly around. He had seen what he supposed 
were two Indians on horses going ahead of us on 
the same trail about six hundred yards in ad- 
vance. Townsend slipped up and peeked over 
the ridge, watched a very few moments, then 
turned and came back and started down a very 
steep gulch which we could see led to the big 
wash. If we could get down it with our horses 
we should not be in sight of the Indians until 
we were close to them. 

"Townsend had brought the gun that came 
so near killing him and had several buckskins 
laying across his saddle upon which rested the 
two guns. As he passed me he started down 
the gulch, dropped the Indian's gun, then 
dumped the buckskins, and was cleared for ac- 
tion. I had no plunder to dispose of except the 
indigo, and I could not part with that, for my 
wife sent me after it. That was a rough gulch, 
but our horses were surefooted, and we landed 
on the level ground side by side. Here the 
groimd was soft, sandy land, and we turned our 
horses loose and gave them the spur. 



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IB^ HISrOBT OF ABIZONA. 

"The Indians were going very slowly and ap- 
peared to be asleep, for we were in plain sight 
of them for as much as three hundred yards. 
They were following the main trail and were 
crossing a grassy flat with bimches of oak brush 
scatterai here and there. We ran our horses 
at full speed to within forty yards of them, and 
both jumped off at the same time and fired. Both 
of us shot the same Indian as he was nearest 
to us, and we could see that he had a lo^ rifle 
laying across the horse in front of him. We had 
both noticed before we jumped off that there 
were two on one horse, and at the crack of my 
gun the nearest Indian pitched head foremost 
off the horse, and with him went the gun and a 
hifr quarter of horse meat that he had laying 
across the horse^s withers. 

"The other two Indians jumped off the horse 
they were riding, and began firing at me, as I 
was in the open groimd and Townsend was be- 
hind a small bunch of grass brush and the In- 
dians had the horse between them and Town- 
seni They fired three or four shots at me, one 
with a Henry rifie and the other with a six 
shooter. I was jumping sidewise and trying to 
reload my rifie when Townsend got in a Slot 
and broke the right arm of the Indian who had 
the rifle. Then they both started to run, keep- 
ing as much as possible the brush between them 
and us. They had run only a few steps when 
they ran together, and the one with the six 
shooter got the Henry rifle and gave the pistol 
to the one with the broken arm. All of this time 
I was trying to get a shot, but there was too much 
brush and ihej were takmg advantage of it. 



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CinZBN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILBS. 185 

"Then we both made a dash for our horses. 
Townsend's horse had stood still where he left 
him, but mine had moved off a little way, and 
I suppose he did the wise thing, for if he had 
stood right beside me as the other horse did, he 
might have been shot and killed. When I ran 
toward the horse he became frightened and 
would not let me catch him. When I realized that 
I could not catch him readily, I started running 
after the Indians. Townsend had started along 
the side of a low hiU trying to get a shot, and at 
the same time trying to head them off to give 
me a chance. The Indians kept in tiie wash which 
headed about one-quarter of a mile from where 
we shot the first one. Along the wash on each 
side was a growth of oak brush higher than a 
man's head, which prevented Townsend from 
getting a shot. Townsend was on the left of the 
Indians, which made it necessaiy for him to turn 
in his saddle in order to use his gim. He said 
if he had been on the other side he could have 
had plenty of shots at them. 

"At the head of the gulch there was a low 
divide, and there the Indians separated. One 
ran down the gulch and the other through some 
brush and was out of sight, but Townsend kept 
in si^t of the one with the rifle and followed 
him for something like a mile before he got a 
good show to shoot. Then he hit him in the back 
of the head and killed him instantly. When 
Townsend rode up to where the Indian lay he 
took hold of his ankle to pull him down out of 
some brush, and the grain of his hide slipped 
like he had been scalded. When I came up to 
Townsend he was examining the Henry rifle, 
and he asked me if I had seen the wounded In- 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



186 HiaroBY of abizona. 

dian, which, of course, I had not. He called 
my attention to the way the hide had slipped 
on the dead Indian's leg, and while we were com- 
menting on it the balance of our party began to 
show up on the hill about half a mile back on 
our traU. We got up in sight and they were all 
soon with us. We desired to go back to the 
big wash that we had crossed in overtaking the 
Indians, to camp, as it was then about sundown 
and we knew there was water and feed there. 
On our way back I was riding next to Townsend, 
the other men having caught my horse and 
brought him along. I said, 'Townsend, why 
didn't you shoot when you jumped off your 
horse ?' His reply was, 'Why didn't you shoot f* 
I said, 'I kUled that big Indian all ri^t,' and 
we both claimed to have shot the Indian. When 
we got back to where he lay, we examined the 
body and found the small Henry rifle hole, and 
the bullet must have passed through his heart, 
while my big Sharp's bullet had passed through 
right between his shoulders. We had both fired 
at the same time, and we bolii thought the other 
had not fired. Townsend said to me, ' How many 
have you killed f I said, 'Two yesterday and 
two this morning.' 'Well,' he replied, 'you count 
this one. That shot would have killed a big 
bunch if they had been in line.' 'How many 
have you gotf I asked. 'Eight,' was the an- 
swer, 'and one gone with his right arm all shot 
to pieces. We will track him up in the morning 
and that will be nine for me. ' The gun that had 
caused us both to shoot at the same Indian 
proved to be the herder's gun that was killed 
when the herd was taken. The horse that he 



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CmZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINOT H0STILE8. 187 

rode belonged to the Bowers ranch, and the other 
horse belonged to the late Robert Postle. It 
was quite a noted race horse. The whole com- 
mand had sat and watched Townsend and me 
until the first shots, then came on as fast as pos- 
sible. 

"One of the soldiers had noticed a road leadiuf; 
up tiie mountainside across the valley some eight 
or ten miles away, and recognized it as a road 
that he had traveled several years ago, and said 
that it led from old Camp Reno on Tonto Oreek 
to Green Valley. That was the first that we had 
an idea where we were at. From what I can 
learn from people who have lived in that coim- 
try, the creek that we were camped on is now 
known as Wild Rye. 

"The next morning we were out as soon as 
we coidd see and tried to locate the wounded 
Indian. We found his track where he had 
crawled through the brush and skulked along 
for nearly half a mile, then in some way he built 
a signal fire and other Indians had come to him 
during the night and taken him away. So Town- 
send only counted eight for the trip. After sat- 
isfying ourselves that there was no show to find 
the wounded Indian, we took the trail and about 
ten o'clock struck Tonto Creek and the old 
wagon road before mentioned. The Indian trail 
led down the creek to a point below a small 
canyon that the road was built around. There 
the Indians had left the road and creek and taken 
to the hills again, going east Here we halted 
for the first time to consult. As our horses were 
in very bad shape (several being entirely or par- 
tially barefooted) and our grub all gone, that 



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IBS HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA. 

is, the citizens' grub, we concluded that it would 
be folly to go on further on the trail, and we also 
realized that the Indians were thoro»]^hly roused, 
as we had seen smokes by day and fires by night 
on the mountains for the past twenty- four hours. 
"Some of the party were in favor of going 
back and trying to get home via Camp Verde. 
It was also suggested by some that we might as 
well take our back trail. The suggestion made 
some merriment among the wise ones, and Town- 
send spoke up and said five himdred men could 
not get back by the way we came without losing 
half of them. Townsend hunted up the soldier 
who had recognized the wagon road the day be- 
fore, and learned what he could about the coun- 
try and the road. The soldier had been over 
the road but once, but he thought we were not 
more than a few miles from Old Camp Reno 
and from there there had been wagons over the 
Reno Moimtain road. We concluded to go to 
McDowell, and as we began to mount our horses, 
Townsend remarked, 'We will have to be on 
our guard from now on or somebody may get 
hurt. ' That was the most talk that he had made 
on the trip at any one time, and the lieutenant 
had not said that much so as to he heard by the 
citizen part of the crowd, and we all began to 
think he was all right. Even Jeff Davis had 
quit calling him 'coiT)oral' when he had occasion 
to address him, and called him 'Mr. Morton.' 
We were halted on a mesa of a considerable 
extent while we were consulting about the road 
to take. The mesa was covered with prehistoric 
ruins of some kind, and they had covered many 
acres of ground. We had a good road until we 



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GinZBN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILES. 189 

reached the old abandoned post. We passed a 
few miles above the post what had been a gar- 
den irrimted with water taken out of Tonto 
Creek. This was done by soldiers while the post 
was occupied, we afterward learned. We reached 
the old ruined post about noon, having traveled 
some twenty or twenty-five miles that morning, 
uid had spent a considerable time htmting for 
the Indian with a broken arm. That Indian, 
building a fire with one hand was a puzzle to us 
all. He must have had matches. 

"As we found a fine large stream or spring 
near the old camp we concluded to camp there 
that night to rest our horses. Several of the 
citizens had walked all the morning to favor their 
horses. My own horse was very lame, and the 
first thing that I did after reaching the camp 
was to hunt up the old blacksmith shop, and I 
found plenty of shoes that were good enough 
to keep a horse's foot ofE the ground. I also 
picked up quite a lot of nails, most of which 
had been bent, but I got enough to put a shoe 
onto my own horse and a lot to spare for the 
others. While several other men and I were 
hunting for the nails, we were startled by seeing 
some of the fellows in camp run to their horses, 
while others were running to camp from where 
they had been picking blackberries, of which 
there was quite a patch at this place, — the first 
that I had ever seen on the Pacific coast growing 
wild. The excitement was caused by a big cloud 
of dust about two miles up the McDowell road — 
just at the mouth of a canyon that the road 
passes through before it reaches the open mesa 
country. Oxir first impression was that it was 



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190 HISTORY OF AKIZONA. 

Indians coming with a band of stolen stock, as 
we could see nothing but the dust, and a glimpse 
of something moving. Only a few of us had 
OUT horses when we heard a bugle call, and the 
soldiers said it was a conomand to charge, and I 
guess it was, for here they came, just tearing 
Sie earth imtil they were within about four hun- 
dred yards. Then they subsided and walked 
their horses into camp, and none of them a bit 
hurt. It turned out to be a company of cavalry 
sent out from McDowell to kill Indians, and as 
our soldiers were all moimted on white horses, 
they were mistaken for a band of sheep, and 
the officer in command had the horn blown — I 
suppose to scare them away so they would not 
eat him. The officer stopped and talked a while 
with our men, and made a strong talk with some 
of the hoys, trying to induce them to join him 
and go after the ones we had lost. He went so 
far as to ofier to dismoimt some of bis men 
and send them back to McDowell, and mount the 
citizens on the fresh horses. There were men 
in our party who would have liked to have ac- 
cepted the offer had it not been for the bugle. 
The name of this officer I do not recall, but the 
guide was Hi Jolly, one of the men imported to 
the United States with the camels which were 
brought to Texas in the early fifties. When the 
McDowell officer struck the trail of the Indians 
where we had left it, he took the back track — 
the trail that we had come to Tonto Creek by, 
instead of following the Indians. He was after- 
ward court-martialed for that. Hi JoUy made 
the complaint, I believe, which brought him be- 
fore a court-martial. Hi Jolly was a good and 



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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST H08TILES. 191 

careful guide and scout, and died a few years 
since at Quartzsite, Tuma C7ounty, Arizona. 

"Our party slept at the Old Post that night, 
and we could see signal fires in every direction 
on the mountains. The nest day we started to 
make McDowell. Townsend spoke to the lieu- 
tenant, whom we had all learned to like hy this 
time, and told him to have his men keep close 
up and not get scattered as there was liable 
to be Indians trying to cut off any who might 
lag behind. It was a long rough ride over the 
Bono Moimtains, and we were all tired after 
the excitement of the ehase and our horses were 
badly fagged and sore footed. We scattered 
out on both sides of the road and after we came 
in sight of McDowell (which we could see 
ten or twelve miles away) I was riding on the 
upper side of the road and Townsend was below 
the road. I noticed him working his way up 
toward me and when he got alongside he said 
to me, 'Suppose they don't give us rations when 
we get down there,' nodding at the post, 'what 
shall we do?' I replied, 'I don't know.' Says 
he, in an undertone, *We will take the post,' 
and turned to go back to his place in the line 
of march. As he started off, I said, 'All right, 
Townsend.* I will say here that we had been 
living off tiie soldiers' rations after the third 
day out and had eaten everything they had the 
day before, except some mescal that we had 
found in the Indism camps. 

"We didn't have to take the post, however, 
as the commanding officer did everything he 
could for our comfort — gave us good quarters 
for ourselves and horses, and an order for any- 



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192 HISTOBX OF ARIZONA. 

thinK that was in the commiBsary. I believe his 
name was Major Dudley. We rested at McDow- 
ell two days, then started for Prescott via Black 
Canyon and Townsend's Banch, where Town- 
send foiind his family all safe and well. This 
woman had been staying at the ranch alone with 
her small children and no neighbors for several 
miles. The ranch is more than forty miles from 
Prescott and right in the heart of the Indian 
country, but she had dogs and guns. The lady 
raised a large family, and is living somewhere 
in this country now. The Indians killed Town- 
send some time after; shot him at long range, 
but didnt dare to go near him to get his horse. 
The faithful animal stayed with him several 
days, then went home. They found the body by 
back tracking the horse. Townsend had seen 
signs of a large party of Indians in the country, 
and, having no neighbors to go with him, he went 
after them single-handed, as he had done many 
times before. In all he killed thirty-five Apaches 
in the five years that he had lived on the Ag\i& 
Fria River. 

"Our party broke up next day at the Bowers 
ranch, having been gone eleven days and recov- 
ered all but fourteen head of the horses and 
mules stolen. The soldiers went to Camp Verde, 
and those of the citizens that didn't belong in 
the Agua Fria Valley, returned to Prescott, 
where we found the citizens organizing a search- 
ing party to go out and find and bury us. As 
they didn't know that we had joined issues with 
the soldiers, they concluded that the Indians 
had got us into some ti^t place like the Black 
Mesa on the East Fork of the Verde, and killed 



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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AQAIN8T HOffTILGB. 193 

US all. I got to Preacott about ten o'clock in 
the moTuing and was preparing to start that day 
and drive tiirough to SkuU Valley, where I had 
left my wife and baby nearly two weeks before 
to be gone only two nights, but my friends got 
around me and persuaded me to stay until next 
day as they were preparing an entertainment 
for me and the balance of the party. That was 
a day and night of great rejoicing in Prescott, 
it being the first time that the Indians had been 
followed, overtaken and severely punished by 
fiither citizens or soldiers for their crimes. It 
was really the beginning of a long fought battle 
in which the Indians got the worst of it every 
time. While we were at McDowell we occupied 
the quarters of a company of cavalry that had 
gone to meet General Crook, who had just come 
to the country, and was on a tour of inspection 
of its geography, which he accomplished by going 
to every military post before he started his cam- 
paign, which ended so successfully. 

"When I had put my team back in Brook & 
Lind's stable, I walked down across the plaza, 
and someone introduced me to a Mr. John Dun, 
from Virginia City, Nevada. We talked a few 
minutes and he asked me to come into the store 
a minute (we were standing in front of Levy 
Bashford's store). Dim said: 'Mr. Bashford, 
give me that gun, if you please. ' Bashford went 
and brought out a new Winchester rifle, one of 
the latest models. Mr. Dun passed the gun to 
me and said : * See if that is any good. If it is, 
keep it.' I certainly kept it until it was burned 
with my house and all its contents in Salt River 
Valley. That act of Dun must have suggested 
vm— 13 



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191 HI8I0BT < 

something, for the citizens of Prescott presented 
John Townsend with a gun just like it, with 
appropriately engraved plates on the stock, and 
also presented Lieutenant Morton with a pair of 
gold-mounted forty-five pistols, properly en- 
graved. I will say that the older officers at 
Verde had sent Morton out as a lark, not expect- 
ing him to accomplish an3iliing, and were having 
a lot of fun about it at first, but when he was 
gone longer than he was rationed for, they be- 
gan to get uneasy about 'the boy' as they called 
him when he first left them. When he returned 
it was a different name he bore. 

"The ni^t's entertainment consisted, first, of 
a wine supper, the table being the full length of 
a new store that Bashford was building. In 
the center of the table was a row of wine baskets 
set end to end the whole length of the table. 
This wine was Hammond 's Port Wine, — the first 
I ever saw. The first course served was wine, 
and then Judge Howard made a little speech, 
and winked with both eyes. Then we nad a 
course of wine, then a short speech from R. C 
MoCormick, and another coxirse of wine. We 
had short speeches and wine until most of the 
party went wine-ding home. The old Preseott 
pioneers did do things right when they started. 

"The next morning, having my load aU ready 
the night before, I started with William H. 
Smith and Charles Boyce for Skull Valley. Ar- 
riving at the Bowers station where there were 
several military officers sitting on the porch, I 
drove up alongside of the steps, and as my wife 
and Mrs. Bowers came down the steps, I handed 
my wife the holsters that I had put the indigo 



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CITIZEN EXPEDmONS A0AIN8T HOSTIIfS. 195 

balls in at the second fight, and said to her : ' Here 
is the indigo, wife. I had a h — 1 of a time toget 
it. ' The next day I got home to Peoples Val- 
ley, having been gone nineteen days, when it was 
my intention on leaving home to be away only 
five days. There I f omid John Burger sxiffering 
badly from some wounds that he had received 
at the hands of the Apaches on April 1st of that 
year, when his companion, H. WyckofE, was killed 
while he and Burger were on their way from 
Peeples Valley to Wickenburg. Burger had 
three balls in his right side and was shot throu^ 
the left thigh, which woimd crippled him for 
life. The woimds were nearly all healed when 
I left him and he was getting around a little 
on crutches. When I returned the wounds in 
his side were badly inflamed and were full of 
proud flesh. One rib had been shot entirely 
in two and the ends of the rib were growing 
together nicely when I left him, but when I got 
the inflammation down and the proud flesh 
burned out of the wound, I found there were 
little ulcers formed on the ends of the new bone. 
I cut them off with my pocket iaiife, and with 
such attention as I was able to give him, Burger 
was out of bed and quite well in a short time. 
He was one of the early settlers of Phoenix, and 
was killed accidentally in his own min on Hum- 
bug Creek. His wife still lives in Phoenix. 
"Altogether we killed fifty-six Indians, and 

fot all of the stock back but fourteen head — and 
Irs. Genung got her indigo." 



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HISrOBY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER X. 

INDIAN TROUBLES, THE MILITABT, MUBDBKS 

AND LTNCHINGS. 

Caopobnia LEOisLATintE Passes Resolution 
Relatinq to Indian Afpaibs in Arizona — 
General Stonem AN Superseded by General 
■Crook — Newspaper Criticism op General 
Stoneman — Murders by Mexican Outlaws 
— ^Repbisaib — Murderers Lynched — Set- 
tlement OP Valley op San Pedro by Mark 
Aldbich^Mobe Indian Outbages — Roads 
Built by Stoneman — Fiohts of Captain 
Moore and Captain Russell With Indians 
— General Crook Takes Command. 

Arizona and the West were anxious that the 
Apaches should be conquered at once, because 
about this time it began to dawn upon the West 
that Arizona was a great mineral country. The 
California Legislatiire in 1871 passed the follow- 
ing resolution : 

"Joint Resolutions of the Legislature of Cali- 
fornia relating to Indian Affairs in the Terri- 
tory of Arizona : 

"WHEREAS, we are fully assured that the 
following statements are true : 

"That the inhabitants of the Territory of Ari- 
zona are now, and for years past have been, the 
victims of the most cruel oub'ages at the hands 
of the Apache Indians ; 

"That hundreds of them, including women 
and children, have been murdered by fiiese sav- 
ages within the last few years ; 



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INDIAN TBOIJBLBB. 197 

* * That neither homes nor property in that Ter- 
ritory, outside its principal towns, are safe from 
savage incursions ; 

"That in but exceptional places can any high- 
road be traveled without great danger ; 

"That many of the citizens of our own State, 
while there on business, have fallen victims to 
these ladians ; 

"That at no time in the history of that Terri- 
tory have the Indians been more hostile, or the 
lives and property of the people less safe, than 
within the past two months ; 

"That the nation is rich enough to aflford, and 
stronfr enough to enforce, protection to its peo- 
ple living in its own Territory and under its own 
flag, as well as those abroad in other lands ; 

"That for the murder of the fewest number 
of its citizens who have been slain by these sav- 
ages in Arizona in any two months in the last 
two years, the United States Government would 
have declared war against every Power in Europe 
had its citizens been so murdered there for want 
of proper protection from European Powers; 

"That the feeling and belief are imiversal on 
tiie part of the people of this State, and we be- 
lieve of the Pacific Slope, that when General 
Crook was sent to Arizona, he was the right man 
in the right place; 

"That he is as humane as enei^etic, and if al- 
lowed sufficient means and given the discretion 
to which his experience in the management of 
Indian Affairs entitles bim , and not interfered 
with in his operations, he will, in a brief period, 
arrest this reign of terror and blood, and give 



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198 HI8T0BT ( 

security to the long-sufEerinj; people of tiuB Ter- 
ritory ; and 

"WHEREAS, we do most seriously believe 
that in all the land no such prompt and efficient 
measures are required for the protection of our 
people as in the Territory of Arizona, THERE- 
PORE: 

"1. BE IT RESOLVED BY THE SENATE 
(the Assembly concurring), that it is the duty 
of the Govermnent of the United States to give 
the moat prompt and efficient protection to the 
people of Arizona against the Apache Indians; 
that all attempts to treat with or otherwise ap- 
pease them until they are made to feel the power 
of the Government, will prove futile in the future 
as they have in the past, and must result only in 
encouraging these savages to continue deeds of 
carnage. 

"2. That in no other way can this protection 
be so promptly and efficientiy extended to our 
suffering brethren in Arizona as by furnishing 
General Crook with ample means and by giving 
him the largest discretion on the course to be 
pursued toward the savages. 

"3. That the President of the United States 
be, and he is hereby, urged and implored to pre- 
vent further interference with the military oper- 
ations of General Crook, otherwise than by aid- 
ing his designs, until these savages are subdued 
and the people of Arizona are made secure in 
their lives, homes and property. 
*"4. That his Excellency, the Governor of this 
State, be requested to telegraph these resolutions 
and the preamble to the same to the President of 
the United States; that he cause to be sent copies 



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INDIAN TBOTJBLES. 19& 

of the same to each of the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress of the FacMc States and 
Territories, and to each of the Oovemors of the 
same ; and that our Senators in Congress be in- 
structed and our Representatives be requested 
to urge upon the Government at Washington 
such action in the premises as is indicated by 
these resolutions." 

The resolutions reflected the will of the citizens 
of Arizona, and showed the temper of the people 
of the Golden State and the West generally. 

General Stoneman was superseded by General 
Crook through the influence of Governor Saf- 
ford, and, as far as I can see, he was much mis- 
judged. The following, from the Los Angeles 
"Daily Star" of May ©th, 1871, is one of the 
many harsh criticisms which were indulged, 
in against him at that time : 

"REMOVAL OF GENERAL STONEMAN. 

"There must be something very peculiar in 
the atmosphere of Arizona, as it certainly is very 
unhealthy down that way for military command- 
ers. Scarcely does one get installed in office, 
and certainly before he has become acquainted 
with the peculiarities of the country and the in- 
terests of its inhabitants, than he is ranoved, 
and another takes his place — ^to be, in his turn, 
summarily sent to the right about. The Terri- 
tory was organized in 1863, but it was well on 
in 1664 before the 'outfit' reached the country, 
and the formal declaration of the organization 
of the cotmtry made, which took place at old Fort 
Whipple, on what was known as Postle's ranch. 
During these seven years we think we are safe 



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200 HI8T0RT OF ABIZONA. 

in saying that there were more commanders in 
Arizona than one could count on his fingers with- 
out repeating. We know of three changes hav- 
ing been made in less than one year — how many 
since we can scarcely count. The result of these 
changes has always been unfortunate for the 
country as the plans of the predecessor were gen- 
erally upset by the successor, and there was a 
change ^I around, during which the war against 
the enemy was relaxed. 

"Well, we have now another change, and that, 
as usual, before the incumbent has become prop- 
erly acquainted with his charge. We see by the 
papers from Arizona that Qeneral Stoneman is 
on a tour of inspection of the Territory, the sec- 
ond since his appointment. His fault seems to 
have been that he was too ready to give expres- 
sion to a hastily formed opinion, and to act on 
what he thus believed to be for the economical 
administration of the aftairs of his command, 
rather than as it turned out, for its efficiency. 
He went there with the very best intentions, as 
was testified to by the 'Miner,' and as, indeed, it 
was to be expected. But on making his first tour 
of inspection or investigation, he came rather 
suddenly to the conclusion that because, travel- 
ing with a numerous escort, he was not attacked 
by the Apaches, the coxintry was perfectly peace- 
able, the alleged outrages by the Apaches were 
ma^iified, if not manufactured for sensational 
purposes as well as interested motives, and, act- 
ing on this conviction, he so reported to IJie Gov- 
ernment and began dismantling camps and send- 
ing the soldiers out of the coxmtry. A greater 
mistake was never made. It was worse than the 



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INDIAN TBOUBLES. 201 

imbecilHy of poor Mason. Had he made himself 
acquainted with the habits and practices of the 
Indians, consulted the wants of the people who, 
for years had been struggling to maintain the 
country, almost unaided, for the United States, 
and benefited by the experience of the many 
good and true men in the Territory, he never 
would have made that indiscreet report, much 
less would he have attempted to carry his recom- 
mendations into effect. But he turned a deaf 
ear to all remonstrances, ignored the opinions of 
the people, acted on his hastily formed conclu- 
sions, and permitted the Indians almost to gain 
the ascendancy in the country. For the past few 
months the Indian depredations have been more 
extensive and fatal than at any other period 
since the American occupation. The result is, 
he is now deprived of his command by order of 
the President, leaving behind him in the Terri- 
tory a reputation as the most impopular com- 
mander .^zona has ever had." 

It was not only the Apaches the early settlers 
had to contend with, but the Mexican outlaws as 
well, who, escaping to Sonora, were protected by 
Governor Pesquiera. The following are well 
authenticated incidents of Mexican outlawry, 
some of which met well merited pimishment : 

On December 24th, 1870, tiiree men, Eeid, 
Lytle, and Oliver, were murdered at Mission 
Camp by three Mexicans, who escaped to Sonora. 
On the 2nd of January, following, Governor Saf- 
ford sent an agent for them. They were found 
without difficulty, but the Governor of Sonora, 
Pesquiera, declined to give them up, and re- 
ferred the matter to the Secretary of State. 



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2(^ HISTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

In December, 1871, a man mimed Baker who 
lived at Blue Water station, and drove stage be- 
tween that place and Tucson, was killed, together 
with his fMnily. A reward of a thousand dol- 
lars was offered for the murderers, but the ease 
was abandoned when it was learned that the Mex- 
icans had reached Sonora and were tmder the 
protection of the Mexican Government. 

Governor MeComaick, in speaking of the bor- 
der troubles, remarked that when the Blue Water 
and Mission Camp murders were committed, he 
reported the same to the authorities in Washing- 
ton, saying that should such things continue, it 
was probable that a strong force would invade 
Mexico and retaliate. The matter was brought 
to the attention of the Mexican Government, 
whose reply was that they were unable to guard 
their frontier, and could not be responsible for 
acts of their people across the border. 

On January 14tb, 1871, the Arizona "Miner" 
said: "The alarming frequency of deeds of vio- 
lence in our community, and the tardiness with 
which justice is meted out, will, we fear, judging 
from the ominous mutterings of the people, cul- 
minate in a vigilance committee, a self-consti- 
tuted arbiter of justice so common to the frontier 
wherever laws are not promptly and strictly en- 
forced.*' The futile appeals to both the Mexican 
and American Governments for protection, and 
the prolonged delay in the adjustment of difficul- 
ties, compeUed the citizens to avenge their own 
grievances, or to submit unprotected to contin- 
ued wrongs and outra^s. 

The Gienega, or as it is now known, Pantano, 
was a noted station in those days, and it is 



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INDIAN TBOTTBLES. 2GS 

claimed that murders were committed by the 
stage employees, who posed as honest hosts. 
At one time they murdered the United States 
paymaster and Ms guard, securing seventy-five 
thousand dollars. The Apaches, in turn, mur- 
dered aU the bloodthirsty crowd at the Cienega. 
These atrocities were committed in the early sev- 
enties. The place, in later years, was destroyed. 
In 1897, four men, who posed as prospectors 
when they passed through Tucson, came from 
San Francisco, and honeycombed the whole 
place. It is supposed that tiiey had some knowl- 
edge of the treasures hidden there, and that they 
took away a large amount with them. 

In March, 1872, a stationkeeper, William Mc- 
Farland, at Sacaton, on the Tucson road, myste- 
riously disappeared after leaving Gandara's 
ranch. A large party of Americans went to 
Gandara's to make investigations. One of the 
party. Bedel, attempted to go into the house 
when Gandara shot him, and then tried to escape, 
but was riddled with bullets. On the following 
day a party went in pursuit of Manuel Reyes, 
who had threatened to kill four Americans in re- 
venge for the death of a comrade. Reyes took 
refuge in a house where there were several 
women and children. All the mmates were or- 
dered to leave the house ; as soon as they were out, 
an onslaught was made, and amid the general 
shooting Reyes was killed. An hour or two be- 
fore Aguilar, another Mexican, was shot from 
his horse. Fears were entertained of a general 
uprising of the Mexicans, and places of business 
in Sanford and Florence were dosed, the citi- 
zens holding themselves in readiness to act, if 



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201 HI8T0BY OF ABIZONA. 

necessary. Governor Safford, however, soon 
afterwards made his appearance, a body of 
troopB was stationed in the vicinity, and peace 
was finally restored. 

King S. Woolsey, who had a ranch at Stanwix 
station, (Agua Caliente), had a Mexican boy 
whom he had brought up with the kindness of a 
father. A Mexican desperado, formerly in his 
employ, met the boy one day and, after some 
words about his goin^ to kill Woolsey, he shot 
the boy. The Mexican was captured. On the 
following day, August 8th, 1872, the boy was bur- 
ied, and the man was led out and shot beside the 
boy's grave. At Kenyon Station, on the Yuma 
road, Edward Lumley was killed on the IBth of 
August, 16^, by Lucas Lugas and Manuel <Sub- 
iate. He was beaten, stabbed and shot. On the 
31st of the month Lugas was found in a thicket 
of underbrush, where he was shot after a vain 
attempt to kill his pursuers. Subiate was also 
captured the same day and placed in the Yiuna 
coimty jail. He denied having any connection 
with the affair but this statement was rebutted 
by strong circumstantial evidence. On the 8th 
of August, four men were hanged for murders 
committed the previous day. 

This prompt and determined action of the peo- 
ple was deemed necessary to save the lives and 
property of the scattered population. A Mexi- 
can named Mariano Tisnado was arrested for 
cattle stealing in Phoenix, and strong suspicions 
were entertained that he was accessory to the 
murder of Mr. Griffin a short time before. It 
was announced that his trial would take place 
on the 3rd of July, 1873. Early that morning 



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INDIAN TBOUBLEa 205 

a number of farmers came in from eveiy di- 
rection and assembled at the courthouse Bfjuare. 
A little after six they took Mariano Tisnado 
out and himg him on the gate of Monihou 
& Starr's corral, where now stands the Mon- 
Uion Building on the northeast comer of First 
Avenue and Washington Street. They feared 
that he woidd be acquitted if he was brought to 
trial. 

At midnight of August 3rd, 1873, a Mexican 
couple, Vicente Hemandes and his wife, were 
murdered in their home at Tucson with knives 
and clubs, by Leonardo Cordoba, Clemente Lo- 
pez, and Jesus Saguaripa. The murderers were 
arrested on the following day, and a confeffiion 
obtained from Cordoba acknowledging their par- 
ticipation in the deed. He also disclosed the 
place where the plimder was buried. After the 
funeral the following day, a meeting was held. 
The unanimous demand was that the murderers 
should be executed at once. At the March ses- 
sion of the court, two noted criminals had been 
given their freedom, although it was well known 
ibat they had taken the lives of innocent men. 
At the time of the Hemandes murder there was 
in the jail another murderer, John Willis by 
name, who, it was determined, should be hanged 
with the three Mexicans. Accordingly tiie meet- 
ing adjourned until the following morning, Au- 
gust 8th, when, at an early hour, the jail was sur- 
rounded, and the prisoners demanded. Two 
forked posts were planted in front of the jail 
door, and a pole placed on them. Pour ropes 
with nooses were then suspended from the pole. 
A Catholic priest was siunmoned and allowed 



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206 HWrOBY OP ABIZONA. 

sufficient time for his ministratioiis. The pris- 
oners were tiien led forth and hanged. The 
hanging waa done cabnly and deliberately, the 
feeluig being that it was for the best interests of 
the community at large. The following is the 
report of the inquest^ which shows the feeling of 
the citizens at that time ; 

"We, tile undersigned, the jurors summoned 
to appear before Solomon Warner, the coroner 
of the county of Pima, at Tucson, on the 8th day 
of August, 1873, to inquire into the cause of the 
death of John Willis, Leonardo Oordoba, Cle- 
mente Lopez, and Jesus Saguaripa, find that they 
came to tiieir death on tiie 8th day of August, 

1873, about eleven thirty o'clock in the morning, 
in the cotirthouse plaza, in the town of Tucson, 
by hanging ; and we further find that said hang- 
ing was committed by the people of Tucson en 
masse ; and we do further say that in view of the 
terrible and bloody murders which were com- 
mitted by the three Mexicans above named, and 
the tardiiiess with which justice was meted out to 
John Willis, a murderer, the extreme measures 
taken by our fellow citizens this morning, in vin- 
dication of their lives, their property, and the 
peace and good order of society, while it is to be 
regretted and deplored that such extreme meas- 
ures were necessary, seem to have been the 
inevitable results of allowing criminals to escape 
the penalties of their crimes." 

G. B. Whisler, keeper of Burk's station on the 
lower Gila was murdered at noon on July 7th, 

1874, by a Mexican named Ventura Kimez. 
Threats had been made by the border bandits to 
murder all the station keepers from Gila Bend 



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INDIAN TEOtTBLEa. 207 

to Yuma, and the discovery of WWsler's violent 
death caused wid^pread fear of criminfils. Gov- 
ernor Safford inaugurated a plan which ap- 
peared to have worked very well ; authorizing re- 
sponsible parties to offer suitable rewards for 
the apprehension of criminals. Accordingly, 
Woolsey, of Stanwix Station, nine miles below 
Burk's, immediately offered five himdred dol- 
lars for Ventura Nunez, dead or alive. Three 
Mexicans soon captured the murderer, who was 
brought back on the 11th of December. There 
was quite a large assembly of men present who 
took the man &om the authorities and hanged 
him. 

The valley of the San Pedro was first settled 
by Mark Aldrich and others in 1865. In 1868 
they took out a diteh. Apache depredations 
commenced in 1867 and continued during 1868. 
In 1869 a number of new settlers came in, but up 
to February 7th, 1871, only one death came from 
natural causes. The Indians committed their 
usual atrocities. During the time of which we 
write, 1868 to 1871, Cochise's band was busy in 
the southern part of the territory. Settlers on 
the Sonoita and the Santa Cruz, and as far south 
as Nogales, were murdered and their stock driven 
off. The only one who stood the test was Pete 
Kitchen, whose adopted son was killed on his 
home place, and whose laborers plowed his fields 
with rifles at hand ready for use. Upon his 
buildings he had lookouts to warn him of the ap- 
proach of Apaches, At no time, probably, in the 
history of Arizona, was there a darker outlook 
than in 1871. Stoneman had done but very lit- 
tle, except in the way of building roads. Two 



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206 HISrOBT OF ABIZONA. 

which he built in the northern part of the Terri- 
tory, one from Hoi^ehead Crossing on the little 
Colorado to Camp Apache, and the other from 
Camp M&Dowell, via Burro Head to Sunset 
Crossing, were of great assistance to General 
Crook in hia subsequent military operations. 

The most important fights during Stoneman's 
command of this department were those of Cap- 
tain Moore and of Captain KusselL Captain 
Moore left Tucson on the 12th of March, 1871, 
and reached McDowell about the first of April. 
Continuing his expedition, a few days later 
he attacked a rancheria, which is said to have 
contained more than a hundred warriors, of 
whom twenty-nine were killed during the engage- 
ment, besides many wounded, who, according to 
the custom of the Indians, were removed from 
the battlefield. Returning to Tucson Captain 
Moore went to the relief of Captain Russell 
who, with a small force, had engaged Cochise 
with about a hundred and fifty well armed, well 
drilled warriors, about twelve miles from the 
crossing of the San Pedro, near what was after- 
wards known as Benson. Captain Russell had 
about eighteen men in the engagement, one of 
whom was killed and one wounded. While the 
fight was confined to the plain, Cochise rapidly 
fell back for a distance of five miles, with a loss 
of fifteen warriors killed, and it was not imtil 
after the Indians had reaciied the mountains and 
entrenched themselves among the rocks that Cap- 
tain Russell was compelled to retire and send for 
re-enforcements. Among those killed was Azul, 
the chief who planned the expedition which re- 



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INDIAN TBOUBLEB. 209 

suited in the killmg of two white men the year 
previous. 

The whole Apache country at this time had 
been mapped ; many of the Indians were gathered 
on the reservation on the Colorado river, and 
some were employed around the different forts 
and camps. 

General Crook took command in June, 1871, 
but almost immediately was halted in his mili- 
tary operations by instructions from Washing- 
ton to await the result of the labors of the Peace 
Commission, which was then on its way to New 
Mexico and Arizona, 
vin— 14 



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^0 HEBTOBT OF ABIZONA. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE PEACE COMMISSION. 

GovEKNOB Saffobd's Pboclauation m Reoabd 

TO — ^AbRIVAL op COMMISaiONEB ViNOENT 

€oLTEB — ^Makes Ex Pabte Rbpobt — Re- 
ceived With Oobdiality by Mhjtabt but 
NOT BY Citizens to Whom He Refused 
HEABiNas — Colteb's Lettebs Repobting 
His Actions— Camp Apache — Industbt op 
Apaches — Condition op Apache Indians — 
Repebence to Camp Grant Masbaobe — 
Tai-eb With Coyotebo Apache Chiefs. 

Upon being notified that the Peace Commis- 
sion was on its way to the Territory, Governor 
SafEord, on the ISth day of August, A. D. lOTl, 
issued the following proclamation: 

"WHEREAS, I am informed, as I am depart- 
ing for the Pinal Mountains with a large force 
for the purpose of exploring the agricultural and 
mineral resources of that region, that a commis- 
sion has been ordered by the President of the 
United States, to examine into the Indian affairs 
of the Territory, with the view, if possible, of 
securing a peaceful solution of the question, and 
my absence may continue until after the arrival 
of said commission, and 

"WHEREAS, the object most desired by the 
people of this Territory is the cessation of liidian 
hostilities, and the means which will most speed- 
ily accomplish this result will be hailed with joy 
by every inhabitant. 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 211 

"NOW, THEREFORE, I, A. P. K. Safford, 
Oovemor of Arizona, call upon the officers and 
citizens of the Territory to receive said commis- 
sioners with kindness and hospitality; to give 
them all the aid and information upon such sub- 
ject before referred to within your power and 
knowledge. They have been selected with a view 
to their integrity and humanity of purpose, and 
sent here in the legal performance of duty. If 
they come among you enteriiaining erroneous 
opinions upon the Indian question and the condi- 
tion of affairs in the Territory, then, by kindly 
treatment, and fair, truthful representation, you 
will be enabled to convince them of their errors. 

"Given imder my hand and the great seal of 
the Territory, this 15th day of August, A. D. 
1871. I'ii^ 

"A.P.K.SAPFORD. 

"By the Governor: 

't:heo. f. white, 

"Acting Secretary of the Territory." 
Having spent some time in New Mexico inves- 
tigating the Apaches in that Territory, Vincent 
Colyer, who was the Commissioner, reached Ari- 
zona, having been given ample powers to locate 
reservations, make teeaties with tiie Indians, sut>- 
ply them with all things necessary for their 
actual wants, and gather them upon the reserva- 
tions so established. Colyer did not take the set- 
tlers into his confidence, nor did he, at any time, 
try to get their side of the story. As he declared 
h i m self, his business was entirely witii the In- 
dians and with the military in the different de- 
partments; naturally, as a consequence, his re- 
port can only be considered as ex parte, and 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



212 HurroBY of abizona. 

while, in every instance, he excuses the (arimes 
of the Tnfli flps , citing outrages on the part of the 
whites which provoked them to reprisals, at this 
late day it must be conceded that lawless officials 
and private citizens robbed, killed and plundered 
the Indians, who regarded all whites as enemies 
and waged a war to avenge cruel and imnecessary 
wrongs perpetrated upon them, and that in many 
instances tiie Indians were not altogether to 
blame. 

The report of Colyer, which is contained in his 
letters printed in the following pages, recites the 
beginnings of the wars between the Apaches and 
the whites, and shows that, according to the re- 
cords of the Indian Department, the Apache In- 
dians were the friends of the Americans when 
they first knew them, and asserts, with bow much 
truth no one can say, that they always desired 
peace with them, and that when they were placed 
on reservations in 1858 and 1859, they were in- 
dustrious, intelligent, and made rapid progress 
in the arts of civilization. 

The only Indians placed on reservations at the 
times mentioned, were the Maricopas and Pimas, 
which were, at that time, and always had been, 
friendly to the whites, and, as before stated, were 
the hereditary foes of the Apaches. 

The report, continuing, says that their ill-will 
and constant war with the Mexicans arose from 
the fact that the Mexicans denied them any rights 
to the soil as original occupants, and waged wars 
of extermination against them; that the peace- 
able relations of the Apaches with the Americans 
continued until the latter adopted the Mexican 
theory of extermination, and by acts of inhuman 



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THE PEACE OOiliSJSmON. 213 

treachery and cruelty made them our implacable 
foes; that this policy has resulted in a war which, 
in the last ten years, has cost us a tiiousand lives 
and over forty millions of dollars, and the 
country no quieter nor the Indians any nearer 
extermination than they were at the time of the 
Gadsden purchase ; that the present war will cost 
the people of the United States between three and 
four millions of dollars this year (1871); that 
these Indians still beg for peace, and all of them 
can be placed on reservations and fed at an ex- 
pense of less than a half million of dollars a year, 
without the loss of a life. 

This is rather a broad assertion and it was not 
borne out by subsequent events. However, these 
representations were considered by the Presi- 
dent, and Commissioner Colyer was directed to 
proceed to New Mexico and Arizona, and there 
take such measures as he deemed wisest to locate 
these Apaches upon suitable reservations, feed, 
clothe, and otherwise care for them, and tiie 
President instructed the War Department to co- 
operate with the Commissioner. In obedience to 
these orders he went to these Territories, and in 
consultation with the officers of the Army, Indian 
Agents in New Mexico, and officers of the Army 
under General Crook in Arizona, Mr. Colyer pro- 
ceeded to put his plans into execution, and in his 
report he says : 

"The Indians came in gladly in large numbers, 
and at last advices over fonr "thousand, being one- 
half of all the roving Apaches, were living peace- 
ably upon the reservations ; that no depredations 
have been committed by any of these Indians 
since they came in, and that before sprii^, if 



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2a4 HISTOBY OP ARIZONA. 

they are unmolested, and have stifficient food, 
we shall have peace restored to these Terri- 
tories; that Generals Schofield, Stoneman, and 
other army officers reported that the Apaches who 
came into the military posts last year paid for a 
Wge part of the rations issued to them by sup- 
plying hay and wood to the garrisons at much 
less cost to the Government th^ that paid to the 
contractors for the Army.'* The report says: 
'"Hiat the act of Captain Nelson, the army offi- 
cer in command at Camp Grant, in tuming back 
the party of two hundred armed citizens, who im- 
periously demanded to cross the Indian reserva- 
tion at tiiai post, was necessary; saved the three 
hundred Indians collected there from another 
bloody massacre, and the nation from a disgrace, 
and,1banks Captain Nelson for it" 

This, of course, was mere assumption. The 
citizens of Tucson, in common with all citizens of 
Arizona, were anxious to interview Colyer; find 
out just what his disposition was towards them, 
and what his plans were for ending the Indian 
war. It is nonsense to suppose for a moment 
that two himdred citizens would attack a fort 
like that of Grant while the military were in pos- 
session, well armed and equipped with gatling 
guns, just for the pleasure of murdering a few 
Indians there. General Crook condemned Nel- 
son for issuing this order, saying that the road 
passing from Florence to within four miles of the 
post was a public highway and that to deny any 
armed American the right to enter the reserva- 
tion, was to deny anyone the ri^t to travel over 
this road, since it was necessary for self-protec- 



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TEE PEACE COMMISSION. 215 

tion that all pairties should carry arms in travel- 
ing. 

General Crook had issued an order to enlist 
twenty-five Apache Indians as scouts, to fight the 
Apaches, but upon learning that Colyer was 
coming into the Territory on a peace mission, re- 
scinded the order. In reference to this Mr. Col- 
yer says: "The order countermanding the previ- 
ous order of General Crook, of employing 
Apaches to fight Apaches, was made by the Gen- 
eral himself, greatly to his honor." It should be 
remembered that General Crook, when hostilities 
were resumed by orders from Washington, en- 
listed Apaches to fight Apadies, and in this way 
conquered the hostSe tribes. 

Mr. Colyer says he was *' received with cordial- 
ity by General Granger (commander in New 
Mexico), General Crook, and all the officers of 
the army in New Mexico and Arizona, and that 
there was at no time any discord of action. " 

Upon his return to Washington the reserva- 
tions which he had selected, and the arrange- 
ments which he had made for the protection and 
subsistence of the Indians upon them, under the 
care of the officers of the army under General 
Crook, were approved by the President and the 
Secretary of the Interior, and directions given by 
General Sherman for their permanency. 

Of the complaints made by officials and editors 
of newspapers in Arizona, of a want of courtesy 
toward the white settlers, as well as the vitupera- 
tion and abuse of the press of Arizona and Cali- 
fornia, the commissioner takes but slight notice. 
He said that the business for which he was sent 
was accomplished, and that he trusted for his 



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216 HKTOBY OP ARIZONA. 

vindication to time and the results with which 
he believed God woxild prosper the work. Suffice 
it to say that it was found necessary in a very 
short time to set aside his report, and to instruct 
General Crook to resume hostilities. 

The report opens with extracts from the report 
of Agent Steck, Indian Agent for New Mexico, 
for 1857-58 and '59, showing the condition of the 
Apaches in New Mexico at that time in a very 
favorable light, and then, continuing, recites the 
slaughter of the Apaches of Mangus Colorado's 
band by Johnson in 1841, which has been before 
redted; the capture of Cochise and some of his 
Indians by Lieutenant Bascomb ; the escape of 
Cochise ; tlie murder of his warriors which drove 
Cochise and his band into war against the whites, 
ending with the Pinole Treaty of King Woolsey, 
which has been fully recited in these pages, to- 
gether with the killing of Mangus Colorado while 
a prisoner, and other outrages committed by the 
whites upon the Indians. 

Mr. Colyer further says: "With these official 
records before us, showing the injustice and folly 
of their treatment by the Mexicans in denying 
them any rights to the soil on which they lived as 
the original occupants ; their goodwill toward the 
Americans, who, on their first acquaintance, 
treated them justly ; their industrious habits and 
peaceable character when placed on reservations 
and allowed a fair opportunity to gain a liveli- 
hood ; the inhuman treachery and cruelty on the 
part of white men, which have made them our im- 
placable foes, and the heavy cost, botli in life and 
treasure, which these events have entailed upon 
us, we have felt it our duty, for the last inree 



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THE PEACE COMMISEaON. 217 

years, to endeavor to better the eondition of the 
Apache Indians of Arizona. Of the present 
character of these Indians there is not much dif- 
ference of opinion between 'Christians' and 'Ex- 
terminators,' but in their treatment as one 
believes in their salvation, the other in their de- 
struction — ^there is disagreement. 

"Congress, at the earnest solicitation of the 
board, having passed the appropriation of 
$70,000, referred to in our report of last year, *to 
collect the Apache Indians of Arizona and New 
Mexico on reservations, furnish them with sub- 
sistence and other necessary articles, and to pro- 
mote peace and civilization among them,' the 
board at its meeting in May directed 'its secre- 
tary to visit the Apache country, to take such 
measures as might seem expedient to prevent the 
perpetration of further outrages like the Camp 
Grant massacre, and, if possible, avert the appre- 
hended war.' 

"On the 13th day of July, in company with 
Commissioner George H. Stuart, I called upon 
the President at Long Branch, New Jersey, and, 
reporting to him the condition of affairs in New 
Mexico and Arizona, we received letters from 
bim to the Secretary of the Interior and Secre- 
tary of War, directing that enlarged powers be 
given to such agent as the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior might select to effect 'so desirable an object' 
as above indicated. 

"The acting Secretary of the Interior having 
selected me as the agent, authorized and re- 
quested me to proceed to New Mexico and Ari- 
zona Territories, and there take such action as 
in my judgment seemed wisest and most proper 



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218 HlffrOBT OF ABIZONA. 

for locating the nomadic tribes of these Terri- 
torira upon suitable reservations, bringing them 
imder the control of the proper oflSeers of the 
Indian Department, and supplying them with 
necessary subsifitenee, clothing, and whatever else 
might be needed. The Department invested me 
with full powers to be exercised according to my 
discretion in carrying into effect its views in re- 
lation to the Indians referred to. " 

The gist of his report is contained in letters 
from Mr. Colyer, which follow : The first two let- 
ters relate entirely to the Indians of New Mexico, 
and are not of particular importance to Arizona. 
The other letters I give in their entirety : 

"Camp Apache, Arizona Territory, 
"September 6, 1871. 

"Since my last letter, dated August 22, 1871, 1 
have the honor to report that, in company with 
Nathaniel Pope, superintendent of Lidian af- 
fairs in New Mexico, John Ward as interpreter, 
and Philip Gonzales, as guide, with an escort of 
twenty soldiers under a sergeant of the Fif- 
teenth IT. S. Infantry, Company K, we left Camp 
Craig, New Mexico, on tiie 23rd of August, lOTl, 
with, fifteen days' rations, for the Apawie Didian 
country, in New Mexico and Arizona, to inspect 
the upper valley of dafiada, Alamosa, beyond iiie 
mountains, at Hot Springs, Ojo Caliente, and the 
Tularosa Valley, to ascertain their suitablenesa 
for an Indian reservation. After a very inter- 
esting ride of three days, travelling about twenty- 
eight miles a day and camping at night, we ar- 
rived at noon of the 25th at Ojo Caliente. We 
here met, by appointment, O. F. Piper, Esq., 
agent for the Southern Apaches, who, in com- 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 219 

pany with Seuor Trojero, alcalde of the Mexican 
village of €anada, his nephew, and Sergeant 
Stackpole, Fifteenth United States Infantry, 
had ridden on horseback over the mountains 
■which run between the Canada proper and the 
Springs. They also brought with them Loco, 
one of the Apache chiefs, who had been in com- 
pany with the Senor Trojero over to Arizona in 
search of Cochise, under the direction of Super- 
intendent Pope, who had fdready forwarded to 
the Department an account of their expedition, 
and of its failure, owing to Trojero 's having 
fallen in with General Crook, commanding the 
department of Arizona, and being as he says, or- 
dered back and forbidden to pursue his errand 
further. 

"We examined the neighborhood of Ojo CaU- 
ente (Hot Springs) carefully, and finding the 
area of land capable of being cultivated far too 
small for the necessities of a tribe as lai^e as this 
band of Southern Apaches, we were very reluc- 
tantiy compelled to seek further. Its proximity to 
Canada Alamosa, though separated by high hills 
or mountains, and, like that vaUey, it being a 
favorite place of resort of Gie Indians, made us 
hope to find it suitable for a reservation. 

"Trojero, the scout, said that the Mexicans em- 
ployed by General Crook, whom he met at his 
camp, were among the worst villains in Mexico, 
and the Indians were part of Miguel's bfind of 
peaceable Apaches from the White Mountain 
reservation, who said they had to enlist in the 
service or be considered enemies. 

"These stories, circulated by Trojero among 
them; his having been sent back by General 



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2Q0 HiaroBT of Arizona. 

Crook, together with the excitement produced by 
ihe threats of massacre from the settlers at Eio 
Mimbrea, so alarmed the Indians that it was next 
to impossible to secure an interview with them, 
although Agent Piper had promised any and all 
of them presents, who would come out to meet 
the 'commissioner from Washington,' whom 
they were eager to see, but only two. Loco and 
Francisco, the Navaho interpreter, could be per- 
suaded to trust themselves, and Loco trembled 
like a frightened child when they saw us coming. 
Time, however, with patience and care, will yet 
succeed. We left Ojo Caliente on Saturday, 
26th August, resting over Simday, and, after a 
very interesting trip, we arrived at the Tularosa 
Valley on the 29th of August, and the White 
Mountain reservation, this place, on the 2d of 
September. 

"VALLEY OP THE TULAROSA 
"I carefuUy inspected the valley and neighbor- 
hood of the Tularosa river, and fiiading the same 
to possess most of the requisites necessary for a 
home for the Indians, it being remote from white 
settlements, surrounded by moimtains not easily 
crossed, sufficient arable land, good water, and 
plenty of wood and game, I officially notified 
Colonel Pope that I would designate it as an In- 
dian reservation, agreeably to iiie authority 
given to me by you in your letter of the 2l8t 
July ; and I telegraphed to the Secretary of i^e 
Interior, via Santa Fe, to that effect, on the 
29th August. 



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THE F&A.CE COMMISSION. 221 

"CAMP APACHE, ARIZONA. 
"I was received very kindly by Colonel Green, 
commandine, and the officers of the post, at 
Camp Apacne, and found that at tiie time of my 
arrival dispatches had been received from Gen- 
eral Crook at Camp Verde, countermanding his 
order to enlist Apache Indians to fight Apaches^ 
which was construed by those present to mean 
a virtual suspension of hostilities. This order 
of General Crook, abandoning the practice of 
taking peaceable Indians from the cornfields 
and compelling them to go on the warpath 
against their brethren, speaks much for his 
humanity and good sense, and was a great relief 
to my mind. The General being on his way to 
Prescott, where his headquarters are estab- 
lishedf and his campaign for the present being 
at an end, all fears of my orders crossing his 
movements are now removed. There are sev- 
eral tribes and bands of Indians, who have lived 
here for many generations, and who could not 
be removed to either Camp Grant or the Tula- 
rosa Valley without great suffering to them- 
selves, possibly a war of great expense to the 
Government, and as this reservation had been 
set apart for this special purpose by the War 
Department, under the advice of the late Gen- 
eral Thomas, I concluded, with the matured ad- 
vice of Colonel John Green, to select it as a 
reservation, and asked that the protection, pro- 
visioning, &c.y ordered by the Government, be 
extended to the Indians at this place also. I 
enclose you a copy of my letter to Colonel Green 
upon the subject. Before leaving Santa Fe I 



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222 HiarroBT of abizona. 

believe that I reported that I had set apart 
$2,000 to be expended and forwarded, under the 
superintendence of W, T. M. Amy, Agent of the 
Pueblos, for clothing, a few agricultural imple- 
ments, subsistence, &c., in good order and well 
selected. We have waited four days for the 
Indians to come in, and to-day, about three hun- 
dred and forty reported. 

"INDUSTRY OF THE APACHES. 

"I inclose several reports of Lieutenant 
Colonel Green, giving an account of his ex- 
perience with and the character of these 
Apaches. By referring to one of these letters 
you will see Colonel Green, First Cavalry, says : 
'The Apache Indians furnished one himdred and 
ninety tons of hay,' for which he paid them in 
flour. They brought it into his camp, in the 
White Mountains, fifteen tons a day. They sup- 
plied the garrison with all tiie wood they used, 
bringing it in at the rate of thirty cords a day, 
using £eir hands and a few broken axes to 
break it off, and the hay they cut with aid knives, 
and the whole was brought into the post on their 
backs, and it was really interesting to see the 
spirit in which they went to work, and what 
nice, clean hay they brought in, much superior 
to any I have seen furni^ed by contractors in 
Arizona. Yesterday upwards of four thousand 
pounds were brought. Even the children went 
to work with alacrity. One little child that 
could scarcely walk brought in nine pounds, for 
which he received three-quarters of a pound of 
flour, and was hig^y delighted with his success. 



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THE PE^CE COMMISSION. £iO 

I propose to supply the new post with hay in the 
same way, which will be much cheaper than if 
done by contract. 

"I was sorry that the supply of grain at this 
post did not admit of my complying fully with 
the general's wishes in giving them com for 
seed. I could illy spare a very small amoimt, 
so that their planting will not be as extensive 
this year as I had hoped. I am in hopes that by 
next year I will be able to furnish them with 
suf&cient seed, and would also respectfully 
recommend that the department commander 
urge the necessity of furnishing the ruder imple- 
ments of agriculture, as at present their only 
means of farming are sharpened sticks, and it is 
wonderful to see with what advantage they use 
them. They frequently ask for other seed than 
com, particularly piunpkins, beans, squashes, 
and melons. It would probably be well for the 
Indian Bureau to send an agent to look after the 
interests of these people. I ask them, *Why are 
you so poor?' and the answer invariably is, 
'How can we be otherwise f We had not much 
originally, and now we can get nothing ; we do 
not steal; we cannot go to the mescal coimtry, as 
we are liable to be met and killed by scouting 
parties.' I know myself this to be the case, 
hence they have either to starve or steal ; or we 
must feed them until they can raise enough for 
themselves. Mrs. Green informed me that when 
the sick garrison was removed from Camp 
Gk)odwin, on account of its imhealthiness, to this 
place, she was carried all the way, ninety miles, 
over the mountains, on a litter, by the Apaches, 
on their shoulders ; she having been an invalid 



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224 HISIOBT OF ABIZONi.. 

at that time. Mrs. Green was much attached to 
them in consequence. I expect to leave for 
Camp Grant in a day or two. V. C. ' ' 



"CAMP GRANT, ARIZONA TERRITORY. 

"September 18, 1871. 

"Immediately after the massacre of the peace- 
able Indians at Camp Grant by the citizens of 
Tucson, the news was received by the peaceable 
Apaches on the White Mountain reservation, 
and nearly all of them, some sis hundred in 
number, under the leadership of Es-cet-e-cela, 
their chief, fled frightened to the mountains. 
The evening before their departure a herder, a 
soldier detailed for that duty was killed. The 
only band which remained was Miguel's, num- 
bering about two hundred and seventy-five In- 
dians, under that chief. Colonel Green de- 
manded of Miguel the arrest of the murderer ; 
Miguel replied that he did not belong to that 
band. The Colonel persisted, and Miguel sent 
out and had one of Es-cet-e-eela*s Indians killed, 
and parts of the body brought in as testimony 
that tiie order was executed. On the arrival of 
General Crook some twenty-five Indians belong- 
ing to Miguel's band were enlisted as scouts, 
much against their will as we afterwards 
learned, to operate against the otiier Apaches. 

' ' These twenty-five Indians, acting under 
Colonel Guy V. Henry's orders, had attacked a 
raneheria within hearing of the garrison at 
Camp Apache, and killed five Indians of Es-cet- 
e-cela 's band. As I before reported to you, on 



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THE FEACK COMMISSION. 225 

the eTening of my arrival at the reservation, 
four couriers arrived from General Crook at 
Camp Verde, one homdred and sixty miles dis- 
tMit, from which place they had ridden in three 
day^ with orders to discontinue the enlistment 
of Indians, the orders having previously been to 
enlist as many as one hundred. 

"Hearing that Es-cet-e-cela was in the moim- 
tains near the post, I dispatched his son-in-law, 
a Mr. Stevens, mailrider at the post, with a mes- 
sage for >iim to come in, a promise of protecti(»i, 
and a suit of clothes. Miguel had been sent for 
by Colonel Green, some days before. The two 
chiefs arrived the same afternoon, September 
6th, and visited me apart. 

"I told Es-cet-e-cela the war was over, and all 
offenses must be forgiven. He said the soldier- 
herder was not killed by one of his band, but by 
an Indian from Rio Bonita, sent over by the In- 
dian survivors from Camp Grant massacre to 
stir tiiem up to war. He complained of 
Miguel's killing an innocent Indian for it, and 
afterwards killing five more of his band without 
cause. We had hard work to reconcile him, but, 
with the aid of Colonel Green and Mr. Cooley, 
the interpreter, we succeeded. The chiefs met, 
stood some forty feet apart, eyeing each other, 
with arms folded haughtily. The interpreter 
stepped up, and, leading Miguel forward, put 
his hand into the hand of E^-cet-e-cela , wheai 
they first ^ook hands and then embraced. 

"The next day we opened the boxes of cloth- 
ing, coats, pantaloons, manta (sheeting), calico, 
thread, needles, awls, handkerchiefs, and 



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226 EISrOBT OF abizon^ 

blankets, and placing them in charge of Mrs. 
Colonel Green, who has been a warm friend of 
the Indians ; arranged the Apaches in bands and 
families, and, taking a careful list of the names 
of the heads of all the families, with the number 
of their wives and children, Mrs. Green, dis- 
tributed to every one, three hundred and sixty- 
two persons all told, a suit of good clothing. 
Without being solicited to do so, the chiefs all 
dressed in coats and pantaloons, and many more 
young men requested pantaloons and coats than 
we could supply. When all had received their 
presents, and were departing for their villages, 
a happier, more grateful and decently behaved 
set of poor people I have never seen. 

*'TALK WITH COTOTERO APACHE 
CHIEFS, CAMP APACHE, ARIZONA 
TERRITORY. 

"A few hours before the issue of clothing, the 
following interview with the Apache chiefs was 
held at Camp Apache, (Fort Tliomas), Arizona 
Territory, September 7, 1871. In the presence 
of Colonel John Green and the officers of the 
post. Commissioner Colyer opened the coxmcil 
with prayer, and, addressing the chiefs, said his 
words would be few; Colonel Green would in- 
form them what his orders were from the Presi- 
dent. The colonel told them that he was in- 
structed to feed all the Apaches who came in 
and remained peaceable upon the reservation, 
the boundaries of which were explained to them. 
Commissioner Colyer then said that the great 
council (Congress) at its last session appro- 
priated money to feed and clothe them as long 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



THE PEACE COMMISeiON. 227 

as they remained at peace and upon the reserva- 
tion ; if they went off the reservations they were 
liable to be killed. 

*'E8-cet-e-cela shakes hands: *He asked God's 
blessing upon this meeting. It is getting late 
and he has but little to say. He h^ heard all 
that is said, and before God, he believes that it 
is good. Tonight he wiU sleep well. He won't 
have to tread sleepless over the moimtains, but 
has a plain road. Now they have grass, can 
hunt tike turkey, and have what they need. 
Some of his people are absent, but he will get 
word to them as soon as possible; for the pur- 
pose of getting them in he wants a pass. ' 

"Commissioner Colyer said: 'The colonel will 
give it to him.' 

"Miguel. — ^"He has but little to say. He sees 
now that we have fixed things so that he won't 
have any stones to stumble against. He, like 
the conunissioner, has but little to say, but what 
little he does say he means to live up to. His 
reputation is well known as a man of peace. He 
likes his home and quiet way of living. He has 
always been a farmer on the Oarrizo, and that 
valley has been father and mother to him. He 
sees that when the soldiers do wrong tiiey have 
balls and chains to their feet, therefore he is 
afraid to do wrong, nor has he any desire to. In 
his youth he was wild, but since he was up to 
<Banta Fe and talked with his governor, he has 
kept on the Carrizo and worked on his farm. 
He asked for Stevens and Cooley as his agents. 
He knows Cooley, and wants him to keep his 
young men from going out. Some of his people 
are sick, and be has com to gather, so he wants 



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228 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

to go home in the morning. He will come in to 
see the colonel whenever he can. Sometime 
since he was told his father from Washington 
would come, and now he has come. His beef 
and his com will be weighed out to him ; when 
can he reach up to it I He would like his beef 
issued on the hoof, so that he can get the hide 
and tallow. (The colonel so promised.) He 
sees that peace has been actually restored. 
When his young men return from G«ieral 
Crook, he wUl see that they do not go soldiering 
any more. It is well one of his soldiers came 
back sicf 

"The morning after the distribution of cloth- 
ing, Miguel, Es-cet-e-eela, and Pedro, with sev- 
eral headmen, called at our quarters to bid us 
goodbye. Miguel said he should pray to the 
Great Spirit to take care of the commissioner, 
and, hereafter, if any soldier kicked him 
(Miguel), he should send him word to tell the 
President. 

"DEPARTURE FOR CAMP GRANT. 
"We left Camp Apache at noon, September 8, 
1871, for Camp Grant, Arizona, with an escort 
6f ten mounted infantry, imder Lieutenant 
Peter S. Bumos; a packtrain to carry our pro- 
vender, with some clothing for the Indians at 
Camp Grant, and such Indians as we might 
meet on the way. We had two Indian yoimg 
men, one from Miguel's and one from Es-cet-e- 
cela's band, to accompany us, to act as runners 
to communicate with any Apaches they might 
meet, and inform them of the peaceful intention 
of the President, and of the establishment of 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



THE PEACE OOMlUeSION. 229 

reservations, with protection and food for all 
who wished to be at peace. 

"Our route lay across the mountainfi to Black 
River, over to the headwaters of the San Car^ 
los, down the San Carlos to the Gila River, 
across the Gila to Mount Trumbull, over that 
mountain to and down the Aravaipa Ysjley to 
Camp Grant. Our mardi throng this por- 
tion of the heart of the Apache countiy was 
very encouraging. Our Indian gmdes, im- 
provising white flags and signalling their 
friends of our approach by lighting fires and 
making smokes, brought Uiem out by scores. 
They met us on the trail, bearing white flags 
made of white buckskin, and came from, the 
most inaccessible places and from where you 
would least expect them. At night our camp 
was surroimded by them, and the soldiers soon 
got so used to their presoice that we all slept 
soundly though they frequently outnumbered us 
five to one. During the whole march, though we 
were thus surroimded, not an animal was dis- 
turbed nor an article stolen. We opened our 
packs and distributed clothing to aU, old and 
young. 

"I have visited seven-eighths of all the In- 
dians now under our flag, including Alaska, and 
I have not seen a more intelligent, cheerful, and 
grateful tribe of Indians than the roving 
Apaches of Arizona and New Mexico. ' ' 



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230 HiErroBT of abizona.. 



CHAPTER XII. 
THE PEACE COMMISSION (ContinQed). 
Abrival at Camp Grant — Refusal to Allow 
Abmbd CrnzBKS to Cross Reservation — 
Apache Children Taken into Captivity 
— Ii?TEKViEW With Apache Chiefb at 
Camp Grant— Talk With Es-Cim-En- 
^EN^ Head Chief op Aravaipa Finals — 
Opposition to the Indian Peace Pouoy. 

"We arrived at Camp Grant on the 13th inst., 
and found a white flag flying over the post, the 
effect of the telegram forwarded to its com- 
mander through the kindness of the Secretary 
of Interior and the Secretary of War on the 3rd 
of August last. We were hospitably received 
by Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman and Captain 
Wm. Nelson, commandine the post Soon after 
our arrival we learned that a company of one 
himdred and seventy-five or two hundred white 
citizens from Tucson (the town where the body 
of citizens came from who committed the mas- 
sacre some few months since) were on their way 
t<^ and within twelve miles of, the reservation, 
and were expected in on the morrow. Two Mexi- 
can couriers, who had arrived some days pre- 
vious, reported that the expedition was gotten up 
with a view to breaking up the reservation. Cap- 
tain Thoe. -S. Dunn, Twenty-first United States 
Infantry, and Agent Wilbur, of the Papagoes, 
who came up with the party, informed us that it 
was a party of 'prospectors,* who were coming 
through the reservation on their way to the 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



THE PE^GE COMMISSION. 231 

mouutains. At the same time yte were informed 
that Governor Safford, with a party of three 
hundred citizens, who had recently passed 
through the reservation, was expected in on 
his return homeward on the morrow. As the 
reservation is within a valley and surrounded 
with mountains, without a road or trail through 
it leading anywhere, and as the Indians had only 
just come in after much persuasion, and were 
xmder evident fears of another attack, the im- 
propriety of allowing these armed bands of citi- 
zens to rendezvous upon the reservation was ap- 
parent. As either the Indians or these citizens 
had to leave the reservation, I promptly in- 
formed Captain Nelson that if he permitted 
these citizens to come nearer than ten miles of 
the post, I would have to send out Indian run- 
ners to the Apaches, and, gathering them to- 
gether, ask him for a sufficient escort to conduct 
them with me over to the White Moimtain reser- 
vation. Captain Nelson replied that he should 
regret to have me do that, and instead he would 
forbid tlie party of citizens from approaching 
nearer than within ten miles of the post; and he 
issued an order to Uiat efEect. He forwarded 
this order by a corporal and four men that eve- 
ning, who met the party twelve miles away. At 
four o'clock the corporal sent in word tliat he 
had met the leaders, and that they had declared 
tiiat 'they would cross the reservation.' Cap- 
tain Nelson then directed Lieutenant Whitman 
to ride out and meet the party and inform them 
that he was prepared to enforce his order, and 
had his guns in position, and would open fire 
upon them on their appearance at the mouth of 



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232 HISrOBT OF abizona. 

the Canyon opposite the post; Captain Nelson 
loading up the waterwagon belonging to the post 
and sending it out to them, that they might not 
sufEer in case they should conclude to go back, 
which the report of Captain Nelson says they 
very reluctantly consented to do. They left 
wilji the declaration that they could use the 
white flag as well as we, and if that would bring 
in the Indians they would bring them in and put 
them on a reservation where it would not cost 
much to feed them. They went off aroimd the 
reservation toward the east, Captain Thos. S. 
Dunn accompanying them. It was reported 
that a band of Papago Indians were with them, 
but Dr. R. A. Wilbur, the agent of the Papagoes, 
who came into the post with the party, said that 
he had no knowledge of any of his Indians being 
present. As the Papagoes, for many years, 
have had a feud with the Apaches, and as they 
were the people whom the citizens of Tucson 
brought with them on their former visit and who 
had assisted so vigorously in the massacre, I was 
very much surprised, and expressed my great re- 
gret to Dr. Wilbur at seeing him accompany an- 
other expedition from the same place of a char- 
acter 80 similar to the former, and composed of 
a portion of the same people, in a foray against 
another Indian tribe. He informed me thai he 
had no authority from Dr. Bendel, the superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs of Arizona, or from 
the Indian Ofl&ce, to leave his agency. I called 
his attention to the fact that his presence with 
such a party was calculated to awaken distrust 
among the Apaches as to the honesty of our in- 
tentions in inviting tiiem in, and I su^ested to 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



THE FB&CE OOMUISSION. 233 

him the propriety of returning to his agency as 
soon as possible. The Doctor said that he had 
never received any copy of the laws of the In- 
dian Bureau, and being uninformed of his 
duties, was not aware of tiiere being any impro- 
priety in his being here under such circum- 
stances. He returned to his agency two days 
after the above interview. Before he left I re- 
quested him to use every meana in his power to 
recover from the Papagoes the twenty-eight 
children stolen from the Apadies during the 
massacre. He promised to do so. 

"Permit me to call your attention to the fact 
that these children have not yet been returned 
to their families, though it ia now more than 
four months since they were stolen. As they 
were captured while iheir parents were being 
killed, though held as 'prisoners of war' by the 
Army, the War Department, without other aid, 
has the power, it seems to me, to recover them if 
they are still in our country. It is reported that 
the majority of them have been carried over into 
Souora by the Papagoes and sold to the Mexi- 
cans. In that event, I would respectfully sug- 
gest that application be made to the Government 
of Mexico, through the Department of State, for 
their return. Events at this post (Camp 
Grant) are, in one respect, singularly similar to 
those at Camp Apache. Here, as there, imme- 
diately after the massacre at Camp Grant, the 
killing of one white man was their official an- 
nouncement tiiat the Apaches were going out on 
the warpath. The first Indian chief who came 
to this post last spring and asked to be allowed 
to live at peace, was Es-cim-en-zeen. He was 



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234 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA. 

the leader of bis people and, up to the time of 
the massacre, was as peaceable and contented as 
man could be. He had two wives, five children, 
and about fifty of his people killed in the mas- 
sacre, and this seems to have partially crazed 
him. He came in after the attack, and, assist- 
ing at the burial of his family, seemed recon- 
ciled, but, by a very imfortimate blimder, some 
troops from the White Moimtains, who came 
down the Aravaipa Valley nearly a month after 
the massacre, getting frightened at imexpectedly 
coming upon some of the Indians who had 
peaceably returned, opened fire upon them. It 
was Es-cim-en-zeen and his family. At this he 
became enraged, and bidding Lieutenant Whit- 
man a formal goodbye, fled with his people to 
the moimtains, and, it was said, killed a white 
man on his way. As I considered the massacre 
of Es-cim-en-zeen 's family and people at Camp 
Grant an inauguration of a condition of war 
between the whites and the Apaches, and Es- 
cim-en-zeen 's act in killing the white man, assum- 
ing that he did it, an incident in that war, and 
as my instructions were to feed, clothe, and 
otherwise care for all roving Apache Indians 
who wished to come in and be at peace, without 
r^ard to previous offenses, I had no hesitation 
when Lieutenant Whitman sent for bim, to give 
him, together with Captain Chiquito and the 
other chiefs and their people, assurances of 
peace and protection. 

"The chiefs first sent in their runners to see 
all was right, who, meeting with the Indian run- 
ners from the White Mountains, and hearing of 
the liberality and kindness of the Government, 



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THE PEACE COMMffiSION. 235 

as displayed on our journey thither in the dis- 
tribution of clothing, etc., returned to their 
chiefs and people, told their story, and brought 
them in. 

"Up to this date two hundred and forty-five 
Apaches have arrived, all but ten (White Moun- 
tain Indians) being the same that were here be- 
fore the massacre. As at Camp Apache, I dis- 
tributed a suit of clothing, manta (sheeting), 
calico, needles and thread to each Indian, man, 
woman, and child. 

"Lieutenant WMtman informed the chiefs 
that his orders from the Secretary of War were 
to feed them as long as they remained at peace 
on the reservation. Commissioner Colyer told 
them Congress had appropriated tbe money^ 
and the President had sent him here with the 
clothing, and instructions to the Lieutenant to 
feed them. If they left the reservation, the 
limits of which he explained to them, they were 
liable to be killed. 

"Esce-nela, chief and Cassay, counsellor, 
claims to have always kept the i)eace. Ten years 
ago he was at Goodwin, and then they had a 
chief named Na-nine-chay, who governed all 
their tribes. He has met many officers, but that 
I was the first one to express regret at the Camp 
Grant massacre. (William Kness, interpreter, 
here remarked that Lieutenant Whitman had 
expressed regret, but this chief was not pres- 
ent.) He had no doubt but that God put it into 
the heart of the President to send me out here. 
He is satisfied that God is listening to this talk. 
He intends now to talk with reference to eter- 
nity, as though the world was to last forever. 



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2S6 EI9r<»tT OF ABIZONA. 

He belieTes that I will tell him the truth. He 
haa no doubt but that I am sorry for the killed 
at the massacre. He is sorry for the Indians 
who have been taken away prisoners. He be- 
lieves now that the centipedes and tarantulas 
(bad reptiles) among their enemies will hurt no 
more. He believes that now we will protect 
them ; that we are now as father and mother to 
them. He heard of our coming; now he is glad 
to meet vs. He said his people were living here 
peaceably, receiving rations three times a week, 
up to the time of the massacre. He believes 
neither the lieutenant nor any of the officers 
knew of the coming to attack them. It was 
about four o'clock in the morning when they 
were attacked; 126 killed, 29 taken prisoners. 
He and all the captains lost some of their 
families. He lost two wives, four children, 
three men (one old man), and two of his neph- 
ews were taken away. He lost fifty of his band. 
When the Tucson people attacked him, his best 
wife got separated from him and he could not 
find her. It was dark. If he could have found 
her he would have fought and died with her. 
There had been over five hundred of his people 
on the reservation at the time of the massacre. 
About thirty days after the attack about four 
hundred had returned, and were on the reserva- 
tion, when a lieutenant and a party of troops 
imder his command, fired into some of lus 
people. 

* ' Conmiiasioner Colyer asked : ' Does this 
country still please them, after what has oc- 
curred t Or, if Lieutenant Whitman and the 
interpreters and soldiers were to take them far- 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



THE PEACE COMMISSION. 237 

ther up into the Pinal country, would they pre- 
fer it?' 

"Answer: 'The coimtry still pleases them; 
they wish to remain here ; this has always been 
their home, the hcane of their fathers, and they 
want Lieutenant Whitman as their agent, and 
these two men as their interpreters, "fiiey wish 
to go out and hunt, and if this campaign is 
stopped, they will show that they can behave 
themselves. They have now had tiieir talk, and 
they would like to have their share of the goods 
distributed to them now. When the other diief s 
come in, they can have theirs.' 

"Iji the afternoon tiiey came again. Esce- 
nela said he had been thinking over what I had 
told him, and now he had come to speak of it. 
Said be wanted to plant wheat on the San Pedro, 
and com on the Aravaipa. 

' 'Commissioner Colyer remarked that the 
chief had changed his mind since yesterday. 
He said nothing to that, but that he wished the 
man who was there should ronain there. Mr. 
Austin owns the farm. Mr. Pilmore occupies it 

*'Es-cim-en-zeen said: 'He was glad to come 
in to his old home. He was the fii^ to come in 
and make peace before and was happy in his 
home here. He got his rations every three days. 
He was living not far from here. He was making 
tiswin (a drmk) in peace, when one morning he 
and his people were attacked, and many of them 
were killed. The next day after the massacre 
he came into this camp because he knew it was 
not the people here who had done it ; it was the 
people from Tucson and Papagoes. He then 
continued to live here in the vidley for nearly 



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238 HISrOBT OF abizona. 

thirty days, when his people were again at- 
tacked; this time by a squad of military men, 
and, although none of his people were killed, yet 
that made him mad, and he went on the warpath. 
He now admits he did wror^, but he was grieved, 
and he could not help it. The one who fii^t 
breaks the peace is the one who is to blame. He 
believes Commissioner Colyer has come to make 
peace, and is glad he has put tobacco before 
him to smoke. They have always known that 
they had a great father and a great mother. 
The commissioner had sent out for him, and 
probably thought he would see a great captain, 
but he only saw a very poor man, and not very 
much of a captain. If he had seen him about 
three months ago, he would have seen him a cap- 
tain. Then he had a band of seventy men, but 
they had all been massacred ; now he has got no 
people. Ever since he left this place he has 
been in the neighborhood; he loiew he had 
friends here, but he was afraid to come back ; 
but as soon as he heard the commissioner was 
here then he came in. He never had much to 
say; he likes this place. He has said all he 
ought to say, since he has no people anywhere to 
speak for. If it had not been for the massacre, 
there would have been a great many more people 
here now; but, after that massacre, who could 
have stood it ? It was not possible for any man 
to have stood it. When he made peace with 
Lieutenant Whitman his heart was very big and 
happy. The people of Tucson and San Xavier 
must be crazy. They acted as though they had 
neither heads nor hearts.' 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION, 239 

"Sunday Morning, September 17, 1871, — The 
chiefs calling to see Commissioner Colyer, he 
told them 'he was glad to see them. They must 
not expect everything to go right at first. It 
takes a long time to heal a wound, lliey have 
a good friend in the President, and he will do 
his best to deal justly and kindly with them. ' 

**Es-cim-en-zeen replied that *he thanked God. 
They are happy now, but perhaps as soon as the 
commissioner has gone the soldiers will begin to 
kick them and point their rifles at them. That 
they didn't hke. They are contented now, but 
their young men are active, and being prevented 
from hunting they collect aroimd the post, and 
get mixed up with the soldiers. Sometimes the 
soldiers kick them and throw stones at them; 
this makes trouble, as the young men feel bad. ' 

"■Commissioner Colyer told them they would 
try to separate the post from the Indian agency. 
This they said was good, and it pleased them. 
They were glad that nothing had happened while 
he was here to break this good peace. They 
tiiink the people of Tucson and San Xavier (the 
Papagoes) must have a thirst for their blood. 
They seem to be always pursuing them. They 
think that as soon as the commissioner has gone 
these people will return again and try to massa- 
cre them. They want, as soon as he hears any- 
thing of the kind, that he will return and judge 
for himself. They believe that these Tucson and 
San Xavier people write for the papers and tell 
their own story. The Apaches have no one to 
tell their story, so they want the commissioner 
to come again. They think it must have been 
God who gave him a good heart to come and see 



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240 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA. 

them, or he must have had a good father and 
mother to make him so kind. The conuniasioner 
told them ' It was God ' ; they said, ' It was. ' They 
said, 'they believed the Papagoes coiQd not have 
any God, they had always been so cruel, and had 
tried to persecute the Apaches as long as they 
could remember.' It is just three days since 
they, the Apaches, have been here, and they have 
been happy. It seems to them that the arroyos, 
(ravines), have been all smoothed over; that 
there are no more thorns or briers to prick them, 
nor snakes and reptiles to poison. He said that 
Lieutenant Whitman knew their story; knew 
how happy they were here in peace, up to the 
time of the massacre ; knew all about that massa- 
cre; knew how he had returned after it; knew 
how he had been fired upon by the Wliite Moun- 
tain soldiers. After tlmt he wi^ed to confess 
he had gone on a raid against the Papagoes to 
recover his children. He liked Lieutenant Whit- 
man, but he was so unhappy that if he had not 
heard that the commissioner was coming, he 
never would have come in. 

"<}ommissioner Colyer told them that 'they 
must not fi^t the Papagoes or white people any 
more. He had already sent for the chUdren, and 
when he got back to Washington he would ask 
the President to request the Government of Mex- 
ico to return their children.' 

"Es-cim-en-zeen said, 'It seems to him now as 
if he had his children in his own hands. God had 
certainly put it in my heart. He was very 
happy.' 

"Commissioner Colyer said that he would ride 
up the valley with them this morning to see the 
place of the massacre and hear their story. 



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TEE PEACE O0MMI88ION. 241 

'*Es-eim-en-zeen: 'A long time ago they took 
off a wife of his, and be believed ^e now is at 
Port McDowell. Na-zen-i-cleeisbername. She 
is living in the bouse of one of the captains of the 
soldiers.' 

"September 19, 1871. — Captain Chiquito, of 
the Aravaipa. The conmussioner told bim he 
was glad that be bad seen him before he left for 
Washington. 

"'Captain Chiquito: *He has nothing more to 
say than the other chiefs had said ; he confirms all 
that they have said ; be bad heard that bis father 
and mother bad come and he asked to see him. 
The same God who rules the sun, he believes, bad 
sent me here to see them. Ever since the other 
Indians had told him that I was here he wished 
to see me, and for that reason he bad hurried in 
from the hills. It must have been God who had 
put it into both of our hearts to hurry to see each 
other. He thanks us for having sent him out 
food and clothing last night.* 

"Two Pinal Indians came with Es-cim-en- 
zeen. Says that yesterday he sent a boy named 
TJn-pin-al-kay to the Finals, and about noon he 
saw a smoke on his trail, and he don^ know what 
it means imless he saw his people. He was to re- 
turn in four days. He will bring in all the peo- 
ple he can. He IJiougbt that all l£e Finals would 
come into this reservation as soon as they heard 
of the treatment he was receiving. 

"I visited the scene of the massacre on Sxmday 
morning, September 17th ; some of the skulls of 
the In^ans, with their temple bones beaten in, 
lay exposed by the washing of the rain and the 
feeding of the wolves. I overtook Es-cim-en- 
vm— 16 



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212 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

zeen, who had ridden before us, and found him 
wiping the tears from his eyes when he saw them. 
"By referring to accompanying papers, It will 
be seen that the account of this horrible mass^re 
as giTen by Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman, Third 
Cavalry United States Army, the officer in 
charge of the camp at the time, is amply sus- 
tained by his brother officers and citizens then 
present. Some of these affidavits make the affair 
even more horrible tiian Lieutenant Whitman 
described it to be. 

"OPPOSITION TO THE INDIAN PEACE 
POLICY. 

"The 'Arizona Citizen,' a professedly republi- 
can paper, published at Tucson, and the 'AJnzona 
Miner,' democratic paper from Preseott, have 
been excessive in their abuse of Lieutenant Whit- 
man, Colonel Green, and all other officers of the 
army who have shown the least sympathy for the 
Apaches, charging them with many crimes. The 
editors seem to fear the damaging effect pro- 
duced in the public mind by the statements made 
officially by these Army officers of the general 
good conduct of the Apaches whenever they have 
been allowed an opportunity to display it, and of 
the horrible brutahties committed by the people 
of Arizona upon them at the Camp Grant massa- 
cre. Their statements that the Indians left that 
reservation and went on raiding parties against 
the citizens is denied by every officer and citizen 
at the post. 

"Oscar Hutton, an old pioneer, who has the 
reputation of having personally killed more In- 
dians that any other man in Arizona, testifies un- 



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THE PEACE O0MMI88I0N. 243 

der oath not only that the statement of Lieuten- 
ant Whitman is correct, but that he had never 
seen Indians on a reservation or at peace about a 
military post mider so good subjection, so well 
satisfied and happy, or more teachable and obedi- 
ent, tiian were these. * I was repeatedly requested 
to watch every indication of anything like treach- 
ery on their part, and I will give it as my deliber- 
ate judgment that no raidang party was ever 
made up from the Indians fed at this post I 
have every reason to believe liiat had tiey been 
unmolested, they would have remained and would 
have gradually increased in numbers, as they con- 
stantly had been doing up to the time I left the 
post.' 

"And Mr. F. L. Austin, the post trader, a gen- 
tlemen well known and respected, not only 
fully indorses Lieutenant Whitman's statement 
throughout, but says, 'the Indians, while here, 
seemed to be under perfect control, and in all my 
business with them, in paying for some one hun- 
dred and fifty tons of hay for the contractor, 
never had any trouble or difficulty of any kind. 
They very readily learn any little customs of 
trade, etc. It is my opinion they would have re- 
mained and increased in numbers had they not 
been attacked.' 

"Mr. Miles L. Wood, the beef contractor for 
the military, testifies that he 'was not absent one 
day, and personally issued every pound of beef 
drawn by them. They brou^t tickets to me, on 
which I issued. After completing the issue, I 
took the tickets to acting commissary of subsis- 
tence, wid verified them by the official count of 
that day. I never had any trouble in my deliv- 



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244 HISrOBY OF ABIZONA. 

ery. Lieutenant Whitman selected an IJidian 
for policeman, gave him his orders, and good or- 
der was always preserved. I have lived in Cali- 
fornia, and have seen a great deal of Indians. 
Have heard a good deal of the Apaehes, and was 
much surprised at the general intelligence and 
good behavior of those I saw at this post. ' 

"William Kness, the mailcarrier at the post, 
swears that thou^ he has lived on the Pacific 
coast for twenty-six years, familiar with Indians, 
and prejudiced against the Apaches, yet 'made it 
a point to study the character and habits of the 
Apache ]jidiu)s at €amp Grant, before the mas- 
sacre, and the result was that I was convinced 
that they were acting in good faith and earnestly 
desired peace. They were industrious, the 
women particularly so. Among all the Indians 
I have ever seen I have never met with as great 
regard for virtue and chastity as I have found 
among these Apache women. In regard to the 
charge that after they were fed they went out on 
raiding parties, I have to say that I do not believe 
it They were contented imder our supervision, 
being in every three days for rations, and their 
faces familiar, and their number constantly in- 
creasing. I have read the statement of Oscar 
Button in regard to tiiis point, and I have no 
doubt that he is correct, that no raiding parties 
were ever made by the Indians from this post. I 
also believe that if the massacre had not occurred 
we should have had from eight himdred to one 
thousand Apache Indians on this reservation be- 
fore this time.' 

"On the day of my arrival at Camp Grant, 
finding that no copy of the orders of the War De- 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 245 

partment dated Washington, Jvlj 18, 1871, had 
yet been received here by General Crook, I 
took the liberty of inclosing copies, and also a 
copy of the instructions of the Literior Depart- 
ment, to biTTi for his information. 

"Ik our interviews with the chiefs of the Ara- 
vaipa and Pinal Apaches at Camp Grant we 
found that, notwithstanding so many of their 
people had been killed at Camp Grant, they still 
clung to the Aravaipa and San Pedro Valleys as 
their home, and would not listen to our proposal 
to remove them over to the White Mountains. 
Believing it better, for the sake of peace, that 
their wishes should be acceded to for the pres- 
ent, in consultation with the officers of the post 
we concluded to fix the limits of their reservation 
as follows: Boimded north by the Gila River; 
west by a line ten miles from and parallel to the 
generaJ course of the San Pedro River ; south by 
a line at right angles to the western boundary, 
crossing the San Pedro ten miles from Camp 
Grant ; east by a line at right angles to the south- 
em boundary, touching the western base of 
Mount Trumbull, terminating at the Gila River, 
the northern boundary. 

"We carefully instructed the chiefs about 
these boundaries, impressing it upon their minds 
that they must not go beyond them; that while 
within these limits they would be protected and 
fed; if they went beyond they would become ob- 
jeets of suspicion, and liable to be punished by 
both citizens and soldiers. They said they under- 
stood it. 

"Our first intention was to limit the boimd- 
aries of the reservation to a distance of ten miles 



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246 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA. 

square on each side of the post ; but as the Gila 
Biver on the north did not much exceed th&t dis- 
tance, and formed a good natural boundary 
which the Indians could easily remember, and the 
country on the east was a barren waste, yielding 
nothing that the white man cared for, but con- 
siderable food, such as mescal, mesquite beans, 
and cactus fruit, of which the Apaches were very 
fond, we concluded to extend the limits to the 
GUa River on the north, and the westerly base of 
Mount Trumbull on the east. The assurances 
given to us ty the officers and citizens most fami- 
liar with the habits of the Indians before re- 
ferred to, that they would not leave the reserva- 
tions if properly fed and cared for, dismissed all 
doubts from our mind concerning this point. 

' ' Should the Government approve my action in 
locating this reservation, there are some improve- 
ments made by several settlers, on the San Pedro, 
which should be appraised by Government 
officers and the owners paid for them. Several 
of the ranches are good adobe buildings, which 
will be of value for the use of the Indian Depart- 
ment. While it is true that no claim of pre-emp- 
tion by settlers holds good as against the Govern- 
ment, when made on Government land not yet 
surveyed, yet it is but fair that where the im- 
provements can be of use to the Government, as 
in this case, the owners should be compensated. 

**As the mountains are barren and the valleys 
infected with a malarial fever, the tract of 
country designated above is worth little or noth- 
ing to anyone but the Indians, who are accli- 
mated. And as it is absolutely necessary that a 
certain and well-defined tract shall be fii^ set 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 247 

apart for them before we can expect them to leave 
the highways and other portions of the Territory, 
it seemed to me that justice, as well as wisdom, 
suggested that we should select such places as 
they themselves chose and would reside upon — 
where we could protect and civilize them. 

"That the massacre at Camp Grant fairly il- 
lustrates the sentiment of a large portion of the 
people of Arizona and New Mexico on the Indian 
question, is painfully confirmed by the fact that 
nearly every newspaper here has either justified 
or apologized for the act. That the President's 
'peace policy,' so popular in the States, does not 
meet with much approval out here is unquestion- 
ably true ; and any one who comes here to exe- 
cute it must expect to meet with disapprobation. 
I have been met with a storm of abuse from these 
newspapers in their every issue ; but, thank God, 
it does me no harm, and though I have received 
positive assurances that my life would "be in dan- 
ger if I visited certain localities, yet, as much of 
this is probably mere bluster, I ^ould go there if 
my official duties required it. 

"Probably I should not have referred to these 
threats if the Governor of the Territory, A. P. K. 
Safford, Esq., had not taken the precaution to 
issue a 'proclamation' in the 'Arizona Citizen,' 
calling upon the people to treat the commission- 
ers 'kindly,* as though the governor supposed 
they were not likely to treat us kindly, unless he 
took some such extraordinary means as this to 
induce them to do so. This proclamation con- 
cludes with the following words: 'If they (the 
commissioners) come among you entertaining er- 
roneous opinions upon the Indian question and 



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246 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA. 

the ccmdition of affairs in this Territory, then, by 
kindly treatment and fair, truthful representa- 
tion, you will be enabled to convince them of their 
errors.' A manifesto so remarkable, that we 
thought, in kindness to the governor, the less no- 
tice I took of it the better. 

"There is evidently a wrong impression in the 
minds of the editors of these newspapers concern- 
ing the object of our visit to these Territories. 
They seem to think that we have come to 'exam- 
ine into the Indian Affairs of the Territories' 
generally; whereas, our instructions from tbe 
President, through the Secretary of the Interior, 
are simply to 'locate the nomadic tribes upon 
suitable reservations, bringing them under the 
control of the proper officers of the Indian De- 
partment, and supplying them with necessary 
subsistence, clothing, and whatever else may be 
needed.' " 



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THE PEACE GOMMiaaiON'. 



CHAPTER Xin. 

THE PEACE COMMISSION (Contmoed). 

The Fbontiebsman's Sympathy With the 
Peace Pouox — Gh-a River Agenot — Tonto 
Apaches at Camp McDowell — Report op 
J. H. Stout, Special Indian Agent — Re- 
port OP Colonel N. A. M. Dudley — ^Report 
op Captain James Curtis— Talk With Da- 
Ohat-Ta and Shelter Pau — Report op 
Captain Netterville — Report of Colonel 
Dudley. 

"Camp McDowell, Arizona Territoiy. 
"September 24, 1871. 
"We left Camp Grant at 6 o'clock, eyeniug, 
September 19, preferrine: a night ride to the hot 
sun across the desert of fifty miles, from the San 
Pedro to the Gila River. We arrived at Plor- 
ence, a new and enterprising town, chiefly occu- 
pied by Americans, on the Gila, by noon the next 
day. Here I met a nmnber of citlzMis, and a 
party of miners who had just returned from an 
unsuccessful tour of prospecting among the 
Pinal Mountains near by. They all wished me 
'God-speed,' and said they 'hoped before God the 
President would be successful in his efforts to 
bring in the Lidians upon the reservations.* 
Nothing could have been kinder than their ex- 
pressions of hearty good-will toward the present 
administration. Prom this I infer that I may 
have been hasty in my conclusions contained at 
the close of my last letter, that the 'peace policy' 
toward the Indians was unpopular in Arizona. 



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250 HISrORT OF ARIZONA. 

I arrived at that impression from reading the 
newspapers of Tucson and Prescott. But I am 
told that these papers only reflect the opinions of 
the traders, army contractors, barroom and 
gambling saloon proprietors of these two towns, 
who prosper during the war, but that the hardy 
frontiersman, the miner, poor laboring men of 
the border, pray for peace, and I believe it. 

"Our ride down the dusty valley of the Gila, 
from Florence to the Pima and Maricopa reser- 
vation, a distance of twenty-eight miles, in the 
hot sun, on horseback, the thermometer standing 
at 135 in tiie sun, 1(H in the shade, was fearful. 
l^e men and anijnals were thoroughly used up. 

"GILA RIVER AGEN€T. 

"The agency biiilding is a good one, though too 
small for the work to be done. A school house and 
room for the teacher should be built. Agent Stout 
and his young wife, the Rev. Mr. Cook, the 
teacher, and the physician, were at home and at- 
tending to their duties. Mr. Stout complained 
of want of means, the remittances received from 
Superintendent Bendell being too small to meet 
the quarterly dues for salaries of the officers. 

"The chiefs were called together the next 
day, September 22, and we had a talk with 
them. Those present were Antonio Azul, the 
head chief; Swa-mas-kor-si, chief of Ki-ki-mi 
village; Ki-o-sot, 2nd chief of Ki-ki-mi vil- 
lage; Ki-co-chin-cane, chief of Shu-uk village; 
Miguel, chief of Staw-to-nik village; Candela, 
chief of Stu-ka-ma-soo-satick village; Se-per, 
chief of Pep-chalk village. I told them that, by 
the President's directions, I had been sent to 



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THE PK&OE COMMISSION. 251 

learn about their troubles, especially with regard 
to their quarrel with the settlers on Salt River, 
and tile diversion of the supply of water from 
their acequias, and to inform them that, under 
your direction, I had set apart reservations for 
the Apaches. They, in common with the Pajwi- 
goes, have been in the habit of raiding on the 
Apaches, and I informed them that this must 
cease ; that if the Apaches came down there and 
troubled tiiem they were to defend themselves 
and punidi the Apaches ; but that they must not 
go up to the Apache country and make war on 
them, unless they were requested to do so, offi- 
ci^y, by some Army officer, which request would 
come through their agent. I told them they must 
also quit their raids on the white settlers on the 
Salt River, or else they would be pimished. They 
had made several wholly unprovoked attacks on 
the settlers on tiie Salt River, destroying their 
crops of com and tearing to pieces their houses 
and furniture; one poor man, now employed as 
farm hand at the agency, having lost everything 
he possessed by them. 

"The chiefs replied that they had some bad 
young men in their tribe, as we had among white 
men. That they go up Salt River, notwithstand- 
ing their remonstrances against it; if they got 
into trouble or were killed they could not help it 
and no one would be sorry, but that their whole 
tribe ought not to suffer for it. They have always 
lived peaceably with the whites and they meant 
to continue to do so. They said they reqtiired 
more land than the present limits of their reser- 
vation allowed. 

"In their early days they lived more by hunt- 
ing; deer abounded in that country before the 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



252 HI8T0BT OF ABIZOKA. 

white man came, and that with deer meat and 
mescal they then got along very well, but that now 
they had to depend for subsistence almost wholly 
upon farming, and as they now had schools and 
were rapidly learning the ways of the white man, 
they needed more land and larger water privi- 



'*They were always led to suppose that the 
white men wanted them to kill the Apaches, but 
that if they knew the boundaries of the Apache 
reservation, they would keep off from it. I ex- 
plained the boundaries of the Camp Grant reser- 
vation and told them that the Apaches com- 
plained bitterly of the Pimas and Papagoes for 
their constant warfare upon them and particu- 
larly of late of the Papagoes for having assisted 
at me massacre at Camp Qrant and carrying ofE 
their children into slavery, and again repeated 
that these feuds must cease. That the Presid^it 
would have peace. They promised to tell their 
young men, separated from us on very good 
terms, and, lingering about the agency for some 
time, rode off well mounted on brisk looking 
ponies. Most of the tribe seemed quite prosper- 
ous and independent in their manner; indeed, 
this last quality they carry so far it becomes rude- 
ness. They have a very large idea of their own 
importance and prowess, and I was informed 
that on one occcasion when Colonel Alexander, 
who commanded at Camp McDowell, the nearest 
military post, threatened them with chastisement 
for some misconduct, they drew up five hundred 
fighting men of their tribe and dared him to come 
on. As Colonel Alexander had but one small 
company of cavalry, he had to forego the chas- 



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THE I^ACE 00MMIS8I0N. 253 

"I fear their youiijif men will need a little dis- 
ciplining before we shall have things run alto- 
gether smoothly on their reservation, and I sin- 
cerely hope Congress will make provision to 
purchase the additional land they really need for 
their support and comfort. 

"The school under Rev. Mr. Cook i& hopefully 
under way, and I think the Government is fortu- 
nate in securing his efficient and earnest services. 

"On my return to Washington I received the 
following letter from the agent, showing how 
much the Pimas and Maricopas are suffering 
from the want of the water of the Gila River, di- 
verted hy the white settlers, and how serious is 
their dissatisfaction : 

"•UNITED STATES INDIAN AGENCY, 
" 'Gila River Reservation, Arizona Territory. 
" 'October 19, 1871. 

" 'Dear Sir: When you were here it was sup- 
posed from the amount of water in the bed of the 
river above here that there would be a sufficient 
quantity to reach the lower part of this reserve to 
enable our Indians to irrigate their fields as usual 
in preparing them for the reception of their 
crops. Though there was apparently plenty of 
water for that purpose, and though it continued 
to rise for a whUe after you left, it has now fallen 
to its normal state, and not a drop of it has 
reached their fields. The time for preparing 
their lands is now at hand, but having no water 
they can do nothing. 

" 'People who have lived on the Gila for years 
tell me there never was before such a thing as a 
dry riverbed on this reserve this time of the year. 



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254 HISTO&T OF ABIZONA. 

As a matter of course, our Indians are very much 
dissatisfied and blame the settlers who are above 
us for taking away their water. On Sunday 
morning last, Ohin-kum, a chief of one of the 
lower T^ages, and one of the best chiefs in the 
reserve, came to me and said that for many years 
he and his people had 'lived from what they 
planted,' but now they had no water; white men 
up the river had taken it from them, etc After 
spending a few moments in telling me of his 
wrongs, he made known the object of his visit, 
which was to obtain leave to take the warriors of 
his village, numbering one hundred and twenty- 
seven men, and by force of arms drive the whites 
from the river. 

*"I was not a little astonished at this manifes- 
tation, but quietly told Chin-kum he must not go. 
I spent an hour in telling him of the fearful re- 
sults which must surely follow such a step, and 
finally succeeded in inducing him not to go. But 
he told me this, that he would wait one month, 
and if the water did not come to them then, he 
would take his whole village, which numbered 
one hundred families, and move to the Salt River 
settlements, where, as he said, there is always 
water. As the settlers of that vicinity are and 
have been for years at enmity with these Indians, 
I assured him that trouble would certainly follow 
such a step as that, and urged him to remain 
on the reserve. He went away silenced, but not 
satisfied, and I have not the lightest doubt that 
in a month from now he and his village wiU leave 
the reservation. 

** 'Day before yesterday Ku-vit-ke-chin-e-kum, 
chief of the Va-Vak village, called and said he 



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THE FEA.CE OOMMIB8I0X. 255 

was going to Salt River with Ms tribe, as there 
is no water for his fields. I of course told ^^iTn 
not to go, but I am afraid it did no good. There 
are six or seven other villages on that part of 
the reserve, which is about the only part of it 
that can ever be reached by the water, the rest 
of the land being too high ; and if the water does 
not come soon I think they will all leave. 

" * These Indians have always been well-dis- 
posed toward our Government, and for years 
they have served as a protection to travellers on 
this route from Texas to the Pacific coast. They 
claim the land lying above them on the Gila, 
but long since gave it up 'because they were as- 
sured that when they needed it they should have 
it. It seems to me that that time has come, and 
while these Indians are still friendly to the 
whites, it would, in my opinion, be a wise plan 
to give them a portion of the land they claim. 
A few thousand dollars would do this now, and 
may, perhaps, avoid an expenditure of ten-fold 
proportions, in case there should be trouble be- 
tween them and the citizens here. The super- 
intendent of Indian Affairs is away on business 
at San Francisco just now, so I write this to you. 
• •«*«»#» 

'* 'Very respectfully, Ac, 

" 'J. H. STOUT, 
'* 'United States Special Indian A^ent. 
*' 'Hon. Vincent Colyer.' 

"TONTOAPAOHESATCAMP McDOWBIX, 
ARIZONA TERRITORY. 
"We left the Pima agency on the evening of 
the 22d, preferring night riding to the hot sun 



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256 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA. 

across the desert to McDowell, arrivinff at Desert 
Station, twenty-five miles, at four o'clock in the 
morning, and leaving there at nine in the morn- 
ing, readied. Camp McDowell at nine at ni^ht, 
meeting with a cordial and hospitable reception 
from General N. A. M. Dudley and the other offi- 
cers at the post. 

"My object in coming here is to open commu- 
nications with the Tonto Apaches, and for this 
purpose General Dudley has this morning sent 
out runners with white flags, Mid kintfled *a 
smoke.' I am informed that Da-chay-ya, the 
able chief of the Tontos, has been in at McDowell 
several times during the past few years, and 
that on two occasions he has been dealt with very 
treacherously ; at one time shot in the back, and 
at Miother time attempted to be poisoned by a 
post doctor ; whether he will answer my call re- 
mains to be seen. A party of Indians was re- 
ported last evening as having been seen by two 
straggling soldiers, making signs as if they 
wished to come in, a few miles below the post. 
As I had informed the Indians at €amp Grant 
that I was coming here, and they had sent run- 
ners up this way, the officers here think that the 
Indians know it and wish to come in. 

"4 p. m. The Indians have kindled their an- 
swering fires upon the top of tiie Sierra Aneha — 
a high mountam twenty miles from here — ^north- 
ward, near old Fort Reno. They are evidently 
in earnest, as the smoke at times is dense, ex- 
tending at intervals over a distance of a quarter 
of a mile. "We hope to see some of the Tontoa 
here to-night. 

"Two companies of the Third United States 
Cavalry, being part of Colonel Henry's and Gen- 



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THE F£A,CE 00MMIS8I0N. 257 

eral Crook's command, are camped below here 
under waiting orders. 

"I inclose copy of my ofl&cial letter to General 
Dudley asking for detachment of soldiers to open 
commxmications with the Tonto Apaches, and 
his reply thereto. — V. €. ' * 

"CAMP Mcdowell, aeizona tbrei- 

TORT, 
"September 27, 1871—11 P. M. 

"The party with the flag of truce, sent out at 
my request, by General Dudley, to try to open 
coromunications with the Tonto Apaches, re- 
turned this afternoon, having been only partially 
successful, as you will see by the report inclosed 
from Major Curtis. He had seen several In- 
dians on the hills, exchanged friendly signals 
vnth them, and after spending a day immediately 
surrounded by them, had separated from them 
without any indications of ill will or molestation. 
It is very difficult to obtain their confidence so 
soon after they have been pursued by the soldiers, 
and as I am now dealing with another band of 
Apaches, different in their habits, and living 
quite apart from the Pinals, Ooyoteros, Arav- 
aipas, and the other bands with whom I so re- 
cently have held friendly intercourse, I am not 
in the least discouraged at Major Curtis not hav- 
ing brought in any of the tribe. As you will see 
from his report he is quite suiguine that they 
will come in soon. 

"In the event that they should come in I have 
provided that General Dudley, commandant of 
McDowell, should feed, protect, and otherwise 
vm— 17 



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258 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

care for them at this post, until such time as he 
may have a sufficient number, when he can re- 
move them to Gamp Grant. Meanwhile, in order 
that they may be thus looked after, I was com- 
pelled to declare this military reservation, five 
miles square, a temporary Indian reservation, 
which I did with the advice of the military offi- 
cers at this place. As soon as we can see how 
many of them come in, and learn their wishes 
as to a locality for their home, I have arranged 
with General Dudley that he should communicate 
with the Department, and it can order their re- 
moval. For the present, I am only anxious to 
keep them in from the warpath, and to get them 
to look upon the Government as their friend. 
Other things will follow. 

"That there may be no delay in this, and that 
every effort may be made to get them in, I re- 
quested. Captain Thomas McGregor, who com- 
mands a detachment of troops in the field, under 
marching orders (temporanly suspended) from 
General Grook, to send out another fiag of truce 
in another direction to the Tonto country. 

"AltJiough copies of your instructions of July 
21, and orders of War Department July 18 and 
31, written at the suggestion of the President, 
were forwarded to General Crook from Camp 
Apache, September 7, and have been received 
there, and an express messenger arrived here 
from there yesterday, yet no copies were for- 
warded to the officers here. They are much 
troubled about it and have written to the general. 
Fortimately it has made no difference in my 
progress, as I have gone right on with my work, 
and tiie officers here as well as at Camps Grant 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 259 

and Apache have not hesitated to carry out these 
orders. I mention it only that you may fully 
comprehend the situation. Probably General 
Crook's movements have disarranged his maiL 

"Altogether, I feel greatly encouraged and 
am confident that in Arizona, and among the 
Apaches, the President's policy of peace will be 
as successful as it has been in all other portions 
of the Indian country. 

"I leave for Camp Verde (D. V.) tomorrow. 
— V. C. 

"Since my return to Washington I have re- 
ceived the following report of the coming in of 
the Tonto Apaches to Camp McDowell, Arizona 
Territory : 

*' 'Camp McDoweU, Arizona Territory, 
" 'November 2, 1871. 
" *Sir: As you will remember, just before you 
left McDowell I sent Major Curtis out with a 
white flag to old Port Reno ; he was at the time 
unsuccessful in his attempt to open communica- 
tion with them notwithstanding he saw several 
Indians on the bluffs and hills near bJTn, none of 
whom showed any hostile demonstrations. He 
left his flag in the old ruin of a chimney of the 
stockade, returning to McDowell. This expedi- 
tion had its good results, as events since have 
proved. The Tontoa saw the soldiere with an 
emblem of peace. It was a strai^ sight. 
Days passed and no Apache visited the post; 
signal fires were constantly kept burning during 
the night at the garrison for some time. At la^ 
a party of four came in. I received them 



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260 HrarOBI OF ARIZONA. 

warmly, took them to my quarters, and had a 
long talk with the principal man among them, 
*One-Eyed Riley.' He had been twice in at Mc- 
Dowell two or three years since, and was recog- 
nized by Lieutenant Grant, who had, I think, 
met him at Reno. He said the Tontos wanted 
to know what the soldiers were goii^ to do ; that 
he had been sent in to find out what the white 
flag meant in tiie hands of the soldiers ; that if 
we said peace, they were ready. I assured him 
that the President wanted all fighting to cease; 
that he was ready to feed and reasonably to 
clothe all good Indians who would come in with 
their families and do right ; that I could not talk 
with him more fully as I wanted to see some of 
the great men of the tribe; that I would clothe 
him, give him a good supply of provisions for 
his party, and he must go out and bring in a 
good number of chiefs. He asked for six days. 
I gave ^im the time, and faithful to the hour he 
sent in a principal man, who possessed most ex- 
cellent sense. He said they were all ready for a 
peace; they were tired living in holes and on the 
tops of mountains; now their women and chil- 
dren had to pack all their water two and three 
miles ; they could not go down to the streams at 
all except at night, for fear of the soldiers ; that 
they had to scatter in parties of two and three 
to sleep in safety ; that they hid their infants and 
small children away in the holes among the ro(is 
for safety ; even the rabbits were safer than the 
Indians ; that their people were all nearly starv- 
ing; that they must steal or starve; l^at the 
toldiers had <Mven them away from Uieir eom- 



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THE PEACE COMHISBION. 261 

fields ; game was scarce ; tbey were afraid to go 
out and hunt. He spoke of his children, four 
of whom had been killed by the soldiers, with 
tears running down his cheeks. He wanted to 
make a big peace, roll a rock on it, and make it 
last till the rain came and washed the rock level 
with the land ; that God told him he must come 
into McDowell that day and do all he could to 
make the big soldiers' hearts like his — ready to 
do what was right. He said he did not want 
any blanket that day for he was satisfied that 
the soldiers now wanted to do right, and he 
wanted to go back and induce Da-chay-ya and all 
his captains to come in, and the blankets and 
clothes would retard his rapid travelling. I 
have been present at a great many talks witi In- 
dians on the plains the last seventeen years, but 
I have to acknowledge that I have never seen 
more feeling or good sense exhibited by an In- 
dian than t^s Apache showed. He asked for 
five days to go and see all his people ; said they 
would take different directions, and get as many 
to come in as possible. He expressed great fear 
of the Pimas; did not want them allowed to 
come into camp while the Apaches were here. I 
sent a military escort out in their rear, and for- 
tunate that I did, for some lurking Pimas were 
lying in wait for them out on the trail, all of 
whom were brought into camp and told if they 
even fired at an Apache on the reservation I 
would shoot them as readily as we had been 
shooting the Apaches. Up to the time I was re- 
lieved (Major Curtis has succeeded me in com- 
mand), I would not permit the Pimas to come 



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262 HI8T0BY OF ARIZONA.. 

near the garrison when I could prevent it. I 
consider it unfortunate that the Pimas are al- 
lowed by their agent to come to McDowell at 
present. This party brought in some eighty or 
more Indians of the Tonto Band. Major Curtis 
was much engaged at the time they came in and 
did not have the opportimity to give them the 
attention they expected, 

" 'The Indian ration was reduced to one 
pound of beef and one pound of flour, or rather 
com, upon which an Indian cannot subsist, and 
of course will not be content with it, as they have 
neither roots, game, nor fruit here to eke out the 
ration. I do not believe it requisite to keep 
them near McDowell. All that I have talked 
with express a desire to be allowed a reservation 
near Reno or Sunflower Valley ; these points are 
away from the Pimas, from settlements, and 
need have only one company of soldiers near 
them with their agent. There is not a particle 
of doubt in my mind, all the stories to tiie con- 
trary, that they, at this moment, are anxious for 
a peace, and a lasting one. No man can talk 
with them an hour without being convinced of 
this fact. 

" 'Captain McNetterville, who has been out by 
direction of Major Ourtis, and had a talk with 
Da-chay-ya, on his return seemed to have been 
most favorably impressed with their sincerity; 
before, I believe, ne never had any confidence 
in them, and was in favor of exterminating them 
if possible. Dr. Howard, the medical officer who 
accompanied Captain McNetterville, expressed 



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THE raiACB COMMISSION. 263. 

great surprise at tbe intelligeDce and earnestness 
shown by their talk and manner. 

" 'It must not be e^)ected that a peace made 
with these various bands, scattered all over a 
great, wild territory like Arizona, New Mexico, 
and Sonora, will be perfect for a long time. 
Many bad Indians will refuse to come in. These 
will have to be hunted down ; and if the good ones 
are now cared for, properly fed, reasonably 
clothed, and kindly treated, they can easily be 
induced, in my opinion, to help catch this class 
of renegades and bring them to proper pimish- 
ment. It is going to take a good deal of patience, 
careful judgment, forbearance and humane treat- 
ment; but I have the strongest belief it can be 
accomplished. If we fight them one or two years, 
it has to be done in the end ; for it is not to be sup- 
posed the Government is going to keep up a per- 
petual war on them. 

" 'If I remain in the Territory, I only ask that 
I may be stationed at a post overlooking a reser- 
vation; for I know a race of beings possessing 
the intelligence so prominently exhibited by the 
Apaches can be taught to appreciate the advan- 
tages of living at peace with the whites, whom 
they frankly recognize as every way superior to 
themselves. But this desira'ble result can never 
be brought about by following two directly oppo- 
site policies at the same time — one war, the other 
peace. 

" 'With best wishes, &e. 

" *N. A. M. DUDLEY, 
" 'Brevet Colonel, United "States Army. 

" 'Hon. VINCENT COLYER.' 



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2(4 maroKs of abizona. 

*' CAPTAIN CURTIS 'S REPORT OF AR- 
RIVAL OF EIGHTY TONTO APACHES 

AT Mcdowell. 

*' 'Headquarters Camp McDowell, Arizona 
Territory. 

"'Novembers, 1871. 
" 'Sir: Since your departure I have been stead- 
H^ engaged in trying to open commimication 
with the Tontos and Apache-Mohaves. They 
sent in a messenger about October 14, and by 
the 20th I had in over eighty of them, from the 
two different bands above stated. Es-cal-la-tay, 
the head of the Four Peak Indians, came witii 
his band, and the Apache-Mohaves with their 
own chief. I had only a short talk with them 
at the time, they being willing to wait until others 
would get in, so as to have a grand council and 
settle the whole matter. Da-chay-ya, with his 
Indians, had not yet arrived. At this juncture 
of affairs, and after they had been camped near 
me for three days, they suddenly disappeared 
about midnight, and went back to tiieir moxmtain 
homes. 

"I found upon inquiry that some rascally Mex- 
icans had been talking to them, and, as near as 
I could learn, frightened them out by telling 
them that the Pimas were coming after them. 
I cannot prove this, but I believe it. TTiat these 
Indians have a great dread of the Pimas is well 
known. I have written the Indian agent at Sac- 
aton, Mr. J. H. Stout, telling him that he must 
keep his Pimas and Maricopas away from this 
post. These Mexicans are many of them guides, 
&c., and are well aware of the fact that if we 
make peace their occupation will be gone. 



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THE PEACE C0MKI8SI0K. 265 

" 'Two days after these Indians left I sent 
Captain Netterville, Twenty-first Infantry, to 
Simflower Valley, thirty miles from here, to re- 
new communications and find out what was the 
matter. Inclosed please see his order, private 
instructions, and copy of report. 

" 'They do not wish to come here and stay, for 
two or three very strong reasons : 1. They are 
afraid of the Pimas and Maricopas, and the lat^ 
ter can readily reach this place. 2. They are 
too far from their mountains to gather fruit 
or mescal or to hunt, and without some such aid 
they cannot subsist on a pound of beef and one 
of flour. 3. They have a natural indisposition 
to leave a country where they have always been 
accustomed to live. 4. They say that they can 
plant and get plenty of water on Tonto Oreek 
(near Reno). It is, however, difficult to supply 
Camp Keno, as the road is very bad. Troops 
were stationed there at one time, but the post 
was broken up on this account. 

" 'It seems to me that there ought to be a 
trusty agent constantly on the spot here to attend 
to all these things. I have but $400 that I can 
expend for them, which is but a drop in the 
bucket, when they all need blankets and clothing. 
All that I can do is to give them a little manta, 
calico, and tobacco. Then, again, I am peculiarly 
situated. If I take the responsibility of declar- 
ing a temporary reservation, my action may 
be disapproved by the department commander, 
or I may not be able to get the means of supply- 
ing it. Troops should be with them wherever 
they may be, and I have not the power to put 
them there. One thing seems to me certain, that 



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266 HI8T0BY OF ABIZONA. 

they will never be contented near tills post. I 
believe that it Is better to so shape things as not 
to crowd them. The whole country around 
Reno, Tonto Creek, and Greenback Creek is un- 
settled by the whites, and they never go there. 
It seems to me that Tonto Valley is the place for 
them. It can be supplied with flour by pack 
trains, and beef can be driven there. 

" 'Tonto and Greenback Valleys (the latter 
about twenty miles southeast of Reno) are said 
by those who have been there to be the best 
adapted places for this purpose in this whole 
Territory. Greenback Valley is small, but very 

Eretty, and has plenty of timber and grass and 
ne bottom land for cultivation with but little 
irrigation. The road from here to Reno, as I 
said before, is very bad, but Reno can be sup- 
plied, as stated, fey pack trains for the present. 

*' 'I hope that you will take some action in this 
matter without delay. In the meantime I shall 
try and collect these Indians here or at Sun- 
flower, and let them, if there, send for tiieir 
rations. It is impossible for me to send out 
there, for I have not the means of so doing. Tou 
can see that I am so situated that I cannot prom- 
ise them anything, and the whole thing may fall 
through for this reason. I think they mean to 
make a lasting treaty of peace if they can be 
made to feel that they are not being deceived. 

" *I will advise you further when the grand 
council is held. 

*' *I am, sir, very respectfully, 

" 'JAMESOURTIS, 
" 'Captain Third Cavalry, Oommanding Post, 
and ex-officio Indian Agent. 
" 'Hon. VINCENT COLTER.' 



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THE I-^EACB COMMISSION. 267 

"TALK WITH DA-^HAT-TA AND SHEL- 
TER PAU, HEAD CHIEFS OP THE 
TONTO APACHES, AT McDOWELL. 
*' 'Camp McDowell, Arizona, Tetritory, 
"'November 2, 1871. 
" 'Sir; I have the honor to report that, in 
compliance with Special Orders No. 170, dated 
Headquartere Camp McDowell, Arizona Terri- 
tory, October 25, 1871, I left this post and pro- 
ceeded to Simflower Valley, and complied as near 
as possible with special instructions given me by 
the post commander. I arrived at Simflower 
Valley at 5 :30 P. M. on the 27th of October, and 
went into camp at Stockade. On the morning 
of the 26th I commenced building fires and kept 
them burning during the day as signals. Oa 
the morning of the 29th my signals were an- 
swered from a hill near camp. At 10 o'clock 
four Indians came into camp. I gave them some- 
thing to eat and sent them out at once to tell their 
chief, Da-chay-ya, to come in ; that I wanted to 
have a talk with him. In the evening two more 
Indians came in from another direction, who said 
they belonged to Shelter Pan's band. I also 
sent them out with the same instructions. On 
the 30th four Indians and two squaws came into 
camp with a message to me from Da-chay-ya 
and Shelter Pan that they would come and see 
me the next day. I gave these Indians some- 
thing to eat, and sent them out of camp to come 
in again when their chiefs came. On the 31st, 
about twelve o'clock. Shelter Pan and forty war- 
riors arrived. In the afternoon of the same day 
Da-chay-ya, with twenty of his warriors, and 
four or five squaws, with children, arrived. I 



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268 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA. 

had a talk with both chiefs that afternoon, and 
told them my mission ; they appeared to be well 
pleased with what I said to them, and would 
reply to me the next morning. They were in a 
very destitute condition, being nearly naked and 
apparently suffering very much from the cold. 
They both appeared to be anxious for peace, and 
expressed a desire to live happily wittt all man- 
kind. I gave each band a sack of flour and issued 
them some beef. The next morning, November 
1, both chiefs came into camp, and desired to 
have a big talk. The following is what Da- 
chay-ya said: *I don't want to run over the 
mountains any more ; I want to make a big treaty ; 
I will live with the soldiers if they will come to 
Sunflower Valley or Camp Carroll, if Govern- 
ment will establish a camp there ; I will make a 
peace that will last; I will keep my word until 
the stones melt; I cannot go to Camp McDowell 
because I have no horses and wagons to move my 
women and children, but at Camp Carroll I can 
live near the mountains and gather the fruit 
and get the game that is there. If the big cap- 
tain at Camp McDowell does not put a post where 
I say, I can do nothing more, for God made the 
white man and God made the Apache, and the 
Apache has just as much right to the country as 
the white man. I want to make a treaty that 
will last, 80 that both can travel over liie country 
and have no trouble; as soon as a treaty is made 
I want a piece of paper so that I can travel 
over the country as a white man. I will put a 
rock down to show that when it melts the teeaty 
is to be broken. I am not afraid of the white 
man or the Mexican, but I am afraid of the Pimas 



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THE PEACE OOMMISaiON. 269 

and Maricopas, who steal into my camps at night 
and kill my women and diildren with clubs. If 
I make a treaty I expect com and wheat, pmnp- 
kin and melon seed, and I will plant near old 
Camp Reno. I want the big captain to come and 
see me ; see how I get along ; and will do whatever 
he wants me to do. If I make a treaty I expect 
the commanding officer will come and see me 
whenever I send for him, and I will do the same 
whenever he sends for me. If a treaty is made 
and the commanding officer does not keep hie 
promises with me I will put his word in a hole 
and cover it up with dirt. I promise that when 
a treaty is made the white man or soldiers can turn 
out all their horses and mules without anyone to 
look after them, and if any of them are stolen by 
the Apaches I will cut my throat. I want to make 
a big treaty, and if the Americans break the 
treaty, I do not want any more trouble ; the white 
man can take one road and I can take the other. 
I will send some men with y ju to the big captain 
at Camp McDowell, and when they return I want 
him to put on a piece of paper what he promises, 
so that I can keep it. Tell him that I am sick 
now, but will go to see him in twelve days if I 
have to crawl on my hands and knees to get to 
him. TeU him that I wiU bring in all the wild 
Apaches that I can, and if any will not come I 
will tell the captain who they are and where they 
live. I have got nothing more to say. ' 

" *I then asked Shelter Pau what he desired 
to say. He said he had nothing more to say 
than Da-chay-ya; he wanted the same as Da- 
chay-ya did, and that he would come into the post 
the same time as he did. I then gave each diief 



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270 HraiORT OF ABIZOKA. 

one beef and left the camp at Sunflower Valley at 
10 o'clock, accompanied by sixteen Indians be- 
longing to the two bands, and arrived at this post 
tliis a. m. at seven o'clock, having marched a dis- 
tance of sixty miles. 

" 'I have reported the loss of one mule, which 
was kicked by a horse and so badly disabled that 
he had to <be shot, after which the Indians ate 
him. 

" 'I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

" 'W.MOC. NETTERVILLE, 
'* 'Captain Twenty-first Infantey. 

" 'First Lieutenant A. D. King, TJ. S. A. 
" 'Post Adjutant, McDowell.' 

" 'CAMP Mcdowell, Arizona teeri- 

TORT, 

" 'November 17, 1871. 

" 'Dear Sir: I thougjit you would be glad to 
hear how your poIi<^ was working at this point. 
Major Curtis has done all in his power, and 
consulted my views in nearly all his actions. It 
has been slow work, however, the responsibility 
having to be taken for everything done. 

" 'Captain McGregor's command has never 
sent out the white flag you arranged f or ; I be- 
lieve he intended to, but for some reason un- 
known to me he did not do it. The company of 
Mexicans enlisted as soldiers are still here, as 
worthless a set and as idle as I want to see. 

" 'Major Curtis and myself compared notes 
night before last, and we coimted up about two 
hundred Indians in all, who have come into 
camp since you left, representing the Apache- 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 271 

Mohaves, Four Peak, Da-chay-ya and Tonto 
Apadies. Da-chay-ya, with fully eighty males, a 
few boys ineludedj but no women, came into gar- 
rison and was warmly received by Major Curtis. 
He fed them the scanty allowance prescribed, 
clothed up Da-ehay-ya and three other principal 
men, and gave the four good blankets. The first 
two days tiiey appeared quite happy and pleased. 
On the afternoon of the 14th the major had a 
talk with them. AH expressed a desire for peace. 
Da-ehay-ya said he was sick; his breast, where 
he was shot by an infamous surgeon, most foully, 
gave TiiTTi great pain. He appeared earnest for 
peace; said they were poor, starving, but that 
his people could not come into McDowell and 
live on the half ration allowed by the Govern- 
ment; that there was no mescal, no game, no 
chance to obtain anything beyond the pound of 
com and poxmd of beef. His people would not 
be satisfied; the soldiers had no right to expect 
an Indian to Uve on less than a white man. Some 
of the points put by Da-ehay-ya were discussed 
at length. He seemed to comprehend the situa- 
tion. It was explained to him that no officer 
here was authorized to locate them on a reserva- 
tion in their own country; that there was no 
authority to increase his ration or give blankets 
to his people. (Your order for blankets had 
not come to hand approved, at the meeting of 
this council) He appeared somewhat dissatis- 
fied, but did not express it in words. Up to the 
breaking up of the talk he asserted his wishes for 
peace, and a good long one. 

" 'He wanted to go out for a few days; said 
he would come in again in four or five days. 



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272 HI8T0BX OF ABIZONA. 

Major Curtis told him that be would send off a 
written treaty for the approve of the great chief 
at Washington, the President. In it he would 
recommend that a large tract of coimtry near 
Reno, including Tonto Bottom and Sunflower 
Valley, be reserved for their sole occupation; 
that he would try and get an agent sent among 
them for the purpose of instructing tiiem how 
to cultivate the soil and use the implements which 
the Government would undoubtedly furnish 
them ; that the Government would in all proba- 
bility locate a company of soldiers near them to 
protect them from the Pimas and whites who 
might attempt to hunt or locate on their groimds. 
These points they seemed to be pleased with ; but 
they could not live upon what tiiey were getting 
now. 

" 'The council for the day was ended. They 
sent their parties up to the wood yard at dark, 
as they had been doing two nights previous, for 
their night's supply of fuel, built their fires 
and commenced cooking their beef. About seven 
p. m. they suddenly left in a body, Da-chay-ya, 
the Mohaves and all. That they were frightened 
off by some parties or person no doubt can exist, 
inasmuch as they left their meat cooking on the 
fire ; besides, they left several of their bows and 
quivers filled with arrows hanging on the trees 
where they were encamped. 

" 'At the council in the afternoon Da-chay-ya 
stated that he would leave some of his men back 
in garrison till he returned. What should have 
so suddenly changed his mind none of us is at 
all able to tell ; the Mexican soldiers and citizen 
packers had free access to their camp, as well as 



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THE PEACE OOMMISSION. 273 

soldiers. No insult was offered or injury done 
them that we know of. 

" 'I feel very much disappointed at this result ; 
everything promised so fair. I heard Da- 
chay-ya say two or three times that all his people 
would come in soon ; that the Four Peak Apache- 
Mohaves were all in Sunflower Valley talking 
about coming in; that he thought they woidd 
come to the post with all their families in the 
course of ten days, when they heard what the 
soldiers had to say. 

'* 'They have more warriors than I gave them 
credit for; nearly all that came in with Da- 
chay-ya were able-bodied men, only one or two 
very old men in the party. 

" 'I believe an influence was brought to bear 
upon him by outsiders which frightened him off. 
His former treatment made him suspicious and 
fearful of some treachery, notwithstanding he 
was assured that if no understanding was come 
to, he should be allowed to go unmolested back 
to his family, providing no depredations were 
committed by ms band. Not a thing was taken 
by one of them that I have heard of, and there 
were hxmdreds of soldiers' shirts hanging on the 
clothes lines of the laundresses near Sieir camp. 
There is a singular mystery regarding their sud- 
den departure that I cannot understand. 

" 'The robbery of the mail stage and the killing 
of five citizens, a week ago, by an imknown party, 
near Wickenburg, of course is laid to the Indians. 
At first even the Preseott papers partially ad- 
mitted that it was a party of Mexican bandits 
from Sonora. Indians, when they attack a stage, 
are not apt to leave the horses, blankets, and 
vm— 18 



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274 HI8T0BT OF AIOZONA. 

curtains of the coach behind; in this case they 
did. I do not 'believe there was an Apache near 
the scene of the murder. All honest men have 
the same opinion, if they dared to express it 
*' 'Touts truly, &e., 

" 'N. A. M. DUDLEY, 
" 'Brevet Colonel United States Army. 
" 'Hon. VINCENT COLTER, 
" 'Commissioner.' " 



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THE PR&CE COMMISSION. 275 



CHAPTER 5IV. 

THE PEACE COMMISSION (Continued). 

Camp Vebde Ressbvation — The Apachh-Mo- 
HAVES — Repobt op Rev. David White, Post 
Chaplain — Abrival at Camp Whipple, 
General Cbooe's Headqitabtebs— Refusal 
TO Address Meeting op Citizens — Depar- 

TTIBE from TeRRTPOBT — FiNAL -STATEMENT AS 

TO Apaches Comino in. 

"Camp Verde, Arizona Territory, 

"October 3, 1871. 
"We arrived at Camp Verde on the evening 
of September 30; Qeneral Grover and the officers 
under bis command at the post received us 
kindly. Early in the morning after our arrival, 
at my request, the General sent out an Indian 
interpreter to inform the Apacbe-Mohaves of 
our arrival, and to request them to meet us at 
the Springs, twenty-five nules up the valley of 
the Verde, on the foUowing noon. Arrange- 
ments were made to have one thousand pounds of 
com, three beef cattle, find a good supply of cloth- 
ing forwarded to the Springs, and at daybreak 
October 2, we were up and ready for tiie journey. 
General Grover, a lieutenant (former command- 
ant of the post), Mr. Beal, a citizen, Mr. Ward, 
the interpreter, and an escort of five cavalry, ac- 
companied us. The beef cattle were driven ahead, 
and the com and clothing carried on twelve pack 
mules. We arrived at ttie Springs about noon. 
General Grover selected for our camp a clear 
hilltop a short distance above the Springs, over- 



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276 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

looking the vaUey. There were no Indians to 
be seen, though liiere was smoke burning up a 
near ravine. The Indian interpreter informed 
us that he had been to several of their villages, 
and found many were sick from want of food, 
but that all who were able had promised to come. 
General Grover, thinking that the presence of 
several white men who, returning from a deer 
hunt, had followed us, might be one of the causes 
of the absence of the Indians, suggested that 
they leave us. I agreed with him, and the five 
Apache-Mohaves arrived. Soulay was so ema- 
ciated from sickness and hunger that the Gen- 
eral hardly recognized him. He was so weak 
he lay down on the ground, his head resting under 
the shade of a sagebrush. There were no trees 
near. The General thinking that he was suffer- 
ing from an attack of intermittent fever, I pre- 
pared a mixture of quinine and whisky and gave 
it to him, but he soon asked for food, which we 
gave him. After an hour or so he recovered his 
strength and we had a talk. He pointed to the 
valley of the Verde below, where a white man 
had erected a cabin the year before, and said, 
'Where that house stands I have always planted 
com ; I went there this spring to plant com, and 
the white man told me to go away or he would 
shoot me; so I could not plant com there any 
more. Many white men hunted for deer over 
his mountains, like the three men who had just 
gone down the valley; that if they met any In- 
diana they shot them, and that they killed all the 
game or frightened them so much the Indians 
could not get near them with their bows and ar- 
rows, and as the white people would not let tibem 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 277 

have any ammunition, they could not kiU the 
deer. There were some mesquite beans, mescal, 
and cactus figs on the mountains, but they could 
not live on that in the winter, and they did not 
see what was left for them but to die. If they 
went to the post to get some' food they could not 
get any, and the general scolded them about their 
young men stealing and drove them off- The 
chiefs could not get anything for their people to 
eat; they were gradually losing their influence 
over their young men, who, finding themselves 
starving, would occasionally go on t£e roads and 
farms and steal stock to eat; they knew It was 
wrong, but how could he stop it, or blame them, 
when they were all dying for foodi' At my re- 
quest the Indians kindled more fires, and sent 
out three more runners to bring the Indians in. 
During the afternoon four parties of three or 
four each arrived ; they were hungry and nearly 
naked, and confirmed tiie interpreter's story that 
numbers of the Indians in the villages from which 
they came were too sick to come in. We gave 
them food and clothing. During the night sev- 
eral fires answering our signals were seen on the 
moimtains across the valley, and early the next 
morning, October 3, a party of thirty men, 
women and children arrived. After giving them 
some food and clothing we had a talk. The chiefs 
repeated nearly all that Soulay said the day be- 
fore, and together earnestly desired that the val- 
ley of the Verde from Camp Verde up to the old 
Mexican wagon road, about forty-five miles, and 
for a distance of ten miles on each side of the 
river, mi^t be set apart for them as an Indian 
reservation, and they agreed that if the Apache- 



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278 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA. 

Mohaves, who were scattered over the middle 
and western portion of Arizona, who rendezvous 
about Date Oreek, would come in and Uve with 
them, they would make room for and welcome 
them cheerfully upon their reservations. I asked 
them if they would not be willing to go over to 
Date Creek and have their home located there. 
They said there were too many white people 
around there, and the comitry did not suit them 
as well as the valley of the Verde. General Gro- 
ver and the officers and the citizens I met at the 
post, all agreed that the valley of the Vej^de was 
the best location for a reservation for them. Ac- 
cordingly, on my return to the post this after- 
noon, I addressed a letter to General Grover 
setting apart the valley of the Verde as a reser- 
vation for the Apache-Mohave Indians. 

"Since my return to Wadiingtou I have re- 
ceived the following letter from Rev. David 
White, post chaplain, reporting the full success 
in the coming in of over five hundred Apache- 
Mohaves at Camp Verde Reservation : 

*' *Camp Verde, Arizona Territory, 

" 'November 22, 1871. 
" 'Dear Sir: I write congratulating you on the 
success of your mission to l£e Indians of this Ter- 
ritory. Since you left, five hundred and eighty 
Apache-Mohaves have been in and drawn rations. 
It affords me pleasure to say that the food given 
out by Gaptam Hawley (now in command) is 
given in good faith. The Indians appear well 
pleased. There is but little danger in travelling 
anywhere on aceoimt of Indians. I have made 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 279 

the trip alone from here to Prescott. Otiiers 
have done the same. 

" 'Respectfully, your ohed ient servant, 
"'DAVID WHITE, 
" 'Chaplain United States Am^^. 
" 'Hon. VIN-CENT COLYER.' 

"Camp Whipple, near Prescott, Arizona, 
"October 6, 1871. 

"We arrived here on the evening of the 4th, 
and were received quite cordially by General 
Crook, who insisted upon my making his quar- 
ters my home. Indeed, throughout my journey 
in Arizona and New Mexico, I have been received 
with the utmost kindness by the officers of the 
Am^, as I have before reported. 

"The general and I differed somewhat in opin- 
ion as to the best policy to be pursued toward the 
Apaches, but aa these differences were honestly 
raitertained and kindly expressed, it did not 
lessen the cordiality of our intercourse; and as 
he desired me to frankly egress my opinion if 
there was anything in his omcial action which I 
questioned, and as he had been pleased to do the 
same with me, much to my satisfaction, I told 
bim I could not help expressing my regrets that 
he should have felt it to be his duty to censure 
Major Wm. Nelson for his manly defense of the 
Indians on the reservation at Camp Grant 

' ' The following day, with the advice of (3eneral 
Crook and that of Captain Prederick Van Vliet, 
who commands at Camp Hualapai, we arranged 
that the Hualapai Indians, who congregate 
around Beal Springs, a military post, about two 
hundred miles to the northwest of Prescott, 



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280 HraroBT of abizona. 

should be fed at that post, and a temporary reser- 
vation be declared one mile aroimd the camp 
mitil a more permanent reservation could be 

selected. The recent discovery of silver mines, 
and the uncertainty of their precise location, in 
the country inhabited by the Hualapai Indians, 
made it impracticable for us to do any more than 
the above for the present. 

"General Crook also thought it not advisable 
to attempt to move the Apaehe-Mohaves who 
range through the country in the neighborhood 
of Date Creek, this winter, to the reservation at 
Camp Verde, but that they should be fed at Camp 
Date -Creek until the spring, when they may con- 
sent to move. With his advice, we therefore de- 
cided to name that post, and for one mile aroimd 
it, a temporary reservation, and General Crook 
issued the necessary orders accordingly. 

"Mr. Merriam, (Marion), the e&tor of the 
'Arizona Miner,' and several other gentlemen, 
called to invite me to address in public meeting 
the citizens of Prescott on the Indian question. 
I read to Mr. Merriam, (Marion) his editorials, 
published before my arrival, wherein he called 
me a 'cold-blooded scoundrel,' 'red-handed assas- 
sin,' etc., and said, 'Colyer will soon be here, 
* * * We ought, in justice to our murdered 
dead, to dump the old devil into the shaft of some 
mine, and pile rocks upon him until he is dead. 
A rascal who comes here to thwart the efforts of 
military and citizens to conquer a peace from our 
savage foe, deserves to be stoned to death, like 
the treacherous, black-hearted dog that he is,* 
etc., and told him that I had no hsLakering after 
that kind of ' mining. * 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 281 

"The gentleman assured me that they would 
protect me with their rifles and revolvers; but 
as my official duties were wholly with the Indians, 
and the officers of the Government having them 
in charge, and I was unable to see sufficient rea- 
sons for addressing a public meeting in which I 
should have to be protected with nfles and re- 
volvers, I respectfully declined. Mr. Merriam 
(Marion), gave me a beautiful specimen of gold 
quartz, and I thought we had parted pretty good 
friends, but three days after he published an edi- 
torial containing several gross calmnnies, and 
abusing me worse than ever. — V. C." 

"Washington, D. €., December 20, 1871. 

"We left Prescott for home Saturday morn- 
ing, October 7, accompanied with many expres- 
sions of goodwill from the officers of tiie Army 
stationed at Camp Whipple. 

"In passing through Kirkland Valley, near 
Date Creek, the stage stopped at a farmer's house 
and inn toward evening, where we found the fam- 
ily greatly excited over the murder of an Indian. 
Tlie landlord declined to give me the details of 
the affair, and I vainly endeavored to obtain them 
from a corporal and two soldiers who were stand- 
ing there ; they having been sent for from Camp 
Date Creek to protect the family. The landlord 
asked for seats in the stage for his wife and 
daughter to go to Wickenburg, saying he feared 
an attack upon his house that night by Apache- 
Mohave Indians, and wished to have his family in 
a place of safety. As the Apache-Mohaves had 
been for the last two years at peace, and were not 
included among those against whom General 
Crook was conducting his campaign, and, as I 



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282 HKFOBY OF ABIZONA. 

have reported befoi%, are estimated to number 
over two thousand people, the affair was impor- 
tant. The ladies, who were refined and intelligent 
persons, were taken in the coach, and from them 
I learned the following particulars: 

" 'The Ijidian was standing in the front door 
of the tavern, when three white men came up the 
road on horseback, and demanded a Henry rifle 
which the Indian held in his hand. 'No,' was the 
reply, 'this is my gun, — my property.' 'Jump 
off and take it, ' says one to another ; upon which 
one of the riders dismounted and reached for the 
rifle. The Indian stepped back. The white man 
sprang forward and seized the rifle, and with the 
butt end knocked the Indian down in the door of 
the tavern. We screamed and begged the party 
not to murder an Indian in the house, or his tribe 
would retaliate by murdering the inmates. The 
Indian was dragged out and killed and buried 
there in the yard, when the party mounted and 
made off with his rifle. The day following a 
straggling party of the same tribe of Indians — 
the Apa(£e-Mohaves — was coming up the road, 
soliciting work from the farmers along the route, 
as is their custom. When within a mile of the 
tavern where the Indian was killed, three farm- 
ers, who supposed they were coming to attack 
our house, fired into the Indians — about twenty 
in number — and wounded and killed several of 
them, who were carried off by their associates in 
their rapid retreat' 

"The killing of the first Indian took place 
while the landlord was absent, or he said he 
would have prevented it. He had thought it 
prudent to send his family by stage to Wicken- 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 283 

burgj but, with the aid of the soldiers and some 
nei^bors, he intended remaining, and would 
endeavor to pacify the Indians. 

"On our arrival at Camp Date Creek, near 
midnight, I awoke Captain 0*Beime, the com- 
mander, and delivered the orders of General 
Crook, arranging for the feeding of the Apache- 
Mohaves at his post. I informed him of the 
above facts in the hope that he would investigate 
the affair. 

"At Culling's Raneho Way Station (Cull- 
ing's Well) on the desert, east of Ehrenberg, I 
found nearly two hundred and fifty Apadte- 
Mohave Indians living in temporary wicki-ups, 
and hanging around begging at the ranches. I 
called the head men together and inquired why 
they did not go to the agency on the Colorado, 
or at Date Creek, and what were their means of 
obtaining a living. They said that at the Colo- 
rado Agency, Iraytabe, the diief, discouraged 
their coming, drove them off, and threatened 
them with punishment if they returned. At 
Date Creek they could get nothing to eat, and 'it 
only made the of&cers mad to see them.* Mr. 
CuUings fed them occasionally, but they were 
half starving and naked. I distributed some 
wheat among them and gave them a letter to 
Colonel O'Beime at Camp Date Creek, request- 
ing him to look into their condition, and if they 
belonged to the band which usually reported to 
him, to feed them under the President's order. 

"At Ehrenberg I met Dr. J. A. Tonner, agent 
for the Mohave- Apaches, on the Colorado River, 
who reported everything peaceable and pro- 
gressing hopefully at his agency. He said he 



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2M HISIOBT OF ABIZOHA. 

would take care of the InHij^na at Gulling's 
ranch, and remonstrate with Iraytabe at his in- 
hospitality. He earnestly asks for help in the 
establishment of schools, and reported the chil- 
dren eager to learn. 

"Arriving at Los Angeles on the 13th of Oc- 
tober, I regretted that my time would not allow 
me the pleasure of calling upon General Stone- 
man, at Wilmington, as his position as former 
commander of the department of Arizona would 
enable him to give me much information on In- 
dian affairs. I addressed him a note, however, 
and on my arrival at San Francisco, October 19, 
I received a very kind reply from the general, 
accompanied with a copy of his final report on 
Arizona. 

"AT SAN FRANCISCO. 

"General Schofield was glad to see me. The 
many exaggerated reports in the newspapers of 
the 'cross-purposes between General Crook and 
the peace commissioner, ' had made him desirous 
to learn the truth. When he ascertained that 
instead of placing the Indiana on the reserva- 
tion which I had selected, 'under the care of the 
proper officers of the Indian Department,' as 1 
had been directed to do in my instructions from 
the Secretary of the Interior, I had availed my- 
self of the clause which allowed me 'full power 
to use my best discretion,' and I had left the 
whole business imder the supervision of General 
Crook and the officers of the Army, I believe 
that he was satisfied that the 'cross-purposes' 
only existed in the imagination of a few worthy 
people in Arizona, and those whom they have 
misled. 



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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 285 

'*I arrived in Waahijigton on October 27th, 
and made my verbal report to the President in 
the presence of the Secretary of the Interior and 
Secretary of War, on the 6th of November. By 
direction of the President, on the following day 
I made a brief report in writing to Hon. Secre- 
tary of the Interior, giving a description of the 
reservations selected in New Mexico and Ari- 
zona, which was inclosed to the President by the 
Secretary of the Interior, with an indorsement 
recommending that 'in pursuance of the under- 
standing arrived at in our conversation with the 
Secretary of War on the ©th instant, that the 
President issue an order authorizing said tracts 
of country described in Mr. Colyer's letter to be 
regarded as reservations for the settlement of the 
Indians until otherwise ordered, I have the honor 
to suggest that the proper officers of the War 
Departanent be directed to notify the various 
bands of roving Apaches tiiat they are required 
to locate on reservations immediately, and that 
upon so doing they will 'be fully protected and 
provided for by the Government so long as they 
remain on said reservations, and preserve peace- 
able relations with the Govemment5^>ne another, 
and the white people, and that unless they com- 
ply with the request they will not be thus pro- 
vided for and protected. ' 

"These recommendations were approved by 
the President, transmitted to the Secretary of 
War, and, under General Sherman's orders, 
were directed to be earned into execution by 
Lieutenant-General Sheridan and Major-GCT- 
eral Schofield, commanding the division of the 
Missouri and Pacific. 



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266 HIBTOBY OF ARIZONA. 

"Late advices from the agents and Army offi- 
cers in charge of the Apache Indian reservations 
established in New Mexico and Arizona, under 
the President's order, state that the roving 
Apaches have come in in large numbers. There 
are now reported to be at Canada Alamosa nine- 
teen hundred ; Camp Apache, Arizona Territory, 
thirteen hundred; Camp Grant, Arizona Terri- 
tory, nine hundred ; Camp Verde, Arizona Terri- 
tory, five hundred; Camp McDowell, Arizona 
Territory, one hundred — total, four thousand 
seven himdred. 

"No reports have been received at this office 
from the feeding stations temporarily estab- 
lished until the reservations can be selected^ at 
Camp Hualapai and Camp Date Creek, where 
tiiere are probably one thousand more. With- 
out counting these there are more than one-half 
of all the roving Apaches of these Territories 
now at peace and within call, reaping the benefit 
of the 'peace policy.* 

"Of the complaints made by the officials and 
editors of Arizona of my want of courtesy in not 
accepting tiieir generous hospitalities, as well as 
of ttie threats so freely made to 'mob,' 'lynch 
me,' 'hang me in effigy,' 'stone me to death,' as a 
'thief,' 'robber,' 'murderer,' 'red-handed assas- 
sin,' etc., and abuse generally of the press of Ari- 
zona and elsewhere, I have taken little notice, as 
the business upon which I was sent to Arizona 
and New Mexico was successfully accomplished, 
has received the approbation of the administra- 
tion and I trust to time and the good results 
which I believe will follow as my vindication. 

"Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
"VINCENT COLYER." 



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THE PEACE CX)MMIB8I0N. 287 

The foregoing letters of Vincent Colyer, which 
are embodied in his report to the Secretair of 
the Interior, are instructive in many particulars. 
They show conclusively the condition of the In- 
dians at the time of his visit, and bear out the 
statement heretofore made, that the hostiles 
were demoi-alized, both in the east and the west. 
An unrelenting war had been made upon them, 
particularly from 1868 up to this time, 1871, 
a period of three years, during which time 
the entire Apache country had been surveyed, 
mapped and outlined. The waterholes were 
known to the whites; the trails were known; 
roads had been built through that country, and 
forts established in its very heart, so it is not 
surprising that the Indians were willing to meet 
the Commissioner more than halfway. Many of 
them had been gathered around the forts and 
were working, employed by the military in chop- 
ping wood and furnishing hay, which was paid 
for in com, a pint cupfuU at a time. The bucks 
cut the wood and hay ; the squaws brought it in 
on their backs, and yet the Indians furnished 
it at a rate much lower than the contractors had 
been getting. 

All through his report it is shown that the In- 
dians, even where rations were furnished them, 
were half starved, and compelled in many in- 
stances to rob, steal, or die. The feeling, of 
course, of the whites, at that time, was bitter 
against the Indians, because at no time were they 
safe outside the settlements, unless in large 
bodies, and wherever an adventurous pioneer at- 
tempted to establish a home, the Indians came in 
and deprived him of his stock and whatever else 
he had of value to them. 



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266 HIBTOBT OF ARIZONA. 

It seems, according to the statements of Col- 
yer, which are imquestionably correct, that there 
were gathered in over four thousand Indians, 
which comprised fully one-half of all the tribes 
which had been at war with the whites ; the Coy- 
oteros, a great many of them ; tiie most of the 
Tontos; many of the Pinalenos; the Apache- 
. Mohaves, and the Apache- Yumas. The warring 
tribes, those which were still ready to fight to a 
finish, were the Chiricahua Apadies under Co- 
chise, with a few Mescaleros and Pinalenos; the 
Apadie-Mohaves under Del Shay, with a few of 
the Tontos, and the Wallapais. 

About the time that Colyer was leaving: the 
Territory, occurred what is known as the Wlck- 
enburg Massacre, which is referred to in his re- 
port, a full accoxmt of which is given in the suc- 
ceeding chapter. 



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THE WICEENBimO MASSAGBE. 289 

CHAPTER XV. 

the wickbnburg massacre. 
Stagecoach Attacked by Party of Mounted 
Men, Five pAsaENGERS Kjlle3>, Two 
Wounded— Difference of Opinion as to 
Whether Outrage Committed bt Indians 
or Mexicans — Vebdict of Coroner's 
Jury — Description of Killed and 
Wounded — C. B. Genung's Belief and 
Statement — Mtttf, Burn's Ignorance of 
Occurrence. 

What is known as the Loring Massacre oc- 
curred on the 5th of November, 1871. On ac- 
count of the prominence of some of the victims, 
it was commented upon very extensively, not 
only in Arizona and California, but iJiroughout 
the East. 

The Wickenburg correspondent of the "Jomv 
nal-Miner" gives the following account of the 
massacre, the communication being printed in 
that paper on November 11th, 1871 : 

"At a point about nine miles from Wicken- 
burg a party of moxmted men, either Indians or 
Mexicans disguised after ih» fashion of Apache 
warriors, rushed down upon the stage as it was 
passing through a canyon, and fired a volley into 
the passengers, k illin g all but two persons, and 
slightly wounding these. The wounded, Mr. 
Kruger and Miss Sheppard, not being disabled, 
immediately sprang from the stage and started 
together towards C^ing's Station, while one de- 
vrn— i» 



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290 HIBIOBX OF ABIZONA. 

tachment of the bloodthirsty demons surrounded 
the stage, and the other went in pursuit of the 
fugitives, and kept up a desultory fire, which, be- 
ing all mounted, was unsteady, so tiiat only a 
slight wound was received by Miss Sheppard, 
and neither sustained further injury than the 
wounds inflicted by the first fire. The pursuit 
was kept up for a distance of nearly half a mile, 
the pursuers being kept at bay by Kruger, who 
still retained his revolver and fired upon them 
whenever they came too near, causing them to 
scatter and retreat, but only to rally again to the 
pursuit imtil finally they withdrew and joined 
their fellows. The fugitives continued on their 
way toward Culling's Well Station until they 
hailed the eastern bound mail a few miles from 
that station. Here they were picked up by the 
driver, who retraced his steps to the station, from 
which point information of the calamity was sent 
to Wiekenburg via the Vulture Mine, the bearer 
fearing to proceed by the direct route. The dis- 
patch reached Wiekenburg about midnight, 
when two parties of citizens started for the 
scene ; one of them to bring in the dead bodies, 
and the other, under command of George Mun- 
roe, to take the trail of the murderers. Upon 
reaching the stage a most horrible picture was 
presented to their sight. Five men, Messrs. Lor- 
ing, Shoholm, Lanz, Hamel, and Salmon, who, 
eighteen hours previous left Wiekenburg full of 
life and hope in the happy anticipation of &o(hi 
again greeting their friends after a prolonged 
absence, lay side by side rigid in death and 
drenched in blood ; the imavenged acts of a mur- 
der as dark and damnable as ever stained the 



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THE WICKENBUBG MASSACRE. 291 

hands of an assassin. The mystery which sur- 
rounds the identity of the murder exists in the 
disposition of the mail and haggage. One mail 
sack was cut open and its contente scattered over 
the ground, the other was left untouched. The 
baggage of the passengers was broken open, and 
wMle articles of little value were carried away, 
large siuns of money and other valuables re- 
mained. All this would suggest the work of igno- 
rant savages, but as neither the ammimition nor 
animals had been removed, some are of the opin- 
ion that the outrage was perpetrated by a band 
of Mexican bandits from Sonera. Mr. Kruger, 
who has really had the best opportunity of de- 
ciding this question, states positively that they 
were Indians, but at all events the next mail may 
bring reports which will place the guilt of this 
terrible crime where it properly belongs, when 
we hope it will not be left to the local autiiorities 
to redress the wrong or avenge an outrage 
against the Government and ^eir people at 
large." 

^e passengers on this coach when leaving 
Wickenburg, were in high spirits, anticipating 
no danger whatever along the route. Their arms 
were stored beneath the cushions of the seats for 
convenience and safety. AH were in high glee, 
anticipating soon a reunion with their friends 
and families. Miss Sheppard and Mr. Kruger, 
and three others sat on the inside of the coach. 
Toimg Loring rode on the outside in company 
with the driver. The first notification of danger 
was at a point about nine miles from "Wicken- 
burg when the^ were startied by the voice of 
the driver, calling out: "Apaches I Apaches! I" 



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292 HlSrOBT OF ABIZONA. 

Scarcely was the alarm given when a volley was 
discharged from the rifles of the savages into the 
stage coach, succeeded almost instantly by a sec- 
ond volley. The driver and two paasenger&were 
killed outriglit at the first fire, and the remaining 
four passengers, with one exception, were 
wounded. "At ttiat time," says J. M. Barney, 
"the survivors were Miss Sheppard and Messrs. 
Hamel, Kruger and Loring. The last named had 
thus far escaped uninjured. As the Indians 
were rushing upon the stage, after firing the first 
volley, Miss Sheppard and Mr. Kruger sprang 
to the groimd at the side opposite to that from 
which tiieir assailants were approaching, and es- 
caped with their lives. Unfortunately for 
Messrs. Loring and Hamel, in the excitement of 
the moment, l^ey lost aU presence of mind and 
jumped from the stage at the side occupied by 
the Indians. 

"The former, being unarmed, could ofEer no 
resistance, and so endeavored to escape by flight. 
This effort, however, was hopeless. He soon 
foimd himself in the center of a group of savages, 
and there fell, pierced by two bullets and dis- 
patched by a lance thrust in the breast. Mr. 
Hamel was killed at about the same instant, and 
those who were best acquainted with the Indian 
customs believed that he must have fought 
bravely for his life, as he was the only member of 
the party who was scalped — ^it having been custo- 
mary among the savages to disfigure in such a 
manner only the bodies of those who fell while 
fighting courageously to defend their lives. 

"The trailing party (imder George Munroe) 
then returned to Wickenburg, where Captain 



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THE WICEENBUBG MABSACRB. 293 

MeinLoldt and some soldiers were met. Some of 
the citizens then joined Captain Meinholdt's 
party, and, returning to the scene of tiie attack, 
again picked up the trail of the murderers and 
followed it until both citizens and soldiers be- 
came thoroughly satisfied that the authors of the 
deed had gone on to the Camp Date Oreek Reser- 
vation. 

"It was apparent to the relief party that while 
awaiting the approach of the stage coach, the 
savages had been secreted near the roadside, be- 
hind piles of grass and shrubbery, which they 
had collected and arranged in a manner not to 
attract attention, placing the bundles in an up- 
right position to give l£em the appearance of 
clumps of shrubbery produced by the natural 
process of growth. These hiding places ex- 
tended parallel to the road for some distance and, 
it was evident that, when the stage had reached a 
point about the middle of the ambush line, it was 
raked by the fire of the assassins in three direc- 
tions — in front, in rear, and directly opposite the 
side. 

"At a late hour on Monday night, the bodies of 
the victims were brought into Wiekenburg, and, 
on the following day, the inquest was held, the 
following being a copy of the verdict rendered : 

*' *We, the undersigned, summoned as a jury 
to hold an inquest on the bodies of the following 
named persons, found murdered in the stage 
coach, about six miles from the town of Wieken- 
burg, on the La Pas road, on the morning of the 
5tii of November, 1871, from all the evidence ob- 
tained from the two surviving passengera, do find 
that C. S. Adams, John Lanz, Fred W. Loring, 



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294 HISTOBY OF ABIZONA. 

Pred W. Shoholm, W. G. Salmon and P. M. 
Hamel, (found scalped), came to their death by 
gunshot wounds, received at the bands of Indians 
trailed towards the Date Creek Keservation. 
*' 'F. Purcella, Julius A. Goldwater, 

David Morgan, W. W. Weber, 

Aaron Bamett, Dennis May, 

CSiarles H. Richardson Charles Barbour, 
Mack Morris, Foreman.' 

"The survivors, Kruger and Miss Sheppard, 
were confident that the murderers were Apacbe- 
Mohaves from the Camp Date Creek Reserva- 
tion. They had on the blue pants worn by the 
Reservation Indians and had the gait, appear- 
ance and bearing of Apaches during ^e whole 
time they were under observation. In addition to 
this, Oaptain Meinholdt, of the 3d Cavalry, who 
had been detailed to find out, if possible, who 
they were, followed the tracks in the direction of 
Camp Date Creek. The footprints were round 
toed, after the manner of the Apadies. On the 
trail a reservation hunting bag was picked up, 
and a pack of cards, with the comers cut off, audi 
as were used by the Apache-Mohaves. He de- 
clared in his report to his superior that it was his 
firm conviction that the murderers were Camp 
Date Creek Apaches. Furthermore, subsequent 
to the committal of the murder, two of the Reser- 
vation Indians died of gunshot wounds, but 
whites were not permitted to see them. 

"The suspicion that had at first been expressed 
by a few — ^that the crime might have been com- 
mitted by Mexican bandits — furnished sufficient 
grounds for the starting of such a rumor. 
Thereupon, interested, so-called friends of the 



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THE WICKENBTJRO MAiSSACfiB. 295 

Indians, here and elsewhere, seized upon this 
flaw in some people's judgment for the purpose 
of making capital out of it, but a number of well- 
known Wi<^enburg citizens, who had examined 
and buried the bodies, as well as followed the 
trail of the murderers, published over their sig- 
natures a letter containing the best of proofs 
and reasons for asserting that Indians bad com- 
mitted the deed. The letter was as follows : 
" 'Wiekenburg, November 12th, 1871. 

" 'Editor of the 'Miner' ; In looking over the 
last issue of your paper, Nov. 11th, and a report 
giving details concerning the late tragedy which 
occurred near our place, we wish to correct one 
error — the murderers were not mounted on 
horses, but were all on foot, and wearing the 
Apache mocassins, leaving on their trail many 
Indian articles, (among others, bone dust used 
by the Indians as a medicine), which were 
brought in by George Munroe. As the affair is a 
serious one and imprecedentedly bold, our citi- 
zens, wishing to have the blame attached to none 
but the guilty ones, have spared no trouble or ex- 
pense in thoroughly satisfying themselves as to 
the identity of the murderers. 

*' 'As soon in the morning as it became light 
enough to see a footprint, a party of our citizens 
was on the spot, and took the trail. Judging 
from the indications, after killing the passen- 
gers, something scared the Indians, causing them 
to leave in hot haste, scattering in different di- 
rections. After following up their different 
trails a distance of four or five miles, they all 
united, forming one large trail and leading 
toward the Date Creek Reservation. The trail 



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296 HlffrOBT OF ARIZONA. 

showed them to 1)6 a large party of Indians, some 
forty or fifty in number. It was useless for the 
few citizens then on the trail to follow them far- 
ther, the Indians having some twenty hours the 
start 

'* 'They returned to Wickenburg, where tiiey 
met <!)aptain Meinholdt, with a detachment of 
troops from Camp Date Creek, and orders to use 
all efforts to find out who the murderers were. 
Thereupon Mr. Munroe and Mr. Frink immedi- 
ately returned with Captain Meinholdt and his 
command, again took up the trail, and followed it 
mitil citizens and soldiers were all thoroughly 
satisfied that the perpetrators of the horrible 
deed were Indians. 

" 'We, being of the scouting party, subscribe 
to the above as being a true report, having been 
the first upon the ground after the massacre and 
of the last to leave the trail. 

" 'W. J. Barclay* George Munroe, 
Edward Prentus, George Bryan, 
Jose Maria Saltdlo. ' 

"The public mind, however, continued to be 

divided, certain interests harping upon the mat- 
ter tmtil they succeeded in schooling a portion of 
the Eastern public into the belief that white Ari- 
zonans had committed the crime for the sake of 
plundering the passengers and to make sure of 
the continuance of the war with the Apaches. 
These were, of course, base slanders and through 
the untiring efforts of General Crook were later 
disproved and the guilt fastened — beyond any 
reasonable doubt — upon Apache-Mohave In- 
dians. 



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THE WICEENBUBO MAS8A0BB. 297 

"The best known and most prominent victim 
of this deplorable tragedy was Fred W. Loring, 
who was twenty-two years of age and a native of 
Boston, Massachusetts. He had graduated from 
Harvard in 1870, and immediately ei^aged in 
the business of journalism in bis native city. 
Early in 1871 he had joined the 'Wheeler Expe- 
dition,' which he accompanied throughout all its 
rambles, finally reaching Prescott on his way 
home. Although a boy in years, Mr. Loring was 
a mature man in mind, whose name had already 
become familiar throughout the nation as an au- 
thor and 'contributor' of rare merit. His un- 
timely death created a great sensation in the 
East, and at once the press of New York and 
New England wheeled into line, and concluded 
that 'the Apache must be treated with less Bible, 
and more sword. ' 

"Messrs. Hamel and Salmon were likewise 
members of the 'Wheeler Expedition.' Both 
gentlemen were residents of San Francisco, 
where the latter left a wife and two small chil- 
dren who were dependent upon his efforts for 
support. 

"Mr. Shoholm was on his way to his home in 
Philadelphia after an absence of many years, 
part of which time he had been a member of the 
firm of Jewell & Co., of Prescott 

"O. S. Adams had a wife and three small chil- 
dren in San Pranciseo and was on his way to 
join them when overtaken by death. For ten 
months preceding his departure from Prescott, 
he had been in charge of the flour depot of 
W. Bichard & Co., at tiiat place. 



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296 HISTORY OF ABIZONA. 

"John Lanz, the driver, who was better known 
as 'Dutch John,' came from San Bernardino, 
California, about four weeks before his death, 
and had obtained a. situation as driver on the 
Ehrenberg-Wickenburg stage, the fatal trip be- 
ing his second one over the route, and the first 
one from the Wickenburg end of the line. 

"Miss Sbeppard, who had been quite seriously 
wounded in the attack, was later taken to Camp 
Date Creek for medical attention, going from 
there to Southern California in company with 
Mr. Kruger. Not many years later Kruger re- 
ported her death in that State from the effects of 
the wounds she had received, which left him as 
the last survivor of the most atrocious killing of 
whites by savages in Arizona." 

Miss Sheppard was a member of the demi- 
monde, a beautiful woman who dressed in 
the height of extreme fashion ; adventurous, as 
is fully demonstrated by her being in Arizona at 
this time, and said to be quite fascinating, whose 
charms found si ready market. She was kind 
and generous, dividing with the unfortimate, 
nursing the sick with motherly care ; she had a 
warm place in the hearts of her male acquaint- 
ances. 

At first, aa before stated, this was supposed to 
have been the work of Mexicans, disguised as In- 
dians. C- B. Genung, to the day of his death, 
believed that Mexicans committed this atrocity, 
and makes the following statement in regard to 
it: 

'*1d the fall of 1871 a man named J. M. Bryan, 
commonly called 'Crete' by his acquaintances, 
had the contract to haul government freight 



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TEE WIGKENBUBO MASSACRE. 299 

from Ehrenberg, on the Colorado Eiver, to Ft. 
Whipple, Camps Wood, Verde, Apache, and Ft. 
McDowell. His business called him to different 
posts and he generally travelled by stf^ from 
one post to another. When there was no stage 
route he generally used a saddle horse or mule, of 
which he had several good ones. Bryan had an 
acquaintance with whom he generally took his 
meals when in Wickenburg, which was a central 
point for his teams. One day Donna Tomase, as 
the woman was called, (she was a California 
Spaniard. Her right name was Mrs. Boims), 
called Bryan into her house, and told him not to 
ride in the Wickenburg and Ehrenberg stage any 
more. When questioned she told him that there 
was a plan laid to rob tiie stage ; that she had 
overheard some Mexicans talking in a brush 
shaek behind a saloon nearby where she lived, 
and cautioned him again about going by stage. 
He took the advice and did his traveUing in "Uie 
saddle from that on. It was not long before the 
woman's story was confirmed. The stage left 
Prescott at night on account of Indians, arriv- 
ing at Wickenburg before daylight on the fol- 
lowing moming. * * * At a point about 
nine miles from Wickenburg toward Ehrenberg, 
the road crossed a small sfmdwaah which had 
scrub oak brush growing on either side. In this 
wash, hidden by the banks and brush, lay the 
Mexicans. When the stage was well into the 
wash, the horses were stopped and the stage 
riddled with bullets. • • • 

"Of course this was supposed by most people 
to be the work of the Indians, quite a niunber of 
whom were at that time at Camp Date Creek 



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300 HISrORT OF ARIZONA. 

about twenty-five miles northwest of Wicken- 
burg. The Mexicans had worn moccasins and 
scalped Adams in order to mislead the public 
At tiie time I was working from twenty-five to 
thirty of the Date Creek ladians, gathering my 
crop of com, beans and potatoes on my ranch in 
Peeples Valley, twenty-seven miles north of 
Wi<;^enburg, and I had some men among them 
that I knew I could trust. As soon as I heard 
the newB I sent two Indians across to Date Creek 
to learn if these Indians knew anything about 
the matter. They returned the same day and 
assured me their people knew nothing about the 
massacre, but that it must be Tonto Apaches 
from the eastern country. 

*' In a very few days Bryan came by my place, 
on his way from Wickenburg to Prescott, and 
told me the story. Among this baud of fifteen 
Mexicans was one who Mrs. Bouns was slightly 
acquainted with, and whom she called Parenta; 
his name being the same as her family name. 
She got him into her house, filled him up with 
wine and he told her the whole story ; how these 
men had all stayed at a house out on the road a 
little west of the town the night before the mas- 
sacre, and went out to the place before daybreak. 
The place had been picked out some days before. 
This young Mexican claimed that he was sick 
that night and did not accompany the crowd that 
did the work, but told of Adams shooting one of 
the party ; that they had taken the wounded man 
to the Agua CaUente springs on the Gila Biver to 
get well. The <^cers went from Phoenix and 
got the fellow with the hole in his shoulder, 
brought him to Phoenix, and he was killed in 



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THE WICKENBTJBG MA88A0BE. 301 

the jail by a man who still lives in Phoenix. 
John Burger killed one of them in a corral at 
the lower station on the Agua Fria near where 
the S. F. P. & P. E. crosses that stream. The 
ringleader, a redheaded native of Gibraltar, 
named Joaquin Barbe, with another of the band, 
got on the warpath and run amuck in Phoenix, 
and Joe Fye and Milt Ward, deputy sheriffs, 
chased them out of town and killed bolii of them, 
and they all got what was coming to them, but 
one. He got wise and left the country. Bryan 
was very careful who he told the story to, and it 
was passed among the right men to attend to 
such matters. The scalping of Adams was all 
right to fool a tenderfoot,-but we oldtimers knew 
that Apaches never scalped, although they fre- 
quently mutilated otherwise." 

If this massacre had been committed by In- 
dians, it ia strange that Mike Bums knows noth- 
ing of it, because he has been collecting Indian 
history and Indian stories, and recording them 
carefully, no matter whether to the credit of his 
race or not, and if the Indians had been the cul- 
prits, some of the Indians, the Yavapais or 
Apache-Mohaves, with whom he has been asso- 
ciated since his early youth and manhood, would 
certainly have given him an accoimt of it On 
the contrary he professes to know nothing of this 
massacre, and never heard of way attempt to as- 
sassinate General Crook, although he says this 
might have happened and he never know of it ; 
so I give all the evidence tending to show that it 
was committed by the Indians, and also the evi- 
dence of Mr. Genung going to show that it was 
committed by Mexicans. It will always remain 



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302 HISrOBT OF ARIZONA. 

a mystery as to who were really the murderers. 
General Crook, as we shall see, at first believed 
that it was committed by the Indians, and, ac- 
cording to Captain Bourke, spent a long time in 
ferreting out the perpetrators, but from the fact 
that a month later, or thereabouts, he employed, 
these same Indians, whom he tried to capture or 
kill at Date Creek, as scouts to run down the 
renegade Apaches, it would seem that he might 
have changed his mind^ although there is no rec- 
ord of that extant. 



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THE WIOEENBUBO MASSACRE. 3C6 

CHAPTER XVI. 

THE WICKENBURG MASSACRE (Continned) . 

GfiNEaiAL Crook Takes Up Hunt for Murderehis 

— iNVESnOATION STOPPED BY PeACE COM- 
MISSION — Investigation by General Crook 
Resumed — Meeting With Indians at 
Camp Date Creek — Selection op Murder- 
ers BY Mohave Indians — Attempted Ab- 
BEST Brings on Fight — C. B. Genttng's 
Account op Happening — Captain John G. 
Bouhke's Account of Attempt on Gen- 
eral Crook's Lite — ^Death and Burial op 
Captain Philip Dwtee — Fight With 
Indians. 

William Gilson, at that time a prominent 
citizen of Date Creek, and afterwards one of the 
early settlers of the Salt River Valley, during 
the latter part of January, 1872, informed Gen- 
eral Crook that he believed the Date Creek 
Indians coDunitted the Wickenbnrg Massacre. 
Mr. Gilson was friendly to these Indians, and 
this opinion was given only upon well groimded 
suspicions. General Crook took the -matter in 
hand, determined to ferret out the murderers, 
arrest them, and turn them over to the civil au- 
thorities for trial. He set spies, both Indians 
and whites, at work to himt up the testimony, 
plenty of which was soon after forthcoming, 
and what was at first a mystery, was soon 
cleared up by a strong chain of evidence. First 
came an Apache-Mohave Indian boy, who had 
been raised by Dan CLeary, the well-known 



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304 BISrOBT OF ARIZONA. 

scout, whom the robbers and murderers had sent 
for that he might tell them the denominations of 
the greenbacks which they had secured at the 
time of the massacre. Some of these green- 
backs had been left by the Indians, they not 
knowing their value. Next came Irataba, chief 
of the Mohave Indians, and one or two of his 
captains, and several of his warriors, who testi- 
fied that the murderers, after going to Date 
Creek, went upon the Colorado River Indian 
Reservation, and boasted of the deed they had 
done, spent their stolen greenbacks and dis- 
played other plunder. These actions were 
brought to the notice of other white men besides 
General Crook, among whom were Dr. Tonner, 
then Indian Agent at the Colorado River Reser- 
vation, who assisted in procuring these facts. 
Wallapai Indians also substantiated the ac- 
counts given by Irataba and his friends. The 
murderers repeatedly stated that fifteen of their 
number had made the attack, while fifteen more 
were within hailing distance ready to give aid; 
that they had taken very little clothing, trinkets, 
or articles of tbat nature, for fear that their pos- 
session might some day lead to their detection. 

Continuing, J. M. Barney says : "In March of 
1872, General Crook, accompanied by Lieuten- 
ants Bourke and Ross, started from Fort 
Whipple, along the Mohave road, towards the 
Colorado River. He reached Beale Springs 
where he succeeded in getting some Wallapai 
Indians to agree to go out and help him per- 
suade the Apache-Mohaves to come into Camp 
Date Creek, where they were to be fed and taken 
care of by the Government. This was merely a 



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THE WICKENBima MAS8A.CBE. 305 

ruae upon the part of General Gto<^ whose main 
object was to get hold of the robbers and mur- 
derers belonging to that tribe, and, knowing that 
the two tribes — the Apache-Mohaves and Walla- 
pals — were more or less friendly, realized at 
once that it would not do to trust the latter with 
the real secret of the expedition. General 
Crook, with his two lieutenants and Wallapai 
Indian allies, trudged on foot through snow and 
slush towards a rendezvous, where, by previous 
arrangement, two companies of cavalry were to 
go imder the guidance of Dan O'Leary and some 
Wallapai scouts for the purpose of taking in 
hand ttie murderous Apaehe-Mohaves. Just at 
tbis time an express came to General Crook with 
orders to cease hostilities and to let the Indians 
and 'Peace Commissioners' — who were about to 
arrive in Arizona — settle the question. General 
Crook obeyed the orders and returned to Fort 
Whipple. Later on in that same year — about 
the month of August — having been granted au- 
thority to chastise bad Indians, General Crook, 
vrith Lieutenant Ross, Henry Hewitt, and a few 
other persons, soon after started for Camp Date 
Creek to carry out his old object of arresting 
the murderers who had taken part in the Wick- 
enburg Massacre. Before leaving his headquar- 
ters the General had sent couriers to the Apache- 
Mohaves and Apache-Tumas, asking them to 
meet him in conference at Date Creek, which 
they agreed to do. 

"The General and his party reached the post 
on the 7th of September, but foimd that no 
Indians had yet come in to meet him, as had been 
vm— 20 



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306 HlffrOBT OP ARIZONA. 

promised. The following day, however, some 
fifty Indians, led by their Chief, Ochocama, 
made their appearance, armed and painted, and 
apparently ready for war. In the meantime Dr. 
Herman Bendell, Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs for Arizona, and Col. James M. Barney, 
of Ehrenberg and Yuma, had arrived from the 
Colorado River; Captain Byrne, D. H. Smith, 
Irataba, the Mohave chieftain, Irataba's son, 
and another Mohave Indian, had come in fr<an 
Camp Beale Springs ; while Charley B. Genung, 
William Gilson, and other citizens from the 
neighboring valleys were also present It was 
then arranged by General Crook that the Mo- 
haves should be kept out of sight of the 
Apache-Mohaves until everything should be 
ready for arresting the murderers. The time 
for the council came and the parties to the con- 
ference assembled on the parade ground adja- 
cent to the post. Three or four of fiie stage rob- 
bers were present among the erowd of Indians, 
while one, known as 'Chimihueva Jim' — a very 
bad Indian, who spoke English quite well — 
could not be induced under any circumstances 
to come to the post, but remained in the nearby 
mountains. Cteneral Crook, together with the 
other citizens mentioned above, as well as Lieu- 
tenant Volkmar, who commanded the post, were 
seated on benches opposite Chief Ochocama and 
his braves, when Chief Irataba and his Mohave 
followers made their appearance and shook 
hands with their red brethren. There being but 
about fifty Apache-Mohaves present, General 
Crook asked for information regarding the five 
or six himdred Apache-Mohaves and Apache- 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



COL. JAMES M. BARNEY. 



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THE WICKENBTTBO MASSACBE. 307 

Tumas, who, a short time previously, had drawn 
rations at tiie post. He could gain but little 
knowledge about this matter from Chief Oeho- 
cama, whose brother was, at the time, a prisoner 
in the guardhouse for having attempted to 
smuggle arms from the post, and for having dis- 
obeyed an order of Dr. Williams then Indian 
agent at Date Creek. 

"It had previously been understood by the 
white citizens and Mohaves that one of the lat- 
ter was to hand to each one of the murderers of 
the stage passengers, a piece of tobacco. One of 
the Mohaves immediately proceeded to carry out 
tiiis part of the program, offering the first piece 
to the chief, Ochocama, who himg his head and 
did not let on that he understood what the Mo- 
have meant. He was finally persuaded to take 
hold of the tobacco, while his coimtenance 
rapidly changed from one blue color to another, 
his discomfiture ending by droppii^ his piece 
of tobacco to the ground as soon as he could. 
Another and another Indian was given his piece 
of tobacco, and the last murderer had just 
clutched his when, agreeably to previous under- 
standing, a soldier attempted to arrest him. 
Quick as thought, another sav^e stabbed the 
soldier with a kmfe. The soldier pulled his 
pistol and shot. General Crook rushed in and 
tried to stop the fracas, but it was too late, as 
the Indians and soldiers were cross-firing upon 
one another. Three soldiers caught hold of the 
chief, Ochocama, who would have gotten away 
from all three had it not been for Dan O'Leary 
who, winding his fingers in the chief's long hair, 
threw and seciired him, whence he was led to the 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



306 HI8T0RX OF ARIZONA. 

guardhouse. During the disturbance Ocho- 
cama's brother who, as has been stated, was a 
prisoner in the guardhouse, made two attempts 
to escape through the roof and was shot by a 
guard. Lieutenant Ross, observing an Inifian 
taking a deadly aim at General Crook, pushed 
that officer out of range of the gun just in time, 
the bullet that was intended for him hitting and 
killing an Indian. Most of the Indians ran 
away when the firing commenced, but the chief 
and those who had to remain fought like demons. 
The bloody ending of this gathering, although 
regrettable, was inevitable, as the Indians would 
have resisted arrest under any circumstances. 
Ochocama, the chief, did not much relish his in- 
(tarceration in the guardhouse, and finally made 
liis escape through the roof, when he was shot 
at twice, pierced with a bayonet once but even- 
tually succeeded in getting away to the hills, 
where, according to the story of some Apache- 
Yumas, who later came into Mr. Gilson's place, 
he died of his woxmds. This chief was one of 
the worst Indians infesting the Territory at that 
time, and, according to his own confession, had 
murdered Mr. Leihy and Mr. Evarts in Bell's 
Canyon, on November 10th, 1866, for no other 
]-eason than that he had been told IJiat Mr. Leihy 
had stolen some goods intended for his tribe. 
Mr. Leihy was Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
at the time, having succeeded Charles D. Poston 
in that position, and Mr. Evarts was his clerk. 
His murderers tried to lay the blame of the 
<;rime on the Pimas, just as they afterwards en- 
deavored to make the Tonto Apaches shoulder 
all their other evil deeds. This treacherous 



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THE WIOKENBUBO MAaSACBE. 309 

chief and his brotiier had also murdered a man 
by the name of Taylor on the Colorado River, 
in August of 1869. 

"After the row Mr. Gilson went back to his 
ranch and stayed there alone, while Mr. Genung, 
having Indians working for him on the tooA. 
over the Antelope Mountains, was furnished 
with a small escort of soldiers, went home, and 
told his Indians what had taken place. Upon 
receiving this information they all left. 

"Some seven Apache-Mohaves, including the 
chief, Ochocama, who died of his wounds, and his 
brother, were killed in this fight, while no doubt 
many othera were wounded. Many more would 
have been killed but for the earnest efforts of 
General Crook and Dr. Bendell to put a stop to 
the firing. The soldier who was stabbed by the 
savage who commenced the trouble had been 
severely wounded and soon after passed away." 

Mr. Gemmg's account of the attempt of Gen- 
eral Crook to capture or kill these Indians who 
were supposed to be the murderers, follows : 

"In tfuly, 1871, 1 concluded to build a wagon 
road from Wickenburg, via Antelope Creek and 
Peeples Valley to connect with the road leading 
from the Colorado River at Ehrenberg to Pres- 
cott. There was a road that could be travelled 
by light rigs and empty teams but no load could 
be handled over it. My neighbors agreed to 
help me, as Wickenburg and Phoenix were our 
best markets and to haul a load to either of these 
places we had to travel about sixty mUes, 
whereas it was only twenty-seven miles by the 
road that I proposed to build from Peeples Val- 



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310 HlffrOBY OF ARIZONA. 

ley to Wickenburg which was on the Phoenix 
road. I employed a few white men at $75.00 per 
month, a few Mexicans at $65.00 and board, and 
started to work. There was quite a number of 
Yavapai Indians in and aroxmd Peeples Valley 
at the time, and when they learned what I was 
doing they asked for work; and, as they were 
willing to work for fifty cents per day, the same 
as I had paid them when they worked for me on 
the Colorado River Reservation, I put a lot of 
them to work. My neighbors did not approve 
of my working Indians, but, as the Iiidians 
would do about as much work with pick and 
shovel as the average white man or Mexican, I 
put them on ; gave them flour, beans, sugar, and 
coffee and venison. I gave one of the Indians 
fifty cents per day and furnished bim with car- 
tridges, and he kept the camps well supplied 
with fresh meat and his squaw dressed the skins, 
which made it a good job for the hunter. I 
thought it better to work the Indians and have 
them where I could watch ^em, than to be \m- 
certain of their whereabouts. Then again, the 
white man had occupied their lands and hunting 
grounds, crowded them back so that they were 
too glad to go onto the reservation. Then after 
they were all on the reservation the agent 
starved them until they had to go back to the 
mountains to get somethin g to eat. 

"I built the road from Wickenburg to Kirk- 
land Valley for $4765, and without tiie Indian 
labor I could not have built it for less than seven 
or eight thousand dollars. 

"When I started work on the road a man 
named George H. Wilson, commonly called 



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THE WIOKEKBUBG MASSACRE. 311 

Tackey Wilson, moved from his ranch three and 
a half miles below Wickenburg up to Antelope 
Greek and put up a seven room house and 
started a station. Wilson was a good station 
keeper and did a good business with the placer 
miners as well as with the travel that came that 
way as soon as the road was possible for teams. 
While I was working on the road I received one 
day a letter from General Crook who had been 
at Fort Whipple but a short time ; he having ar- 
rived in the Territory in June of the same year. 
In the letter Crook asked me if I could go with 
some of the head men of the Yavapais and see 
him at Whipple. I wrote to Crook that I would 
try to locate some of the captains and go with 
them as soon as I could. Crook did not tell me 
in his letter what he wanted, but from the talk 
that I had with the three soldiers that brought 
me the letter, I inferred that he wanted to enlist 
some of the Yavapais to help fight the Hualapais 
and Tonto Apaches. I sent an Indian to Camp 
Date Creek to talk with some of the Indians 
which I supposed were there, but my Indian re- 
turned that night and told me that nearly all the 
Indians had gone out into the mountains and 
only came into the post once a week to draw ra- 
ti<His. The doctor at the post had advised this 
move as the Indians were having chills and fever 
at their camp near the post. As I was very busy 
I concluded to take one Indian and go and see 
Crook, knowing that I could induce the Indians 
to do anything that I thought was for their good. 
The next day I took an Indian that I knew well, 
and with two white men drove to Prescott. It 
took five days the way the road ran at that time 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



312 HranHtT of abizona. 

to make the trip — two to go and two to come, 
and one day in town. I went to see Crook and 
took my friend, Herbert Bowers, who was post 
trader at the tiine, to introduce me, and my In- 
dian, Tom. I found Crook much different from 
other commanding officers that I had met in 
Arizona. He was more like a pioneer miner or 
prospector to meet — ^just a common plain gentle- 
man. He told me that Mr. Bowers had told him 
of my efforts to get the other commanders to em- 
ploy the Tavapais as scouts and trailers, and 
asked me if the Indians would like to do it. I 
assured him that he could enlist every Yavapai 
that was able to go. He then asked me how long 
it would take to get the Indians together so that 
he could have a talk with them at Date Creek. 
I told him that a week would give them plenty of 
time. That was a good talk for me, for I had 
been trying for several years to do just what 
Crook had proposed, but there never was a man 
in command before that who had sense enoi^h 
to do it. When I told Tom what Crook wanted, 
he was highly elated. 

' ' On my return to my ranch I killed an Indian 
in Kirkland Valley by Tom's advice, and when 
Tom knew he was dead he said General Crook 
had commenced to kill Tontos, which was true, 
for if Crook had not sent for me when he did, I 
should not have found the Indian at the station 
in Kirkland Valley. 

"It was more than a month before I heard 
from Crook again. Then he wrote me asking 
me if I could get the Indians in to Date Creek 
by a certain day. I wrote and told him that I 



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THE WICKENBTTBG MASSAdtB. 313 

could get all of the ablebodied men in by the ap- 
pointed time. This correspondence was done by 
couriers. 

"I had a young Indian captain named Waw 
ba Yuma, working for me, and most of the 
twenty-five working Indians that I had were of 
his band. I told him that General Crook 
wanted all the strong young men of his tribe to 
go with the soldiers and fight the Tontos. The 
Indian said to me : 'Tou tell General Crook that, 
when I am done work here I will go and so will 
all of my young men.' I said to Mm, 'You had 
better go and see the General and tell him your- 
self.' *You can talk for me and for my people,' 
said Waw ba Yuma. I sent out Indian runners 
and had all of the young men of the tribe at Date 
Creek on the appointed day. I met General 
Crook there and we called the meeting in front 
of the officers* quarters on the south side of the 
parade groxmd. I was a little surprised to meet 
Irataba, the head chief of the Mohaves there, 
but thought nothing of it at the time. The 
white men were seated with backs against the 
buildings, Irataba just in front of us and the 
Yavapais sitting on the benches and standing 
before us. Crook had brought a man named 
Charles Spencer from Mohave County to in- 
terpret for him. Spencer had done a little talk- 
ing for Crook when Irataba got up and began 
to pass pieces of tobacco to some of the Indians, 
and in a few seconds had passed out eight or ten 
pieces, when some soldiers who had been stand- 
ii^ among the Indians began to grab the ones to 
whicHQ the tobacco had be^i given, at the same 
time drawing their revolvers. The Indians, be- 



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314 HIOTORT OF ARIZONA. 

ing surprised and scared, struggled desperately 
and several of the arrested ones escaped; the 
soldiers began shooting, and those that had no 
revolvers ran to their quarters and got their 
rifles and began shooting at every Indian that 
they could see. Crook, myself and Col. Jas. M. 
Barney were the only ones present who did not 
take an active part in some way in the fracas. 
We just stood by and looked on. The Indians 
had left their gims at their camp with the women 
and children and some of the soldiers ran to the 
camp which was about one half mile from the 
post, and secured all the guns and bows. 

"When I realized what had been done I went 
and got my arms and hunted up Crook and 
asked ^jm what he meant by inducing me to get 
the Indians into the post under pretense of 
friendship and then killing a lot of them — eight 
I believe were found. He said that Irataba had 
told the agent at the Colorado Reservation that 
the Tavapais had murdered the Loring party, a 
short time before, while en route by stage from 
Wickenburg to Ehrenbei^, and that the pieces 
of tobacco were handed to the ones that Irataba 
had learned were of the party who attacked the 
stage and killed seven people. I told Crook 
that it was a lie; that I knew it was Mexicans 
who had done the killing and robbing of the 
stage. I was getting madder every minute and 
told Crook that if anything happened to my 
family through this treachery that I should hold 
him personally responsible ; that I was living in 
the midst of the Indians and that I could expect 
nothing but that they would blame me for all the 
trouble. He said in reply to my talk that he 



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THE WICKENBUBG MASSACRE. 315 

would see that I had protection. I mounted my 
horae and rode as fast as I could to the camp on 
the road. I told the Indians what had hap- 
pened and told them that I could not keep them 
at work any longer and that they must go into 
the mountains and stay until I made a signal 
smoke at a certain high place on my ranch. 
Waw ba Yuma did not like the idea of going but 
I made him understand that all the people would 
be afraid and that I should have to stop work 
anyhow until I had a chance to see and talk to 
all the Yavapais. 

"It was nearly a month later when Lieut. 
Trout, the quartermaster at Camp Date Creek, 
Frank Murray, the butcher at the post, and a 
soldier came to my ranch about noon. Trout 
asked me if I had seen any Indians since they 
left my camp, which I had not, nor had there 
been one serai at or near the post. He said he 
wanted to get them back, if possible. I went out 
to the place agreed upon and raised a big black 
smoke. In a very short time my friend Tom, 
his squaw, and one more Indian came to the 
ranch. I told Tom what Trout said and told 
him that Trout would issue rations to all who 
went for them. I had a lot of talking to do and 
told the Indians that they could come and camp 
near my house if they wanted to. Tom asked 
me what all the soldiers were doing there. Crook 
having sent a company of cavalry to my ranch 
as soon as he could get them there after the af- 
fair at Date Creek. I explained the matter as 
well as I could, and after Trout and hie party 
had left I had a lot of talk and explained the 
matter, placing all of the blame on Irataba, 



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316 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

and he was the one to blame for tiie whole 
trouble. Irataba was jealous because the Yava- 
pais were getting better treatment from the offi- 
cers at Date Creek than his people were receiv- 
ing from the Indian Department, hence the 
jealousy. 

"I had to do a lot of talking to get the Indians 
to go back to Date Creek to meet Crook tiie sec- 
ond time, he having promised to return their 
guns and other things that the soldiers had taken 
from their camp. Finally I told them that if 
they would come and meet Crook that I would 
be there and see that they got their guns and 
that I would be right beside Crook, and if the 
soldiers tried to bottler them that I would have 
my pistol in my belt and would shoot Crook 
three times. A few, those who had lost their 
guns, went in to the post on the appointed day. 
I was there and told Crook that we would do omf 
business with the Indians in front of the sutler's 
store instead of going onto the parade ground as 
on the other occasion. There were no seats pro- 
vided but Crook had ordered all the stolen 
property to be brought out and placed on the 
ground near where we stood. I told the In- 
dian, Tom, to get his gun. When he picked it 
up and examined it, I asked him if it was all 
right. His reply was 'Kely-eppy,' meaning 'no 
good. * I told another one to go get his gun, and 
tiiat was 'kely-eppy' also. I showed Crook that 
there had been screws taken out of the locks. 
He at once ordered the commander of the post 
to bring out some guns that were there and 
twenty rounds of ammunition for each gun. 
They were turned over to those who had lost 



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I'HE WICKENBUBQ MA8SA0RE. 317 

their guns without any ceremony. When the 
old guns that the soldiers had taken were exam- 
ined, it was found that there was not one but 
what had been ruined for the use of the Indians. 
If a screw was taken out the Indian had no pos- 
sible means of replacing it. Twenty rounds of 
unmunition was a great prize. The only way 
that an Indian could get ammunition was to go 
to La Pas or Yuma and get some white man to 
buy it for him. That act restored confidence in 
General Crook. He enlisted a lot of these In- 
dians, agreeii^ to take care of all who were left 
in camp, i. e., the women, children and old men. 
The first thing he did with the new soldiers was 
to go out and thradi the Hualapais; then en- 
listed some Hualapais to help clean up the In- 
dians of the country east of Preacott." 
Again quoting from J. M. Barney : 
"From Camp Bate Creek Geneml Crook re- 
turned to Fort Whipple and had been there but 
a short time when a dispatch from Dr. Williams 
was received hy him, in which he was informed 
that Jemaspie, chief of the Apache- Yumas, with 
about a hundred of his people, had returned to 
the reservation and expressed a desire for peace. 
"General Crook immediately returned to Date 
Creek and foimd upon arriving there that the 
Indians were not then prepared to talk, owing 
to the fact that the wife of one of the principal 
chiefs was sick. On the morning of the third 
day after his arrival, however, a council was 
held at which these Indians agreed to practically 
all the conditions imposed by the General — ^to 
stay upon the reserve ; to report the fact to tiieir 



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318 HI8T0RT OP ABIZONA. 

agent whenever any bad Indian came among 
them ; to help the white citizens chastise hostile 
Indians whenever called upon to do so; and, 
lastly, to aid the authorities in bringing to jus- 
tice those Indians who had murdered tfxe stage 
passengers. 

' ' This being all the General desired the 
Apache-Tumaa to do, he promised, on the part 
of the Government, to do everything necessary 
for their welfare as long as they lived up to this 



"Having also heard that they intended to take 
the life of the friendly Mohave chief, Irataba, 
for having betrayed the Apaehe-Mohaves, he 
warned them not to do so, explaining at the same 
time that Irataba was not the first person who 
had given information about the murderers. 

' ' General Crook then returned to Fort 
Whipple and commenced immediate prepara- 
tions for extensive operations against the 
Apache-Mohaves and other hostile tribes, which 
were later carried out with encouraging success. ** 

Captain John G. Bourke, in "On the Border 
with Crook," gives the following account of the 
attempt upon General Crook's life, which is sub- 
stantially the same as the foregoing : 

"Sixty-two miles from Prescott to the south- 
west lay the sickly and dismal post of Camp 
I>ate Creek, on the creek of the same name. 
Here were congregated about one thousand of 
the band known as the Apache-Tumas, with a 
sprinkling of Apache-Mohaves, tribes allied to 
the Mohaves on tiie Colorado, and to the Huala- 
pais, but differing from them in disposition, as 



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THE WICEENBUBQ MASSACRE. 319 

the Date Creek people were not all anxious for 
peace, but would now and then send small par- 
ties of their young men to raid and steal from 
the pimy settlements like Wiekenburg. The 
culmination of the series was the 'Loring' or 
'Wiekenburg' massacre, so called from the tal- 
ented young scientist, Loring, a member of the 
Wheeler surveying expendition, who, with his 
companions — a stage-load — was brutally mur- 
dered not far from Wiekenburg; of the party 
only two escaped, one a woman named Shep- 
pard, and the other man named Kruger, both 
badly wounded. 

"General Crook was soon satisfied that this 
terrible outrage had been committed by a portion 
of the irreconcilable element at the Date Creek 
Agency, but how to single them out as individ- 
uals and inflict the punishment their crime de- 
served, without entailing disaster upon well 
meaning men, women and babies who had not 
been implicated, was for a long while a most 
serious problem. There were many of the tribe 
satisfied to cultivate peaceful relations with the 
whites, but none so favorably disposed as to im- 
part the smallest particle of information in re- 
gard to the murder, as it was no part of their 
purpose to surrender any of their relatives for 
punishment. 

"It would take too much time to narrate in 
detail the 'patient search and vigil long' attend- 
ing the ferreting out of the individuals con- 
cerned in the Loring massacre ; it was a matter 
of days and weeks and months, but Crook knew 
that he had the right clew, and, although many 
times baffled, he returned to the scent witii re- 



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320 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA. 

newed energy and determmation. The culprits, 
who included in their ranks, or at least amoi^ 
their sympathizers, some*very influential men of 
the tribe, had also begun, on their side, to sus- 
pect that all was not right ; one of them, I under^ 
stand, escaped to Southern California, and there 
found work in some of the Mexican settlements, 
which he could do readily as he spoke Spanish 
fluently and once having donned the raiment of 
civilization, there would be nothing whatever to 
distinguish him from the average of people 
about him, 

"Word reached General Crook, through tiie 
Hualapais, that when next he visited Camp Date 
Creek, he was to be murdered with all those who 
might accompany him. He was warned to be on 
the lookout, and told that the plan of the con- 
spirators was this : They would appear in front 
of the house in which he should take up his head- 
quarters, and say that they had come for a talk 
upon some tribal matter of importance; when 
the General made his appearance, the Ijidians 
were to sit down in a semi-cirele in front of the 
door, each with his carbine hidden under his 
blanket, or carelessly exposed on his lap. The 
conversation was to be decidedly harmonious, 
and there was to be nothing said that was not 
perfectly agreeable to the whites. After the 
'talk' had progressed a few minutes, the leading 
conspirator would remark that they would all 
be the better for a little smoke, and as soon as 
the tobacco was handed out to them the chief 
conspirator was to take some and begin rolling 
a cigarette. (The Indians of the southwest do 
not ordinarily use the pipe.) "When the first 



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THE WICKENBUKG MASSACRE. 321 

pufE was taken from the cigarette, the man next 
to the chief was to level his weapon suddenly and 
kill General Crook, the others at the very same 
moment taking the lives of the whites closest to 
them. The whole trihe would then be made to 
break away from the reserve and take to the in- 
accessible cliffs and canyons at the head of the 
Santa Maria fork of the Bill Williams. The 
plan would have succeeded perfectly, had it not 
been for the warning received, and also for the 
fact that the expected visit had to be made much 
sooner than was anticipated, and thus prevented 
all the gang from getting together." 

Digressing at this point, Captain Bourke 
gives the following account of the death and 
burial of Captain Philip Dwyer, 5th U. S. Cav- 
alry, which is pathetic in the extreme, and goes 
to show the sufferings of our soldiers in these 
frontier posts ; the officers and men dyhig, often- 
times without the aid of physician or priest, 
much less the tender ministrations of women. 

"Captain Philip Dwyer, Fifth Cavalry, the 
officer in command of the camp, suddenly died, 
and this took me down posthaste to assume com- 
mand. Dwyer was a very brave, handsome, and 
intelligent soldier, much beloved by all his com- 
rades. He was the only officer left at Date 
Creek — all the others and most of the garrison 
were absent on detached service of one kind and 
another — and there was no one to look after the 
dead man but Mr. Wilbur Hugus, the post 
trader, and myself. The surroundings were 
most dismal and squalid ; all the furniture in the 
room in which the corpse lay was two or 
vm— 81 



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S22 HISrOBT OF AfilZONA. 

three plain wooden chairs, the bed • • • • 
and a pine table upon which stood a candle- 
stick with the candle melted and burned in 
the socket. Dwyer had been 'ailing' for several 
days, but no one could tell exactly what was the 
matter with him; and^ of course, no one sus- 
pected that one so strong and athletic could be in 
danger of death. 

"One of the enlisted men of his company, a 
bright young trumpeter, was sitting up with 
him, and about the hour of midnight Dwyer be- 
came a trifle imeasy and asked: 'Can you sii^ 
that new song, "Put me under the Daisies"?* 

" 'Oh yes, Captain,' replied the trumpeter; 
'I have often sxmg it, and will gladly sing it 
now.' 

"So he began to sing, very sweetly, the ditty, 
which seemed to calm the nervousness of his su- 
perior officer. But the candle had burned down 
in the socket, and when the young soldier went 
to replace it, he could find neither candle nor 
match, and he saw in the flickering light and 
shadow that the face of the Captain was 
strangely set, and of a ghastly purplish hue. 
The trumpeter ran swiftly to the nearest house 
to get another light, and to call for help, but 
upon returning found the Captain dead. 

"Many strange sights have I seen, but none 
that produced a stranger or more pathetic appeal 
to my emotions than the funeral of Phil Dwyer ; 
we got together just as good an apology for a 
coffin as the timberleas country would furnish, 
and then wrapped our dead friend in his regi- 
mentals, wid blU hands were then ready to stwi: 
for the cemetery. 



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THE W1GEENBTJBG MA8SACBE. 323 

"At the head marched Mr. Hugus, Doctor 
Williams, (the Indian Agent), myself, and Lieu- 
tenant Hay, of the Twenty-third Infantry, who 
arrived at the post early in the morning; then 
came the troop of cavalry, dismounted, and all 
the civilians living in and aroxmd the camp ; and 
lastly every Indian — ^man, woman and child — 
ahle to walk or toddle, for aU of them, young and 
old, good and bad, loved Phil Dwyer. The sol- 
diers and civilians formed in one Ime at the head 
of the grave, and the Apadie-Tumas in two long 
lines at right angles to them, and on each side. 
The few ^ort, expressive and tender sentences 
of the burial service were read, then the bugles 
sang taps, and three volleys were fired across the 
hills, the clods rattled down on the breast of the 
dead, and the ceremony was over.'* 

Continuing his description of the attempt to 
murder General Crook, Captain Bourke says : 

"As soon as General Crook learned of the 
death of Dwyer, he hurried to Date Creek, now 
left without any officer of its proper garrison, 
and informed the Indians that he intended hav- 
ing a talk with them on the morrow, at the 
place designated by himself. The conspirators 
thought that their scheme could be carried out 
without trouble, especially ^ce they saw no 
signs of suspicion on the part of the whites. 
General Crook came to the place appointed, 
without any escort of troops, but carelessly 
strolling forward were a dozen or more of tie 
packers, who had been engaged in all kinds of 
melees since the days of early California mining. 
Each of these was armed to the teeth, and every 
revolver was on full cock, and every knife ready 



Q,y,l,z.0LJyGoOl^Ic 



324 HISrOBT OF abizona. 

for instant use. The talk was very agreeable, 
and not an unpleasant word had been uttered on 
either side, when all of a sudden the Indian in 
the centre asked for a little tobacco, and, when 
it was handed to him, began rolling a cigarette; 
before the first puff of smoke had rolled away 
from his lips, one of the warriors alongside of 
him levelled his carbine full at General Crook, 
and fired. Lieutenant Ross, aide-de-camp to 
the General, was waiting for the movement, and 
struck the arm of the murderer so that the bul- 
let was deflected upwards, and the life of the 
General was saved. The scriiomage became a 
perfect Kilkenny fight in another second or two, 
and every man made for the man nearest to him, 
the Indian who had given the signal being 
grasped in the viselike grip of Hank Hewitt, 
with whom he struggled vainly. Hewitt was a 
man of great power, and able to master most 
men other than professional athletes or prize- 
fighters ; the Indian was not going to submit so 
long as life lasted, and struggled, bit, and kicked 
to free himself, but all in vain, as Hank had 
caught him from the back of the head, and the 
red man was at a total disadvantage. Hewitt 
started to drag his captive to the guardhouse, 
but changed his mind, and seizing the Apache- 
Mohave by both ears, pulled his head down 
violently against the rocks, and either broke his 
skull or brought on concussion of the brain, as 
the Indian died that night in the guardhouse. 

"Others of the party were killed and wounded, 
and still others, with the ferocity of tigers, 
fought their way out through our feeble Imes, 
and made their way to the point of rendezvous 
at the head of the Santa Maria. " 



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INDEX. 



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INDEX. 



ADAMS, CAPTAIN— With Col. Barnard in light with ApsehM, 29, 
ADAHS, C. S. — On« of victimi in Wickesbnig maBBacre, 293. 
AQUEBBA, E.— With his clerk and two pueeugerB, murdared bj 

Indiana, 139. 

AQ UIL AR . — Meiicaa ontlaw shot by party of Americana, SOS. 

AGUIEBE, MISS TRINIDAD— KiUed by Indians, 146, 160. 
AIKEN, BENJAMIN— Killed by Indians, 138. 

AINZA —Has train attacked by IndianB, 1«. 

ALDBICS, MASK— Fim settler in valley of Ban Pedro, 207. 

ALEXANDER .—Killed by Indiana, 128. 

ALEXANDER, QENEBAL— Mention of aeout against Indians, 24. 
ALLEN .—Has large number of males stolen by Indians, 189; 

has fine cows stolen by Indians, 140, 
ALLEN, ADJT.-GENL. J. B.— Alleged to have fnTnisbed snppliea 

to participants in Camip Qrant Massacre, 1S9. 
ALTMAN JOHN— Killed by IndianB, 131. 
ANDREWS, GEORGE L. — SopeiinteDdent of Indian Affairs for 

AriEOna, 2. 
APACHE-MOHATES— Placed npon reservation at Date Cresk, 

10; later removed to reaervation at Camp Verde, 10. 

ABIOLA .—Has large number of mules stolen by Indians, 1S3. 

ARNOLD, WALEe — Has borseB and mules stolen by Indians, 149. 

AENT, W. T. M.— Indian Agent, mention of, 222. 

AUSTIN, F. L.— Testifles in behalf of Indikns maisaered at Camp 

Grant, 843. 

BAKER .—Killed "by Indians, 142. 

BAKEB . — And famUy murdered by Mezjcans at Bine Water 

station, 202. 

BAKEB, JOHN C— Killed by Indians, 130. 

BALL 8. — Wounded by Indiana, 13S. 

BALLON -^.—Killed by Indinns, 137. 

BANTA A. P. — Diseovera "Meteoric Crater," 31; with C. E. 
Cooiey and Henry Wood Dodd, goes on pro^Mcting trip into 
Indian country, 33 et saq.; makes friends of Coyotero Apa- 
ches, 88; induces Capt. Barry to disobey orders to massacre 
ApaeJias, S7 et seq.; writes of conditions in Arizona, the mili- 
tary, etc., 92 et seq. 

BABBA .—Killed by Indiana, 188. 

BABBE, JOAQUIN— Suspected participant in Wiefcenburg Mas- 
sacre, killed by Joe Fye and Milt Ward. 301. 

BABBOUB, CHARLES— Member of coroner's jury on victims ef 
Wickenbnrg Massacre, 294. 

BABCLAT W. J.— Member of seonting party afUr participants 
in Wickenburg Massacre 296. 

BABK, JIM— Anecdotes of C. E. Cooiey, 76, 77. 

BABNABD, COL. P. P.— Kght with Apaches under Cochise, 37, 
(327) 



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328 INDEX. 

BAKNE8 .—Attacked by IndUna; store barned wd eff«eta 

e&iried awaj, 130. 
BAENETT, AAEON— Member ot corooer's jory on vietims of 

WickanbDrg Masiaere, 294. 
BABNEY, COL. JAMES M.— AwirtF General Crook in ioTeitig*. 

tion of Wiekenbnrg MaiMcre, 306. 
BABBT, CAPT. JOHN—In eommand of expedition to muaacM 
Apaebei 50; is induced to disobej orders by Banta, Cooley 
and Dodd and has ehareea preferred arainst him by Colonel 
Grean, 67 et aeq.; eipecUtiou mentioned by Oenl. Ord in re- 
port, 81 et aeq. 

BABHFOBD, LEVY— Mention of, IBS. 

BEACH .—Train attacked by Indians, 143, 1*4. 

BEAN, C. C— Mention of, 172. 

BEAN, E. C— Killed by Indians, 131. 

BEAUCHAMP, "JACK"— Killed by Indians, 127. 

BEDEL .—One of party of Americans, shot by Oandara, SOS. 

BELNAP .—Killed by Indiana, 127. 

BENDBLL, H. — Superintendent of Indian Affairs foi Arizona, S; 
ageists General Crook in inTestigation of WickenbDig Haa- 
•aere, 30S. 

BENJAMIN .— Killt-d by Indians, 142. 

BENTLET, E. A.— Killed by Indians, 129. 

BKNTON .—Killed by Indiana, 138. 

BEBEY, TH08. N.— KQled by Indians, 138. 

BIBESLEY, DE. — Post Surgeon at Camp Grant; aeeonnt of condi- 
tion of Tic time of MasBacre, 160. 

BLANCHAED . — Killed by Indians, 148. 

BLANCHAED, J. C— Eanch attacked and destroyed by Indians, 
141. 

BLOWE .—Wounded by Indians, 142. 

BLUE WATEB MAfiPACBE— Baker and family murdered by 
Mexicans, 202. 

BOQGS, T. W.— Has horse stolen by Indians, IM, 

BOONE, WM.— Killed by Indians, 129. 

BOUNS, MES. (DONNA TOMASE)— Gives J. M. Bryan warning 
of Wiekenburg Massacre, 299. 

BOUBKE, LIEUT. J. G. — Aeaiats General Crook in investigBtion 
of Wiekeubnrg Massacre, 304 et seq.; gives aeeonnt of attempt 
on General Crook's life, 318 et seq. 

BOWERS BEOTHEEe — Have herds atoleu by Indians, 147, 14Q. 

BOWSES, GBOHQE— Killed by Indians, 131. 

BOWEES, HEEBEET— Indians steal stock from, resulting in sne- 
ceasfnl citiien expedition against tbem, 171 et seq. 

BOYCE . — Member of citizen expedition against Indiana, 170 

BEODEBICK, JOHN— Killed by Indiana, 129. 

BEOOKS, H. — Has aheap and goats stolen by Indians, 133. 

BBOWN . — Has stock stolen by Indiana, 140. 

BBOWN, SAMUEL— Killed by Indiana, 139, 164. 
BBOWN, W. H.— Indian agent at San Carlos reaervatioo, 17. 
BBOWNE, J. BOSS— Mention of, 2. 
BBOWNLET .—Killed by Indians, 136. 



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INDEX. 329 

BBTAN, OEOBOB— Member of Mouting partj kfter participants 

in Wickenbarg Hbbbsctc, 296. 
BBYAN, J. M. (CRETE)— Forwarnsd of Wickonbnrg HuMten, 

298, 2&9. 
BULLARD, JOHN — Member of citizen expedition atmiiiat iDdians, 

181. 
BULLOCK, J. T.— Killed by Indians, 13E. 
BUMOS, LIEUT. PETER 8.— Mention of, 228. 
BUBQER A LAMBBRT80N— Have hotaea and burroe stolen bj 

Indians, 134. 
BDBGEB, JOHN— Killed hy iDdians, 147. 
BUBOEB, JOHN— Wounded bj Indians, 196. 
BURGER, JOHN— Kills one of suspected participants in Wiekoo- 

borg Massacre, 301. 
BURNETT, WILLIAM— Killed by Indiana, 131. 
BURNS, WM,— Killed by Indiana, 142. 
BUBfiOUOHS, JOSEPH— Killed by Indiana, 149. 
BTHNE, CAPT. THOMAS — Singlelianded stops outbreak of Wal- 

lapais, fi; aaaistB General Crook in investigation of Wicken- 

buig Massacre, 306. 

CALHOUN, LIEUT,- With Capt. Barry on expedition to maseaere 

Apaches, 50. 
CALIFORNIA — Liegislature of passes resolution relating to IniUan 

affairs in Arizona,' 196 et seq. 
CALKINS, SHERIFF— Wounded by Indians, 128. 
CAMP APACHE — Vincent Colyer establishes Indian reservation 

at, 221. 
CAMP GOODWIN— Location of, S3. 
CAMP GRANT — Vincent Colyer eBtabUsbee Indian reservation at, 

16. 
CAMP GRANT MABSACRE — Public sentiment in regard to, 103 

et aeq.; military account of, 167 et seq.; trial of partieipanta 

in, and charge of Judge Titus to jury, 161 et seq. 
CAMPIO, DIEGO— Killed by Indians, 140. 
CAMP McDOWELL— Vincent Coylcr establishcB Indian reserra- 

tloa at, 16; abolished by Qenl. O. O. Howard, 16. 
CAMP ORD — Established by Col. John Green, name afterwards 

changed to Fort Apache, 95. 
CAMP VEBDE — ApaohB-MobaveB placed upon reservation at, 10; 

reservation established by Vincent Colyer, 12, 278. 
CABLETON, OENEBAL — In favor of extermination of Indians, 

20. 
CABBOLL .—Captured and carried off by Indiana, 136; hilled, 

164. 
CHAFFEE, ADNA B. — Indian agent at San Carlos reservation, 17. 

CHAPIN .—Killed bv Indians, 147. 

CHIBICAHUA APACHES— Gathered upon reservation, 14, IB; 

removed to other reservations or run away, 16. 
CHIBICAHUA BE8EBVATI0N— Eetablishod by Qenl. O. O. 

Howard, 14; restored to public domain, 16. 
CIENEGA — Stage employees at murder travellere^ 202, 203. 
CBADLEBAUOH, LIEUT,— Accompanies Capt. Wm, Ory on ex- 
pedition into Indian country, 116; haa command attacked by 

Indians, 142. 143. 



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330 INDEX. 

CLENDENIN, MAJOB — Scout of aninst Indiana, U. 

CLOWEB EDWABD— Killad by Indimns, IM. 

CLUM, JOHN P.— Indian agant at San Carloa rewrrttion, 17. 

COCHISE — CommandB Apachea in fight ivith Col. P. F. BarnariL Z7 
et aeq.: at bead of band tbat killed Lieut. Honard B. CDBhing, 
166. 

COGSWELL, COLONEL — Oivea instructions for expeditioai 
against hostile Indiana, IIS; aeeompanies Qsneral Stonemaa 
on trip thiongh Indian country, 117 et seq. 

COLLINS, JOHN— Killed bj Indiana, 142. 

COLLINS, MAJOB— Mention of, 72^ with LieQt.-Col. Sanford ii 
eipedition againtt Indiana, 112. 

OOLYER, TINCBNT— Establishes Indian resemtton at Date 
Creek, 10; establishes reseTvation at Camp Verde, 12, 878; 
arrival in Arizona, laoora and report of 211 et seq; erttieiH* 
proclamation of 0«t. Safford, 247; returns to Washington, SSI 
et seq. 

CONWBUj, C— Has horses and mnles stolen by Indians, 140. 

COOK .—Killed by Indians, 148. 

SOOE, BET. CHARLES H. — Missionary to Pimaa, mention of, 
2S0. 

iJOOLEB, GEOBQB — 'With Capt. Barry on expedition to massacre 
Apaches, DO. 

CO0LE7, C. E.— With A. F. BanM and Henn Wood Dodd, goet 
on proapecting trip into Indian country, 33 et seq.; after lit* 
of, 76 et seq. 

COOPER ——.—Killed by Indians, 148. 

COBDOBA, LEONABD— Mexican outlaw who partieip*t«d ia 
murder of Vicente Eemandes and wife lynched, 206. 

(X)SGE0VE .—Killed by Indiana, 127. 

COTOTBEO APACHES— Placed upon reservation, B. 

COZOZO .—Killed by Indians, 136. 

CBESBT, CAPTAIN— Inspects outfit of Banta, Cooley and Dodd, 
33. 

CBOOE, QENEBAL GEO. — Opposes remoTal of Indians to Saa 
Carlos, 14; Bucceeds General Stoneman, 104, I9B; assumes 
command but suspends operations account of arrival of "Peace 
Commiasiou," 208; receives Peace Commissioner Vincent 
Colyer, 279; personally conducts inveBtt(^tion of Wickenbnrg 
Massacre, 9M et seq; attempts to aasassuiate, 308 et seq. 

CB088, L.— Killed by Indiana, 128. 

CUNNINGHAM, CHARLES— Killed by Indiana, 128. 

CUETIS .■ — Wounded by Indians, 141. 

CURTIS, CAPT. JAMES — Reports to Peace Commissioner Vincent 
Colyer, 264 et acq. 

CDBHING, UEHT HOWARD B.— Expeditions against hostile 
Indians, 101 et seq. 114, 116; killed by Indians, 147; expedi- 
tions against Indians, 166; account of killing of, 108 et seq. 

DANIELS .—Killed by Indians, 136. 

DATE CBEEK— Indian reservation established at by Vincent 

Colyer, 10; abolished by OenL O. O. Howard, 10. 
DAVIS .—Killed by Indiana, 137. 



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INDEX. 381 

DATI8, C. "JEFP'— Fight witfa Indiana, 103; memlMT of Bitiun 

expedition aKsimt Indiaus, 172. 
DE LONG, 8. B.— UentioD of, ISS. 
DENNIS, JOHN T.— Loeee large nnmber of eattle »nd bonat 

throogb IndiftD r&id, 99. 
DENNieON, WM. E.— EiUed b; Indiuu, ISC 
DENT, OEOBQE W.— SnperiittondeDt of Indian affalra for 

Arizona, 8. 
DEVIN, QENEBAL THOMAS E.— Report for 1866, 23; mention 

of, 69; in command of southern nulituy district of Arisona, 

88. 
DICKSON, JOHN— Attacked bj Infant, 131. 
DODD, HENBT WOOD— With A, P. Banta and C. E. Cooley, goes 

on prospecting trip into Indian eonntry, 33 et seq.; nu^e to 

dance bj Indians, 66. 
"DODD'S DANCE"— Name given to place where Henry Wood 

Dodd was made to dance by Apaches, 66, 
DODT, HELENAS — Indian Agent on Colorado ffiver reservation, S. 
DOBQAN, P.— Wonnded by Indiana, 134. 
DUDLEY, MAJOB— In command at McDowell, 192. 
DUDLEY, QENL. N. A. M.— In command at McDowell, Teeeiret 

Peace Commisiioner Vincent Colyer, 2C6; reports to Comr. 

Colyer, 269 et seq.; 270 et seq. 
DUDLEY, 8UPT. L. E. — Endeavors to have ChiricAhnu removed 

to Hot Springs, 16. 
DUN JOHN — Freaenti C. B Gennng with Winchester rifle, 193. 
DUNN, A. G.— Has cattle stolen 'by Indians, 134. 
DUNN, CAPT. THOS. a— Mention of, 230. 

DOVALL .— Ejlled by Indians, 129. 

DWYEB, CAPT. PHILLIF^Death and barial of, 321 et seq. 

EATON, LIEUT. GEO. 0.— Indians go irith to San Carlos reserva- 
tion, 13. 

BB8TEIN, LIEUT. P. H. E.— In charge of Indian reservation at 
Date Creek, 10. 

BHBENBEBQ, HEEMAN— Indian Agent on Colorado Biver 



ELGEB, COLONEL— Mention of, 74. 

ELIAB, JESUS M.— Given ere^t for planning Camp Grant Mas- 
■acre, 168 et seq. 

ELIAS, JUAN— HftB herd stolen by Indians, 1*7. 

EBWIN, ALONZO M.— Killed by Indians, 136. 

EVAET8 .—Killed by Indiana, 129. 

EXPLOBATIONS AND 8UBVEY8— General Ord sends out ex- 
pedition nnder Lient. George M. Wheeler, 86. 

FABLEY, WM.— KiUed by Indians, 136. 
PENTON, P.— Wonnded by Indians, 143. 
FINNEBTY, WESLEY— Killed by Indians, 182. 
PLYNN COBPOBAL— With troops that joined citiwn expedition 
against Indians, 178 et seq. 

FOLEY .—Wonnded by Indiana, 148. 

FOBD, Q. — Indian agent at Ban Carlos reservation, 17. 



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33;S INDEX. 

n>BT APACHE— Vincent Collet Mt«bluhM IndUn reaomtiai 

at, 16; flrat known u Camp Ord, 86. 

POSTEE .— KUIod by Indiina, 138. . 

rOUBB, WILLIAM— Mention of, B6. 

FUDGE, JOHN— Indian Agent on Cotorado Biver rMerration, G. 

FYE, JOE — Has cattle atolen b; Indiana, 134; kill* nspected par- 

ticipuita in Wiekeaborg Maaaacre, 301. 

GAITDABA . — Mexican auspected of participation in diaappeai' 

anca of William McFarland, shot bj party of Amarieana, 203. 

OANTT .— KiUed by Indians 147. 

OABDNEB .— Haa stock Btolen by Indian*, 140. 

QBNUNO, C. B. — OrganiK'B aucceEsful citiien expedition a^ainit 
Indiana, 170 et seq.; belief that Mexicans committed Wieken- 
bnrg Manaere, 29B; BBsiBta General Crook in investigation of 
Wiekenbnrg Mastacre, 306; aceoont of General Crook's at- 
tempt to capture or kill IndiauB inspected of being partiei- 
panta in Wiekenbnrg Massacre, 300 et soq. 

0IB80N, J. J.— Killed by Indians, 131. 

GIL80N, WILLIAM— Informs General Crook that Date Creek 
Indians committed Wickenburg Massacre, 303. 

QLOVEB, PBIVATE— Killed by Indians, ISO. 

QOLDWATEB, JULIUS A. — Member of coroner's jnry on victimf 
of Wiekenbnrg Massacre, 204. 

QOMEZ PANCHO— Haa cattle stolen by Indians, 138. 

QONZALES, A. — Mistaken for Indian by eompaniona, and 
wounded, 144. 

QONZALES, PHILIP— Guide for Comr. Vincent Colyer, 21B. 

GOULD, JACK— Killed by Indiana, 120. 

OBAHAM, LIEDT.— CoDdQcts expedition against hostile Indians, 
115, 118. 

QBASSMAN, P. E.— Agent for Pima Indians, 4. 

GBAY, COL. A. B.^Snrveys reservation for Pimaa and Marico- 
pas, 3. 

GBAY, HABBI80N— Killed by Indians, 132. 

GEEELEY .— KUled by Indians, 134. 

OBEEN, COLONEL JOHN— Prefers charges against Capt. Barry 
for disobeying orders to massacre Indians, 60; mention of in 
report of General Ord, 81 et seq.; in command at Camp Oood- 
win, 03; conducts campaign against the Indians and estab- 
lishes Camp Ord, 04, 95; receives Comr. Vincent Coyler, 821. 

GBEEN, JOE— Killed by Indians, 130. 

OBEEN, MAJOR — Accompanies General Stoneman on trip through 
Indian country, 117 et seq. 

QBEEN, PBIV ATE— Killed by Indians, 147. 

GBEOALBA, JUAN— Has cattle Btolen by Indians, 140. 

QBIPPIN, FBANK — ^Uiatakes A. Goneales for Indian and wounds 
him, 144. 

OBOVEB, QENEBAL— Commanding at Camp Verde, reeoives 
Peace Comissioner VinceDt Colyar, 275. 

HADLEY, MILTON 8,— Killed by In^ana, 132. 
HALLECK, QENL.— Believed of command of Division of Paeifle 
by Ua}.-<}enl. Thomas, 21. 



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333 



HANNA . — Haa wagon train deHtroyed by Indiana, 103, 104. 

HANNA .—Train attacked by Indiana and Mr, Hanna killed, 

148. 

HAKRINQTON .—Killed by Indiana, 129, 148. 

HABEIS, W. H.— KiUed by Indiana, 148. 

HARRISON, SAMUEL— Killed by Indians, 127. 

HABT, H. L.— Indian azent at San Carlos leserration, 17, 

HASSON, LIEUTENANT— Scont of against Indians, 24. 

HATZ, DANIEL— Has house burned by Indians, 160. 

HAT, LIEUTENANT— Mention of, 323. 

HELUNGS, W. B. ft CO.— Train attacked by Indiana, 143. 

HENNINQ, ABRAHAM— Killed by Indiana, 14S. 

HENRY, COL. OUY V.— Indians under ordera of attack and kill 

other Indiana, 224. 
EEBNANDE8, VICENTE — With wife murdered by Mexican ont- 

laws, 205. 
HEWITT, HENBY— Aasista General Crook in inveatigation of 

Wickenburg Maaaacre, 305 et seq. 
HI JOLLY— Mention of, 190. 

HINDS & HOOKEB— Have herda attacked by Indiana, 146, 147. 
HTNTON, FRANCIS— Agent for Ynmae, 4. 
HOLCOMB & MURRAY- Have cattle stolen by Indians, 146. 
HOLLAND, DAVID— KiUed by Indiana, 141. 
HOPKINS, GILBERT W.— Killed by Indians, 136. 
HOPKINS, J. W.— Mention of, 168. 
HOWARD, GENL. O. 0.— Aboliahes Indian reservation at Date 

Creek, 10. 
HOWARD, JUDGE— Mention of 194. 
HOWELL, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 132. 

HUGHES .—Has ranch attacked by Indians, 146. 

HUGU8, WILBUB — Mention of, 321. 

HUMPHBEYS, GENEBAL A. A.— Mention of, 86. 

HDTTON, OSCAB — Recommended for eondnet on expedition 

against Indians, 115; teatiSes in behalf of Indiana maBsaered 

at Camp Grant, 242, 243, 

INDIAN AGENTS— Steal from Indiana, 11. 

INDIAN RESERVATIONS— One for Pimaa and Marieopaa estab- 
lished, 3; one for Yumas established, 4; one for friendly In- 
dians established on Colorado, 4, 6; one for Moquis establiabed, 
6; one for Mohavea eatablished, 6; one for WuUapaia estab- 
lished, S; one established at Date Creek by Vincent Colyer, 
but abolished by Qenl. O. O. Howard, 10; Chiricahua reserva- 
tion, esUblished by Genl. O. O. Howard, 14; one established 
at Camp McDowell, one at Camp Grant, one at Port Apache 
and one in White Mountains, 16; San Carlos reservation eatab- 
lished, 16; one established at Camp Apache, 221. 

INDIAN RING — Opeiationa of, 10, 11; method* of, 98. 



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334 . INDEX. 

INDIANS— B»»er»»Uon *or KmM ud HaiieopM wtoblishsd, 
S; reserration lot Yumaa esUbliih«d, 4; TtaerrKtioii for 
friendly Indiuu eatabliahed on Color^o, A, B; Nkvabo* 
placed upon re«erT»tion, B; Coyotero Apaehei pl&eed upon 
rMerration, S; Hoqnis placed upon reservation, 6; reserra- 
tion eatabliahed for Hohavea, 6; reaerration eatablished for 
Wallapaii, 8; reservation established at Date Creek, 10; re- 
moval to San Carlos, 13, 14; Chmuhoa reservation eatab- 
liahed by Genl. O. O. Howard, 14; number and location of 
in Arizona in 1863, IS; ezterminatine policy, 19 et soq.; 
ezpeditiona against, 23 et seq.; depredations, 23; resnme de- 
predations and raids, W et seq.; hostilee get arms, etc, 
tbrough Moqnis, 110, 111; description of trip throngh Indian 
country by John Marion, in "Miner," 117 et aeq.; "Miner" 
prints petition to Preiiident with list of three hundred and 
one names of people killed by Indians, 124 et aeq.; ootragas 
by and condition of, mentioned by Gov. Safford in mcBssge 
to Legislature, IBl et seq.. Camp Grant Massacre, and ereata 
foUowing, IBS et seq.; citizens' eipediUons against, 170 at 
■eq ■ California Legislature passes resolution reUting to In- 
dian AJtaire in Ari«on^ 1(» et seq.; flghU of Captain Moor* 
and Captain Bussell with, 20S. 

ISEAEL .—Killed by Indians, 100. 141. 

JACKSON, A. J.— Killed by Indians, 140, 164. 

JACOBS, ED. C— Indian agent at Ban Carlos reaerr^tton, 17. 
JAEAMILLO, JOSE— Killed by Indians, 137. 
JAY, LEBOY —Killed by Indians, 129. 

JEPPOEDB, CAPT. THOMAS J.— Agent for Chmcaho* 
Apaches, 16. 

JOACHIM .—Killed by Indians, 130. 

JOHNS . — Wounded by Indians, 141, 

JOHNSON .— KiUed by Indians, 138, 137. 

JOHNSON, ALTBED— Kifled by Indiana, 134. 
JOHNSON HABBY, "HOO"- Ailed by Indjans, IBS. 
JONES Dr. W. W.— Has train attacked by Indians, 148. 
JONES) W. P.— Billed by IndUns, 127. 
JUDSON .—Killed by Indians, 142. 

KALEB Killed by Indians, 138. . 

KAUFMAN, CAPTAIN— Has aix mnles stolen from escort bJ 

KAUT2, QENEBAL— Oppoaes removal of Indians to San Cailoa, 

KELLY, OSCAB —Killed by Indiani, 1». 

KENNEDY .-KiUed by Indians, 100. 101, X*l- 

KILUAN, JOHN — KUIed by Indians, 142. 

KINO .— KUled by Indians, 136. 

KING, GEORGE —Killed by Indians, 143, 
TTPrTCTRN -TETE " — Btanda ofT hostile ApaeHea, »n. 
m^S^'rSliS-Interpreter for Comr Vincent Colder, ^ 
testifies in behalf of Indians massacred at Camp Grant, a«. 



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KNODLE, BAM — Wounded by Indiana, 112. 

KN0WLE8 .— KiUed by IndiftM, 13$. 

KEUOEB . — One o( survivors of Wickenburg 

et seq. 

LACHMAN, HENBT— Killed by Indians, 146. 

LAFPKETT, UEUTENANT.— Wounded in fight with Apwhea, 



LAKBABEE, C. F.— 'Indi&n agent at San Cailos Tesorrfttlon, 17. 

LAZABD . — Has cattle stolen by Indians, 111. 

L EE, J. H.— Hu eattle stolen by Indians, 136. 

L£IHT, OEOBGE W.— Snperliitbudent of Indian Affain for 

Arizona, 2; killed by Indians, 129. 
IvEMON, SEBGEA NT— Killed by Indians, 130. 
LENT & HAKPENDING PABTY.— Attacked oj Indians, 102. 

LEONARD .—Wounded by Indiana, IIS. 

LINTON L. M.— Killed by Indians, 129. 

LOOKWOOD, LTEUT. D. W.— Afwistant to Lieot. Qeorge M. 

Wheeler on exploring expedition, 88. 
LONG, HENET — KUIed by Indians, 147, 164. 
LOPEZ, CLEIHENTE — Mexican ontlaw who partieipated in 

mnrder of Vicente Hernandea and wife lyncned, 30S. 
LOPEZ, 8ECIIHDIA —Killed by Indians, ISl. 
LOBD, C. H. — Deputy agent for Pima Indians, 4. 
LOSING, FEED. W. — One of victima is Wiekenbnrg Uusacre, 

290 et seq. 
LUGAS, LUCAS— One of Mezicans who killed Edward Lumley, 

204. 
LUMLET, EDWABD— Killed by Mexicans, 20*. 
LTNCHENQS — Of Mexican outlaws, 203 et aeq. 
LTTLE .—Murdered by Mexicans at Mission Camp, 201. 

HeCALL, D. T.— Killed by Indiana, 130. 

McCLBAVB, IJKDT. WM. — Scout of against Indiana, 24 et seq. 

UeCOBMICE, GOV. E. C— Mentton of, 1«4; reports Hexiean 

ontragea to Government. 202. 
MeDEEWIN, JOHN— Mention of, 172. 

McDOUOALL .—Killed by Indians, 148. 

McTAELAND, WILLIAM —etationkeeper at Saeaton; myateri- 

ons disappearance of attributed to Hexieans, 203. 
McGEEOOB, CAPT. THOMAS —Mention of, 268. 
McKENZIB, ALEXANDEE —Killed by Indians, 147, 164. 

McMUBBAY .—Killed by Indians, 137. 

UeWHOBTEB, JOHN —Killed by Indians, 130. 
MABICOPA8— Eeservation for, with Pimas, aet aside, S. 
MAEION, JOHN— Writea editorial in "Miner" deseribing trip 

tbrODgh Indian conntiy with General Stoneman, 117 et aeq.; 

meets Vincent Colyer, Peace Commiasioner, 280, 281. 



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OOO INDEX. 

MASON, COL. JUUU8 W.— So perin tends taking out of irri- 
gating ditch on reteTratioa at Camp Terde, 12. 
MAY, DENNIS — Member o( coroner'a jnry on victims of Wiek- 

enburg Maiaacre, 2M. 
MEINHOLD, CAPT.— With Lieot. Col. Sanford in oxpedition 
againit Indians, 112; takes up trail of participants in Wiek- 
eoburg MaBsacre, 292, 203, &S4. 

MELLEN .—Killed by Indians, 127. 

MELVIN OEOHGE— Killed by Indians, 132. 
MERRILL, PRIVATE —Killed by Indians, 130. 
MESSEUR, PRANK —Killed by Indians, 142. 
METEORIC CRATER— IJiscovered by A. F. Banta, 31. 
MEXICANS— Outrages by, 201 et seq.; suspected of commit- 
ting W'ickcnburg MasHscre, 294 et seq. 
MEYERS, PRIVATE- Wounded by Indians, 143, 
MILITARY— Major Genersl Thomas relieves General Hftlleck 
in command of Division of Pacific, 21; Qenl. Ord assumes 
command of Department of Arizona, 21, 22; report of Oenl. 
Devin, 23; scouts and expeditions against Indians, 24 et 
seq.; Capt. Barry disobeys orders to massaere Indians, 57 
et ieq.; report of Major Oeneral George H. Thomas, 78 
et seq.; report of General Ord, 79 et seq.; exploring ex- 
pedition nndor Lieut. George M. Wheeler sent out, 86; 
immense cost of supplies in AriEona, B6, B7; policy of ex- 
termination followed, 91; description of by A. F. Banta, 
03 et seq.j General George Stonemsn assigned to command 
of Arizona, 96; refuses Gov. Safford's request for supplies 
for three companies of volunteers, 107, 108; activities of, 
111 et seq.; account of Camp Grant Massacre, 107 et seq.; 
General Stoneman succeeded by General Crook, criticism 
of General Stoneman, 199 et seq.; fights with Indians by 
Captain Moore and Captain Bnssell, 208. 
M1LITI.4— Gov. Safford issues call for raising of, 108, 109. 
MILLER, J.— Has horses stolen by Indians 138. 
MILLER, MAJOR —With four soldiew, killed by Indians, 136. 
"MINER"— Editorial describing trip through Indian country, 
117 et seq.; prints petition to the President with list of 
three hundred and one names of people killed by Indians, 
124 et seq. 
MISSION CAMP MASSACRE^-Committed by Mexicans, 201. 
MOHAVES— Keaervation established for, 6. 
MOLING, JOSE— Killed by Indians. 131. 
MONROE, PAYMASTER— Mention of, 124. 
MOORE, CAPTAIN— Fight with Indians, 208. 
MOQUIS— Reservation established for, 6. 
MORGAN, DAVID— Member of coroner's jury or victims of 

Wick en burg Massacre, 294. 
MORRIS, MACK— Foreman of coroner's jury on victims of 

WickenbuTg Masaacre, 291. 
MORROW, PRIVATE —Killed by Indians, 180. 
MOBTON, LIEUT.— In command of detachment of troops, joins 
citizen expedition against Indians, 174. 



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INDEX. 337 

MOTT, SEBQEANT JOHN —With Lieul. Howwd B. Cnshing 
when latter was killed by Apaehea under Coehise 166 

MOWBY, 8YLVESTEH— Mention of, 124. 

MUNSOE, GEOEGE —Leader of paMj that trftUed participanti 
m Wickenborg UasBaere, 290 et aeq. 

MUBPHY .—With Lieut. Col. Sanford as mide, in eipedi- 

tion against Indiana, 112. 

MUBPHY, PKIVATE— Killed by Indiana 130. 

MUBRAY, FBANK— Mention of, 315. 

MYEBS —.— Wounded bj Indians, 141. 

NAVAHOS— Placed upon leBervation 5 

NELSON, CAPTAIN WM.— Befuaes' to allow band of armed 

citizens to cross reaeTvation, 214: reeeives Comr. Vincent 

Colyer, 230. 
NETTEEVILLE, CAPTAIN W. McC— Beport on interviews 

with Indian Chiefs, 287 et seq. 
NIX, BOBBBT— Killed by Indiana, 131. 
NOYIS, A. 0,— Has record of over three hundred men killed bv 

Indiana, 104. ' 

NUNEZ, VENTUBA —Mexican outlaw who murdered O. E. 

Whialer, captured and lynched, 207. 



, OAPT. — Commanding at Camp Date Creek, re- 
quested by Peace Commissioner Vincent Colyer to look 
after Apache-Mohave Indians, 2SS. 

O'DONNELL .— KUled by Indians, 137. 

O'DONNELL, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 131. 

O'LEABY, DAN— Mention of, 303. 

OLIVER .— Mnrdered by Mexicans at Mission Camp, 201. 

OBD, GENL. E. O. C. — Assumes command of Department of 
Arizona, 21, 22; report on conditions in Arizona, 79 et seq.; 
sends out exploring expedition under Lieut. Qeorge M. 
Wheeler, 88; in command of Department of the Pacific, 93. 

OBT, CAPT. ■WILLIAM- Conducts expedition into Indian 
country, 116. 

OSBOBN, DAVID— Killed by Indiana, 132. 

08B0RN, W. J.— Has mules stolen by Indians, 139. 

OUBY, W. 8.— Mention of, 163, 168, 159. 

PALMEfi, CAPT. A. L.— States hostiles get arms, etc., througfa 
MoquU, 110, 111. 

PANTANO— See Cienega. 

"PEACE COMMISSION"— Mention of[ IMj arrival in Ariaona 
of Vincent Colyer, Peace Commissioner, 211; report of, 212 
et seq.; establishes reservation at Camp Apache, 221; feel- 
ing towards "Peace Policy" in Arizona, 247 et seq.; estab- 
lishes reservation at Camp Verde, 278; returns to Wash- 
ington, 286 et seq. 

PEAB80N, WILLIAM —Killed by Indians, 133. 

raiLET, JULIUS— Killed by Indians, 132. 

PENN, CAPTAIN —Sends word to Lieut. Whitman of mo»e- 
menta of participants in Camp Qrant Massacre, 160. 



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338 XNDEX. 

PENNINGTON .—And bod, kUled by Indiana, IW, 164. 

PENNINGTON, JAME8 — KiUed by IntUans, 137. 

PESQUIEBA .—Attacked by IndUna, 136. 

PE8QUIEBA, GOVEBNOB— Of Mexico, afford* proWction » 
Hexicani committing outrages in AriEona, 201. 

PETBBaON, OLTVEB —Killed by IndUns, 134. 

FIMA8 AND HABICOPAS— BeaeTTation act aside for, 3. 

PIPBB, O. F. — Sonthem Apaches agent, 218. 

P088, LIEDT. J. M.— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedition 
•gainst Indians, 113. 

POBTLE, BOBEET— Mention of, 187. 

POeTON, CHABLES D.— First Superintendent ot Indian 
Affairs for Arizoua, 2. 

PODGBOT, FRANK— Killed by IndUns, 131. 

PBBNTI8S, EDWABD — Member of scouting party after par- 
ticipants in 'K^ekenburg Uassaere, 296. 

PBESIDENT — "Miner" prints petition to, with list of three 
hundred and one names of people killed by Indiani, 1S4 

PRICE — ^.— KiUed by Indians, 137. 

PEICE, COLONEL —Mention of scout of against Indians, S4. 
PUBCELLA, F. — Member of coroner'* Jury on victima of Wiek- 
enburg Massacre, 2M. 

BALSTON, MBS.— Bobbed by Indians, li4. 

BAYMOND .—KUled by IndUns, 128, 129. 

BEDMOND .-Post trader at Camp Apache killed by In- 
dians, IM. 

BEID .—Murdered by Mexicans at Minion Camp, 201. 

BEVUN, MABK —Mail carrier, killed by IndUns, 147. 

BEYBS, MANUEL — Mexican outlaw shot by party of Ameri- 
cans, 203. 

BICHABI^ON, CHABLEa H.— Member of coroner's jnry o» 
victims of Wickenburg Massacre, 2M. 

BICO, JOSE— Killed by Indians, ISl. 

BIG08, PETBB— Killed by Indians, 141. 

BILEY, LIEUTENANT— With detachment attacked by In- 
dians, 14S. 

BIVEBA, MARTIN— KiUed by Indians, 142. 

B0BEBT8, J. E. — Indian agent at San Carlos reservation, 17. 

BODBICK, TOM— Member of citisen expedition against In- 
dians, 172 et seq. 

BOOERS AND SMITH— Attacked by Indians, 14B. 

BOSS, LIEUTENANT —Assists General Crook in investlgatimt 
of Wickenburg Massacre, 304 et seq. 

BOSS, MAJOR WILLIAM J.— Mention of, 167, 

BOTHEBWBLL .—Killed by Indians, 164. 

EUGOLE8, COLONEL— Has horses stolen by Indiana, 140. 

BUGGLES, LEVI— Agent for Pima Indians, 4. 

BU88ELL, CAPTAIN —Fight with Indians, 208. 

BUTLEDGE, THOMAS —Killed by Indiana, 136. 

BYAN, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 128. 



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INDEX. . 339 

SAFFOBD, A. P. E.— Appointed Oovernor of Arizons 104: 
hia interview with "New York Herald," 106, 106; aaks for 
nppliea for three companies of volunteers, 106, 107- re- 
quest refwied, 107, 108; isanea call for raisiiig miUtia, 108, 
10»; in metMge to Legislature calls attention to Indian 
ontrafss, et«., 161 et seq.; issnes procUmatioa TCffarding 
"Peace Commission" 210, 211; proclamation criticised by 
Comr. Vincent Coljer 2(8, 249. 
SAGE, COBNELIUS— Killed by Indians 128. 
BAGUABIPA, JESUa— Mexican outlaw who participated in 

murder of Vicente Hernandes and wife lynched, 206. 
SALALLO, JOSE MARIA —Member of sconting jiirty after 

participants in Wickenburg Massacre, 290, 
SALMON, W. O.— One of victims in Wickenbuts Massacre. 
290 et seq. ' ' 

SAN CABL08 REaEBVATION— Establishment of, 16. 
8ANP0RD, LIEUT. COL. Q. B.— Expeditions against hostile 

Indians, 112 et seq. 
SAN PEDEO— Valley of first settled by Mark Aldrich, 207. 

SADNDEES .—Killed by Indians, 1*8, 164. 

6CHOPIELD, GENEBAL— Mention of, 214, 284. 
SCHUYLBB, WALTBB 8.— In charge of Indians on reserva- 
tion at Camp Verde, 12; ancceeds Dr. miliame as agent 
at San Carlos, IS. 

SCOTT .—Killed by Indians, 142. 

8EEBBIGHT .—Killed by Indians, 134. 

SEXTON, W. M.— Killed by Indians, 130. 

SHELDON, J.— Killed by Indians, 132. 

SHELTON, C. Y.— Hag mnlea stolen by Indiana, 148. 

eHEPPARD, Mias— One of survivors of Wickenburs MasBacre. 

289 et seq. 
8HEBMAN, GENL.— Peace CommisdoDer to Indians, 6. 
^lEBMAN, LIEUT.— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedition 

against Indians, 112. 
8H1BLEY, JOHN Y.— Killed by Indians, 102, 103, 132. 
SHOHOLM, PBED. W.— One of victims in Wickenhnrg Mas- 
sacre, 290 et s«q. 

SIEZ .— KUled by Indians, 140. 

SIMMS, J.— Killed by Indians, 139, 164. 
eiMMONS, WM.— Has stock stolen by Indians, 149. 
SIMPSON, W. H.— Killed by Indians, 147. 

SMITH .—Killed on ranch of Peter Kitchen by Indians, 141. 

SMITH, CAPTAIN — Accompanies General Btoneman on trip 

through Indian country, 117 et seq. 
SMITH, CEABLES- KiUed by Indians, 128. 
SMITH, D. H.— Aesiats General Crook in investigation of 'niek- 

enburg Massacre, 306. 
SMITH, JACOB— Killed by Indians, 132, 

SMITH, LIEUT.— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedition 
against Indians, 112; accompanies Lieut. Gushing, 114, 116. 
SMITH, BOBBBT— Killed by Indians, 131. 



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SUITH, W. H. — Hemb«r of eitiun expedition kninst Indiana, 
170 et Mq. 

SOMER8 .—Killed by Indiana, 128. 

eOMMEEBBE, LIEUTENANT —Seont of azaintt Indiana, 24. 

SOTO .—Killed by Indiana, 136, 140. 

BPia^CEB, CHARLES— Wounded by Indiana, ISO; interpietw 
for General Crook, 313. 

STIOEBS, DH.— Wounded by Indiana, 143, 

BTEINBBOOK —.—Killed by Indians, 129. 

STEVENS, QBORQE H.— Indian agent at San Carina reMrTA- 
tion, 17. 

8TIMPS0N, JAMBS H.— Killed by IndUn^ 142. 

STONE, COLONEL— Killed by Indiana, 1S7, 

STONEMAN, GENERAL QEOBOE — Aeiigned to eommand of 
Arizona, M; his policy, 97; anceeeded by QeneTal Crook, 
104; makes trip throngh Indian country, 117 et leq.; inter- 
viewB witb Indian chiefa, 121 et seq.; mention of, 16S; 
succeeded by Qeneral Crook, criticiim of, 199 et aeq.; boilda 
road* in Territory, 207, 208. 

8TODT, J. H. — Agent for Pima Indiana, 4; makes report to 
Peace Commisaioner YiQcent Colyer, 263 et seq. 

STDAET, COMB. GEORGE H.— Mention of, 217. 

SUBIATE, MANUEL— One of Mexicans who killed Edward 
Lnmley, 204. 

SUMMERHATES, MBS.— Deaeription of C. £. Cooley'a honse, 
76. 

6UTORIU8, CAPTAIN— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedi- 
tion against ladiaua, 113. 

8WTLLTN0, "JACK "—Mention of, 74. 

TAGGABT, J.— Killed by Indiana, 129. 

TAGGART, WILLIAM —KiUed by Indiana. 130. 

TANNER, J. A.— Indian agent on Colorado River reserration, 6. 

TAYLOB. WILLIAM —Killed by Indiana, 132. 

TEP3, JUAN— Killed by Indians, 131. 

THOMAS, ELLIOTT ft DAWSON.— Attacked by Indians; 

wagon and load destroyed, 134. 
THOMAS, MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE H.— Helievea General 

Halleek in command of Diviaion of Pacific, 21; report en 

conditions in AriKona, 78 et aeq. 
THOMPSON, B. F.— Killed by Indians, 131. 
THOMPSON, CUNT — Haa cattle stolen by Indians, 189. 
THOMPSON, D. C— Indiana atUck men working for, 144. 
TI3NAD0, MARIANO —Mexican lynched for cattle stealing, 

20 4, 206. 
TTTUS, JUDGE — Charge to jnry, on trial of partieipanta in 

"Camp Grant Hsasacte," 161 et seq. 
TOFPAN, COLONEL — Peace commiasioner to Indians, B. 
TOWNSEND, JOHN — Haa corn atolen by Indians, 160; com- 

manda snceesaful citizen expedition against Indians, 170 

et seq. 



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TBAHEBN, WILLIAM -.Killed bv Indians 180 

Tw^i^.H^™^*^-^'"'"* by Indi^nt^ 130. 
TWADDLE, HABVBT-KUled by Indian, ISO. 

S^SS 7~;— Murdered by Indiana, 127. 
UPTON, LIEUT. FRANK -Witl. Capt. Barry on expedition U. 
masaacre Apaches, 60. f j o.pouiHon w 

VAN VLIET, CAPT. FREDERICK —Mention of 27» 
VENABLE, THOMAS.— KiUed by Indians, 141. 
WAKEFIELD, DR.- Killed by Indiana, 139. 
WALLAPAIS— Heservation established for, S; outbreak ot 

stopped by Captain Byrne, 9. 
WAMSLEY, I. A.— Killed by Indians 130. 
WANDEB, FEBDINAND— Wounded by Indians; kills self to 

end aaffering, 133. 
WARD, JOHN— Interpreter for Comr. Vincent Colyer, 218. 
WARD, MILT— KiUg saspeeted participsnts in WiekenbarE 

Maesacie, 301. 
WABFIELD, SERGEANT- Recommended for oondnct on ex- 
pedition against Indians, 115. 
WABNEB, SOLOMON —Wounded by Indians, 130. 

WATSON .—Killed by Indians 134 

WEAVER, PAULINE —Son of killed by Indians, 128. 
WEBEB, W. W.— Member of coroner's jury on Tictims of Wlck- 

enbuTg Massacre, 294. 
WELLS, LIEUTENANT —Scout of against Indians 24 
WELSH, MATT— Attacked by Indians 131. 
WHEATON, QENEBAL FRANK— In command of northern 

military district of Arizona, 93. 
WHEELER, LIEUT.— Names Meteoric Crater "FrankUn's 

Hole," s:. 
WHISLEB —.-Killed by Indians, 149. 
WHISLEB, G. B.— Keeper at Bnrk's station killed by Mexican 

outlaw, 208, 207. 

WHITCOMB, J08IAH —Killed by Indians, 131. 

WHITE, A. M,— Agent for Pima Indians, 4. 

WHITE MOUNTAIN RESERVATION— Established in 1871, 16. 

WHITE, REV. DAVID— Reports to Peace Commissioner Vin- 

cent Colyer, 278, 279. 

WHITMAN, LIEUT. BOTAL E.— Id command at Camp Grant, 
166; af^ointed aa agent for certain Apache Indiana, 157; 
influence frith Indiana, 163; receives Comr. Vincent Colyer, 
230; secures data on Camp Qrant Massacre, 242. 
WHITTING, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 128. 
WHOOTEN, SERaEANT —Recommended for eondact on ex- 
pedition against Indians, 116. 
WICKENBURO MASSACRE— Mention of, 273; 
289 et seq. 



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342 INDEX. 

WILBUB, DB. B. A.— Uention of, 230. 

WILBUB, H. B.— IndUo agent at San Carlu reserratioa, IT. 
WILCOX PHIL. P.— Indiaa tgent At San Carlot Tewrvation, 17. 
WILLIAHB, DB.— lodiu agent at Camp Verde reaervation; 

hounded into intane aaylnin, 10, 11. 

WILLIAMSON, A. C— Indians attack ranch of, lU. 
WILUS, JOHN — Uarderer taken from jail and lynched, 206. 
WILSON, OEOBGE H. (TAOKEY).— Mention of, 310, 311. 
W1BT8, DB^— Mention of, 120. 
WOOD, MILES L.— Teetifiea in behalf of Indiana maMaered at 

Camp Grant, 243. 

WOODWOBTH .—Killed by Indians, 142. 

WQOL8ET, KING 8.— Qivea account of Lieat. Meaeave'a acont 

against Indians, 21 et seq.; haa Mexican boy in Us aerviee 

killed b; Mexican outlaw, 204. 
WOOSTEB, L. B.— Killed by Indians, 146; also wife of killed 

by Indians, 164. 
WEIGHTSON, W.— KUled by Indians, 136. 
WTCKOFF, H.— Killad by Indiana, IX. 

WTCKOFP .—KUled by Indians, 147. 

TEBKBS . — Train attacked by Indiana, 141. 

YNIQO . — Killed on ranch of Peter Kitchen by Indiana, 141. 

TinOO, MANUEL- Has train atUeked by IncUans, liS. 

TONKBB, EDWABD —KUled by Indians, 142. 

TOUNQ .—Killed by Indians, 142. 

TOUNO, COL. J. BOE — Indian agent at Sacaton, bounded into 

insane aaylnm, 11. 
TUMA8 — Beserration for, established, 4. 



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